Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Bien de Interés Cultural
A Bien de Interés Cultural is a category of the heritage register in Spain. The term is used in Venezuela, other Spanish-speaking countries; the term means a "good of cultural interest" and includes not only material heritage, like monuments or movable works of art, but intangible cultural heritage, such as the Silbo Gomero language. Some bienes enjoy international protection as World Heritage Sites or Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. In Spain the category of Bien de Interés Cultural dates from 1985 when it replaced the former heritage category of Monumento nacional in order to extend protection to a wider range of cultural property. Monumentos are now identified as one of the sub-categories of Bien de Interés Cultural; the movable heritage designated as Bienes de Interes Cultural includes archeological artefacts and large works of art. Such protected objects may well be kept in a building, itself a BIC. Non-movable heritage is divided into the following classifications: Monumento Conjunto histórico Jardín histórico Sitio histórico Zona arqueológica Under the Spanish system regions maintain their own registers of cultural heritage.
There have been some differences in approach between autonomous communities. An example is bullfighting. Madrid's regional government considers that bullfighting events should be protected as cultural heritage, whereas in Catalonia a ban on bullfighting came into effect in 2012, although this was overturned by the Supreme Court. Lists of Bienes de Interés Cultural Patrimonio histórico español Declaran Bien de Interés Cultural de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela la canción Alma Llanera The Protection of Historic Properties: A Comparative Study of Administrative... By Consuelo Olimpia Sanz Salla Procedimiento y proceso administrativo práctico, Volume 2 XX Jornadas del Patrimmonio Cultural de la Región de MurciaBy Pedro Collado y José Antonio Melgares Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia. TOMO CCII. NUMERO III. AÑO 2005By Vv.aa Cuerpo Tecnico de la Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. Especialidad.. Código de la Administración Gallega By Jaime Rodriguez-Arana Muñoz, Miguel Ángel Sendín García Manual de arte rupestre de CundinamarcaBy Alvaro Botiva Contreras XXII Jornadas de Patrimonio Cultural de la Región de MurciaBy Varios Autores Los tesoros del mar y su régimen jurídicoBy Jesús Ignacio Fernández Domingo Código legislativo de CantabriaBy Cantabria
Valencian Art Nouveau
Valencian Art Nouveau, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the Art Nouveau in the Valencian Community, in Spain. Its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Although Art Nouveau was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in the Valencian Community the trend acquired its own unique personality in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development, it is equivalent to a number of other fin de siècle art movements going by the names of Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Jugendstil in Germany, Sezession in Austria-Hungary, Liberty style in Italy and Modern or Glasgow Style in Scotland. The Valencian Art Nouveau was active in the Valencian Community from 1899 to 1917; the Modernisme movement in the Valencian Community is best known for its architectural expression in the works of the architects Demetrio Ribes Marco and Francisco Mora Berenguer in Valencia or Vicente Pascual Pastor and Timoteo Briet Montaud in Alcoy, but was significant in sculpture and painting.
Notable art nouveau painters include Fernando Cabrera Cantó, Francisco Laporta Valor, Emilio Sala, Adolfo Morrió and Edmundo Jordá. A notable art nouveau sculptor was Lorenzo Ridaura Gosálbez. On the other hand, there are several Valencian populations who form part of the Art Nouveau European Route, an association of local governments and non-governmental institutions for the international promotion and protection of Art Nouveau heritage, it is the case of Alcoy and Sueca. Early 20th century architecture in Valencian Community was influenced by European Art Nouveau; the Valencian Art Nouveau takes place in different cities or areas, inside of a context of great industrial and urban development: Alcoy and Valencia, by number of works, will be the main Valencian cities where much more was developed the art nouveau architecture. Novelda, Burriana, Castellón de la Plana or Sueca are other cities with important examples of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture. With Valencian local architects, all of them formed in Barcelona or Madrid and contemporaries to the Catalan Modernism and to the Art Nouveau of Madrid, but that exercised the main part of his career in the Valencian Community, the Valencian Art Nouveau will receive a special architectural relevancy in different Valencian cities.
The Mercado Central in Valencia, one of the largest in Europe, covers more than 8,000 square metres, over two floors, with a predominantly Valencian Art Nouveau style. Its unusual roof comprises original domes and sloping sections at different heights, while the interior seems to be lined in a range of materials such as iron, wood and polychromed tiles; the beauty of the building stands out on account of the light that enters through the roof at various points, through coloured window panels. The Estación del Norte is the main railway station in Valencia located in the city centre next to the Plaza de Toros de Valencia, it was declared Good of Cultural Heritage in 1987. The Mercado de Colón is a public market located in the city center of Valencia; the building was designed by the Valencian architect Francisco Mora Berenguer between 1914 and 1916. This is a clear example of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture of the early century, it was declared a national monument. It impresses with lavish decor.
Between the works of the Valencian modernisme stand out: City Center Casa del Pavo Casa d'Escaló Circulo Industrial de Alcoy Casa Laporta Campus of Alcoy of the Technical University of Valencia Casa Vilaplana Casa Briet Canalejas Viaduct Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Alcoy Casa Mataix Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 3 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 5 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 27 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 4 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 29 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 35 Cocheras en plaza Emili Sala 12 Edificio en avenida País Valencià 30 Edificio en calle Capellà Belloch 9 Edificio en calle Sant Josep 26 Edificios en calle Pintor Casanova 16, 18 y 20 Edificios en calle Bartolomé José Gallardo 1, 3 y 5 La Glorieta de Alcoy Fábricas en calle Sant Joan 43 y 45 Edificio del Parque de Bomberos Kiosk of Art Nouveau style at the Plaza de la ConstituciónEnsanche-Santa Rosa Hydroelectrics substation of Alcoy Taller de carruajes en calle Agres 5 Fábrica en calle Agres 8 Fábrica en calle Alcoleja 4 Slaughterhouse of AlcoyEl Camí-Zona Alta Casa El Camí 1 Fábrica de "El Rosendo" Fábrica en calle Sant Vicent Ferrer 12Outskirts Fuente de El Molinar de Alcoy Alcoy Cemetery, Art nouveau pantheons and sculptures.
Central Market of Alicante Lonja del Pescado Casa Lamaignere Casa Carbonell Casa del Ascensor Edificio Torrent Casa Campos Carrera Casa de las BrujasNovelda: Santuario de Santa María Magdalena Art Nouveau House-Museum Centro Cultural Gómez-Tortosa Sociedad Cultural Casino de Novelda Casa MiraOrihuela: Casa Villaescusa Teatro Circo Lonja de OrihuelaTorrevieja: Casino de TorreviejaVillena: Chapí Theatre Les Alqueries: Chalé de SafontBenicarló: Casa BoschBenicàssim: Villa VictoriaBurriana: Orange Museum Circulo Frutero Burrianense Edificio de Correos de Castellón Casa de les Cigonyes Casa Dávalos Casa Alcón Edificio Academia la Purísima Transformador de Viuda de Estela Quiosco modernista de la plaza de la PazVila-real: Almacén de CabreraVinaròs: Casa Giner Casa Sendra Al
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con