Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
A dump truck, known as a dumper truck or tipper truck is used for transporting loose material for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic rams to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK, Australia and India the term applies to off-road construction plant only, the road vehicle is known as a tipper lorry, tip-truck, tip-trailer, tipper truck, or tipper; the dump truck is thought to have been first conceived in the farms of late 19th century western Europe. Thornycroft developed a steam dust-cart in 1896 with a tipper mechanism; the first motorized dump trucks in the United States were developed by small equipment companies such as The Fruehauf Trailer Corporation, Galion Buggy Co. and Lauth-Juergens among many others around 1910. Hydraulic dump beds were introduced by Wood Hoist Co. shortly after. Such companies flourished during World War I due to massive wartime demand.
August Fruehauf had obtained military contracts for his semi-trailer, invented in 1914 and created the partner vehicle, the semi-truck for use in World War I. After the war, Fruehauf introduced hydraulics in his trailers, they offered hydraulic lift gates, hydraulic winches and a dump trailer for sales in the early 1920s. Fruehauf became the premier supplier of dump trailers and their famed "bathtub dump" was considered to be the best by heavy haulers and mining construction firms. Companies like Galion Buggy Co. continued to grow after the war by manufacturing a number of express bodies and some smaller dump bodies that could be installed on either stock or converted Model T chassis prior to 1920. Galion and Wood Mfg. Co. built all of the dump bodies offered by Ford on their heavy-duty AA and BB chassis during the 1930s. Galion is the oldest known truck body manufacturer still in operation today; the first known Canadian dump truck was developed in Saint John, New Brunswick, when Robert T. Mawhinney attached a dump box to a flat bed truck in 1920.
The lifting device was a winch attached to a cable that fed over sheave mounted on a mast behind the cab. The cable was connected to the lower front end of the wooden dump box, attached by a pivot at the back of the truck frame; the operator turned a crank to lower the box. Today all dump trucks operate by hydraulics and they come in a variety of configurations each designed to accomplish a specific task in the construction material supply chain. A standard dump truck is a truck chassis with a dump body mounted to the frame; the bed is raised by a vertical hydraulic ram mounted under the front of the body, or a horizontal hydraulic ram and lever arrangement between the frame rails, the back of the bed is hinged at the back of the truck. The tailgate can be configured to swing up on top hinges or it can be configured in the "High Lift Tailgate" format wherein pneumatic rams lift the gate open and up above the dump body. In the United States most standard dump trucks have one front steering axle and one ) or two rear axles which have dual wheels on each side.
Tandem rear axles are always powered, front steering axles are sometimes powered. Unpowered axles are sometimes used to support extra weight. Most unpowered rear axles can be raised off the ground to minimize wear when the truck is empty or loaded, are called "lift axles". European Union heavy trucks have two steering axles. Dump truck configurations are 3 and 4 axles; the 4-axle eight wheeler has two steering axles at the front and two powered axles at the rear and is limited to 32 metric tons gross weight in most EU countries. The largest of the standard European dump trucks is called a "centipede" and has seven axles; the front axle is the steering axle, the rear two axles are powered, the remaining four are lift axles. The shorter wheelbase of a standard dump truck makes it more maneuverable than the higher capacity semi-trailer dump trucks. A semi end dump is a tractor-trailer combination wherein the trailer itself contains the hydraulic hoist. In the US a typical semi end dump has a 3-axle tractor pulling a 2-axle trailer with dual tires, in the EU trailers have 3 axles and single tires.
The key advantage of a semi end dump is a large payload. A key disadvantage is that they are unstable when raised in the dumping position limiting their use in many applications where the dumping location is uneven or off level. A transfer dump is a standard dump truck pulling a separate trailer with a movable cargo container, which can be loaded with construction aggregate, sand, klinkers, wood chips, triple mix, etc; the second aggregate container on the trailer, is powered by an electric motor, a pneumatic motor or a hydraulic line. It rolls on small wheels, riding on rails from the trailer's frame into the empty main dump container; this maximizes payload capacity without sacrificing the maneuverability of the standard dump truck. Transfer dump trucks are seen in the western United States due to the peculiar weight restrictions on highways there. Another configuration is called a triple transfer train; these are common on Utah Highways, but not in California. Depending on the axle arrangement, a triple transfer can haul up to 129,000 kilograms with a special permit in certain American states.
As of 2007, a
Lego is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways to construct objects, including vehicles and working robots. Anything constructed can be taken apart again, the pieces reused to make new things; the Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Movies, games and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand; as of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced. In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand"; the Lego Group began in the workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen, a carpenter from Billund, who began making wooden toys in 1932. In 1934, his company came to be called "Lego", derived from the Danish phrase leg godt, which means "play well".
In 1947, Lego expanded to begin producing plastic toys. In 1949 Lego began producing, among other new products, an early version of the now familiar interlocking bricks, calling them "Automatic Binding Bricks"; these bricks were based on the Kiddicraft Self-Locking Bricks, patented in the United Kingdom in 1939 and released in 1947. Lego had received a sample of the Kiddicraft bricks from the supplier of an injection-molding machine that it purchased; the bricks manufactured from cellulose acetate, were a development of the traditional stackable wooden blocks of the time. The Lego Group's motto is det bedste er ikke for godt which means "only the best is the best"; this motto, still used today, was created by Christiansen to encourage his employees never to skimp on quality, a value he believed in strongly. By 1951 plastic toys accounted for half of the Lego company's output though the Danish trade magazine Legetøjs-Tidende, visiting the Lego factory in Billund in the early 1950s, felt that plastic would never be able to replace traditional wooden toys.
Although a common sentiment, Lego toys seem to have become a significant exception to the dislike of plastic in children's toys, due in part to the high standards set by Ole Kirk. By 1954, Christiansen's son, had become the junior managing director of the Lego Group, it was his conversation with an overseas buyer. Godtfred saw the immense potential in Lego bricks to become a system for creative play, but the bricks still had some problems from a technical standpoint: their locking ability was limited and they were not versatile. In 1958, the modern brick design was developed; the modern Lego brick design was patented on 28 January 1958. The Lego Group's Duplo product line was introduced in 1969 and is a range of simple blocks whose lengths measure twice the width and depth of standard Lego blocks and are aimed towards younger children. In 1978, Lego produced the first minifigures. In May 2011, Space Shuttle Endeavour mission STS-134 brought 13 Lego kits to the International Space Station, where astronauts built models to see how they would react in microgravity, as a part of the Lego Bricks in Space program.
In May 2013, the largest model created was displayed in New York City and was made of over 5 million bricks. Other records include a 4 km railway. In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as the "world's most powerful brand." Lego's popularity is demonstrated by its wide representation and usage in many forms of cultural works, including books and art work. It has been used in the classroom as a teaching tool. In the US, Lego Education North America is a joint venture between Pitsco, Inc. and the educational division of the Lego Group. In 1998, Lego bricks were one of the original inductees into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York. Lego pieces of all varieties constitute a universal system. Despite variation in the design and the purposes of individual pieces over the years, each piece remains compatible in some way with existing pieces. Lego bricks from 1958 still interlock with those made in the current time, Lego sets for young children are compatible with those made for teenagers.
Six bricks of 2 × 4 studs can be combined in 915,103,765 ways. Each Lego piece must be manufactured to an exacting degree of precision; when two pieces are engaged they must fit yet be disassembled. The machines that manufacture Lego bricks have tolerances as small as 10 micrometres. Primary concept and development work takes place at the Billund headquarters, where the company employs 120 designers; the company has smaller design offices in the UK, Spain and Japan which are tasked with developing products aimed at these markets. The average development period for a new product is around twelve months, split into three stages; the first stage is to identify market trends and developments, including contact by the designers directly with the market. The second stage is the design and development of the product based upon the results of the first stage; as of September 2008 the design teams use 3D modelling software to generate CAD drawings from initial design sketches. The designs are prototyped using an in-house stereolithography machine.
European emission standards
European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in the European Union and EEA member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of stringent standards. In the European Union emissions of nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbon, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter are regulated for most vehicle types, including cars, locomotives and similar machinery, but excluding seagoing ships and aeroplanes. For each vehicle type, different standards apply. Compliance is determined by running the engine at a standardised test cycle. Non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles on the roads. No use of specific technologies is mandated to meet the standards, though available technology is considered when setting the standards. New models introduced must meet current or planned standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may continue to be offered with pre-compliant engines.
Along with Emissions standards the European Union has mandated a number of computer on-board diagnostics for the purposes of increasing safety for drivers. These standards are used in relation to the emissions standards. In the early 2000s, Australia began harmonising Australian Design Rule certification for new motor vehicle emissions with Euro categories. Euro III was introduced on 1 January 2006 and is progressively being introduced to align with European introduction dates; the stages are referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Arabic numerals The legal framework consists in a series of directives, each amendments to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC; the following is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, which EU directives provide the definition of the standard. Euro 1: For passenger cars—91/441/EEC. For passenger cars and light trucks—93/59/EEC.
Euro 2 for passenger cars—94/12/EC For motorcycle—2002/51/EC —2006/120/EC Euro 3 for any vehicle—98/69/ECFor motorcycle—2002/51/EC —2006/120/EC Euro 4 for any vehicle—98/69/EC Euro 5 for light passenger and commercial vehicles—715/2007/EC Euro 6 for light passenger and commercial vehicles—459/2012/ECThese limits supersede the original directive on emission limits 70/220/EEC. The classifications for vehicle category are defined by: Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001, adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers Directive 2002/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 March 2002 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheeled motor vehicles and repealing Council Directive 92/61/EEC Emission standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are summarised in the following tables. Since the Euro 2 stage, EU regulations introduce different emission limits for diesel and petrol vehicles.
Diesels are allowed higher NO x emissions. Petrol-powered vehicles are exempted from particulate matter standards through to the Euro 4 stage, but vehicles with direct injection engines are subject to a limit of 0.0045 g/km for Euro 5 and Euro 6. A particulate number standard or has been introduced in 2011 with Euro 5b for diesel engines and in 2014 with Euro 6 for petrol engines. From a technical perspective, European emissions standards do not reflect everyday usage of the vehicle as manufacturers are allowed to lighten the vehicle by removing the back seats, improve aerodynamics by taping over grilles and door handles or reduce the load on the generator by switching off the headlights, the passenger compartment fan or disconnecting the alternator which charges the battery. European emission standards for passenger cars *, g/km European emission standards for light commercial vehicles ≤1305 kg reference mass, g/km European emission standards for light commercial vehicles 1305–1760 kg reference mass, g/km European emission standards for light commercial vehicles >1760 kg reference mass max 3500 kg. g/km The emission standards for vehicles for trucks and buses are defined by engine energy output in g/kWh.
The official category name is heavy-duty diesel engines, which includes lorries and buses. The following table contains a summary of their implementation dates. Dates in the tables refer to new type approvals. European emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines, g/kWh Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle or EEV is a term used in the European emission standards for the definition of a "clean vehicle" > 3.5 tonne in the category M2 and M3. The standard lies between the levels of Euro V and Euro VI; the term non-road mobile machinery is a term used in the European emission standards to control emissions of engines that are not used on public roadways. This definition includes off-road vehicles as well as railway vehicles. European standards for non-road diesel engines harmoniz
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal