Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
A firefighting apparatus describes any vehicle, customized for use during firefighting operations. These vehicles are customized depending on their needs and the duty they will be performing; these duties can include emergency medical services. Due to the need for firefighting apparatus to be visible, they are, similar to other emergency vehicles, painted in conspicuous colors, such as white, orange, or, most and famously, fire engine red. While red remains the most common color for firefighting apparatus, it is not required and depends on individual needs and safety research. For example, the Chicago Fire Department has a long-standing tradition of painting their apparatus black over red, a practice that has caught on far beyond Illinois. Neighboring departments will often use different colors to distinguish their apparatus. For example, the Santa Barbara Fire Department uses the traditional fire engine red while the neighboring Santa Barbara County Fire Department elects to use blue over white.
Some, like the Denver Fire Department use less common colors like all-over white with stripes, gold in Denver's case. Most fire apparatus use retroreflective markings to increase their visibility in poor light. Others still, such as the Munich Fire Department have replaced red with similar but more visible colors, such as fluorescent orange. A study by the American Psychological Association published in February 2014 indicated that lime-yellow is a safer color for emergency vehicles because of its increased visibility; the study showed that lime-yellow fire apparatus were half as to be involved in accidents as red vehicles. Aerial fire apparatus Airtanker - fixed-wing aircraft fitted with tanks for dropping water or Phos-Chek Helitack - helicopters used in aerial firefighting Airport crash tender - engine used at aerodromes for aircraft emergencies Fireboat Fire engine Wildland-urban interface engine Type 1 fire engine Type 2 fire engine Fire truck Tiller truck Platform truck - truck with a platform mounted on the aerial Quint - a hybrid fire truck/fire engine Hazardous materials apparatus - vehicle used for investigations of dangerous goods Heavy rescue vehicle Light and air unit Rehab unit - a vehicle used to re-hydrate and provide medical monitoring to firefighters and other emergency personnel.
See Fire Department Rehab Water tender - known as a tanker, carries large quantities of water to the fire scene. Wildland fire engine Type 3 fire engine Type 4 fire engine Type 5 fire engine Type 6 fire engine Type 7 fire engine Wildland water tender An early device used to squirt water onto a fire is a squirt or fire syringe. Hand squirts and hand pumps are noted before Ctesibius of Alexandria invented the first fire pump around the 2nd century B. C. and an example of a force-pump used for a fire-engine is mentioned by Heron of Alexandria. The fire pump was reinvented in Europe during the 16th century used in Augsburg in 1518 and Nuremberg in 1657. A book of 1655 inventions mentions a steam engine pump used to "raise a column of water 40 feet ", but there was no mention of whether it was portable. Colonial laws in America required each house to have a bucket of water on the front stoop during fires at night; these buckets were intended for use by the initial bucket brigade that would supply the water at fires.
Philadelphia obtained a hand-pumped fire engine in 1719, years after Lynn's 1654 model appeared there, made by Joseph Jencks, but before New York's two engines arrived from London. By 1730, Richard Newsham, in London, had made successful fire engines; the amount of manpower and skill necessary for firefighting prompted the institution of an organized fire company by Benjamin Franklin in 1737. Thomas Lote built the first fire engine made in America in 1743; these earliest engines are called hand tubs because they are manually powered and the water was supplied by bucket brigade dumped into a tub where the pump had a permanent intake pipe. An important advancement around 1822 was the invention of an engine which could draft water from a water source doing away with the bucket brigade. Philadelphia fire engine manufacturers Sellers and Pennock model the Hydraulion is said to be the first suction engine produced in 1822; some models had the hard, suction hose fixed to the intake and curled up over the apparatus known as a squirrel tail engine.
The earliest engines were small and were carried by four men or mounted on skids and dragged to a fire. The earliest four-wheel carriage mounted; as the engines grew larger they became horse-drawn and self-propelled by steam engines. John Ericsson is credited with building the first American steam-powered fire engine. John Braithwaite built the first steam fire-engine in Britain; until the mid-19th century, most fire engines were maneuvered by men, but the introduction of horse-drawn fire engines improved the response time to incidents. The first self-propelled steam-driven fire engine was built in New York in 1841, it was the target of sabotage by firefighters and its use was discontinued, motorized fire engines did not become commonplace until the early 1900's. The dawn of the 20th Century brought about the age of the motorized fire apparatus. One of the fir
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
Garbage truck or dustcart refers to a truck specially designed to collect municipal solid waste and haul the collected waste to a solid waste treatment facility such as a landfill. Other common names for this type of truck include trash truck in the United States, rubbish truck, junk truck, bin wagon, dustbin lorry, bin lorry or bin van elsewhere. Technical names refuse collection vehicle; these trucks are a common sight in most urban areas. Major U. S. manufacturers of garbage trucks include Autocar Trucks. Major manufacturers of garbage truck bodies include McNeilus, Heil. Wagons and other means had been used for centuries to haul away solid waste. Among the first self-propelled garbage trucks were those ordered by Chiswick District Council from the Thornycroft Steam Wagon and Carriage Company in 1897 described as a steam motor tip-car, a new design of body specific for "the collection of dust and house refuse"; the 1920s saw the first open-topped trucks being used, but due to foul odors and waste falling from the back, covered vehicles soon became more common.
These covered trucks were first introduced in more densely populated Europe and in North America, but were soon used worldwide. The main difficulty was; the first technique developed in the late 20s to solve this problem was to build round compartments with massive corkscrews that would lift the load and bring it away from the rear. A more efficient model was the development of the hopper in 1929, it used a cable system. In 1937, George Dempster invented the Dempster-Dumpster system in which wheeled waste containers were mechanically tipped into the truck, his containers were known as Dumpsters. In 1938, the Garwood Load Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented; the first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press which compacted the contents of the truck periodically. 1955 saw the Dempster Dumpmaster the first front loader introduced, however they didn't become common until the 1970s.
The 1970s saw the introduction of smaller dumpsters known as wheelie bins which were emptied mechanically. Since that time there has been little dramatic change, although there have been various improvements to the compaction mechanisms in order to improve payload. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduced the first grapple truck for municipal waste collection. In 1997, Lee Rathbun introduced the Lightning Rear Steer System; this system includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to load continuously. Front loaders service commercial and industrial businesses using large waste containers with lids known as Dumpsters in the US; the truck is equipped with powered forks on the front which the driver aligns with sleeves on the waste container using a joystick or a set of levers. The waste container is lifted over the truck. Once it gets to the top the container is flipped upside down and the waste or recyclable material is emptied into the vehicle's hopper.
Once the waste is dumped, it is compacted by a hydraulically powered moving wall that oscillates backwards and forwards to push the waste to the rear of the vehicle. Most of the newer packing trucks have "pack-on-the-go hydraulics" which lets the driver pack loads while driving, allowing faster route times; when the body is full, the compaction wall moves all the way to the rear of the body, ejecting it via an open tailgate. There is a system called the Curotto Can, an attachment for a front loader that has an automated arm that functions as an automated side loader that allows the driver to dump carts. Rear loaders have an opening into a trough or hopper at the rear that a waste collector can throw waste bags or empty the contents of bins into. In many areas they have a lifting mechanism to automatically empty large carts without the operator having to lift the waste by hand. Another popular system for the rear loader is a rear load container specially built to fit a groove in the truck; the truck will have a cable system for upending the container.
The waste will slide into the hopper of the truck. The modern rear loader compacts the waste using a hydraulically powered mechanism that employs a moving plate or shovel to scoop the waste out from the loading hopper and compress it against a moving wall. In most compactor designs, the plate has a pointed edge, designed to apply point pressure to the waste to break down bulky items in the hopper before being drawn into the main body of the truck. Compactor designs, have been many and varied, however the two most popular in use today are the "sweep and slide" system, where the packer blade pivots on a moving carriage which slides back and forth, the "swing link" system where the blade swings on a "pendulum"-style mechanism; the Heil Colectomatic used a combination of a lifting loading hopper and a pivoting sweeper blade to clear and compact waste in anticipation of the next load. So-called "continuous" compactors were popular in the 1970s; the German Shark design used a huge rotating drum, analogous to a cement mixer, in conjunction with a serrated auger to grind down and compact the garbage.
SEMAT-Rey of France pioneered the rotating rake system (also used in the British Shelvoke and D
Waste collection is a part of the process of waste management. It is the transfer of solid waste from the point of use and disposal to the point of treatment or landfill. Waste collection includes the curbside collection of recyclable materials that technically are not waste, as part of a municipal landfill diversion program. Household waste in economically developed countries will be left in waste containers or recycling bins prior to collection by a waste collector using a waste collection vehicle. However, in many developing countries, such as Mexico and Egypt, waste left in bins or bags at the side of the road will not be removed unless residents interact with the waste collectors. Mexico City residents must haul their trash to a waste collection vehicle which makes frequent stops around each neighborhood; the waste collectors will indicate their readiness by ringing a distinctive bell and shouting. Residents hand their trash container to the waste collector. A tip may be expected in some neighborhoods.
Private contracted waste collectors may circulate in the same neighborhoods as many as five times per day, pushing a cart with a waste container, ringing a bell and shouting to announce their presence. These private contractors are not paid a salary, survive only on the tips they receive, they meet up with a waste collection vehicle to deposit their accumulated waste. The waste collection vehicle will take the waste to a transfer station where it will be loaded up into a larger vehicle and sent to either a landfill or alternative waste treatment facility. Waste collection considerations include type and size of bins, positioning of the bins, how bins are to be serviced. Overfilled bins result in rubbish falling out. Hazardous rubbish like empty petrol cans can cause fires igniting other trash when the truck compactor is operating. Bins may be locked or stored in secure areas to avoid having non-paying parties placing rubbish in the bin; the cost of old waste is a concern in collection of waste across the globe.
According to USNews The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that employment in this industry will increase 16.2 percent, adding 21,600 new jobs, by 2022. The main drivers of this growth include a rise in population, individual income and more people choosing to recycle. History of waste management Automated vacuum collection Beach cleaner Dempster Brothers List of waste management acronyms Mercedes-Benz Econic Waste Waste bin Waste sorting
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun