Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W202)
Mercedes-Benz W202 is a compact executive car, produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz in 1993–2000, under the C-Class model names. In May 1993, the first generation Mercedes-Benz C-Class was introduced as a replacement for the 190; the C-Class sedan was the company's entry-level model up until 1997, when Mercedes-Benz launched the smaller A-Class. Styling themes were carried over from the previous W201 series, but the new series had a smoother and rounder design than the previous generation of the compact Mercedes-Benz. Development started on a new second generation 190 in October 1986, with design work commencing in 1987 under Bruno Sacco. By 1988, the first full-scale models were constructed. By December 1988, it had been narrowed to two finalists; the final design by Olivier Boulay was chosen in 1989 as the winning proposal and the production design was frozen in January 1990, being patented on 19 December 1990. Rough prototypes went into testing in 1989, with first production design prototypes commencing testing in 1990.
1,847,382 W202 models were produced. Mercedes-Benz models were badged with numbers followed by letters, such as 190 E. With the W202, Mercedes-Benz chose to make all models use letters before the number, for example, C 180 or C 220; the W202 C-Class was the first Mercedes-Benz model to use the modern naming scheme. This naming scheme was applied to all models in 1993, excluding Vito and Sprinter. On its debut, the C-Class was the only Mercedes model with a complete lineup of multi-valve engines; the new family of four-cylinder petrol units, called M111, debuted in the C 180, C 200 (2.0 L, 136 PS and C 220. In 1997 the C 220 was replaced by the C 230, enlarged to 2.3 L displacement but with the same output, although with torque increased to 220 N⋅m. The C 280 was the high-end model of the class, with a four-valve-per-cylinder straight-six engine, capable of reaching 193 PS. Four-cylinder diesel models were equipped with the same OM601 engine of the 190, in the 2.0 L and 2.2 L versions. Many of these diesel variants were sold as taxis, due to their low fuel consumption and strong reliability.
There were more powerful OM605 five-cylinder engines which were available in aspired and turbocharged forms. The turbodiesel was introduced in 1995 and is one of the novelties in the engine range available from this year; the most important was a supercharged version of the M111 straight four, the C 230 Kompressor, using a Roots-type supercharger to generate 193 PS at 5300 rpm: Mercedes-Benz reused supercharger technology after 50 years. Due to the tax law in Italy and Portugal, models in those countries featured a supercharged version of the smaller 2.0 L, which had a similar output of the C 230 Kompressor. The 1997 diesel models featured the OM611, equipped with a common rail direct injection system; the new model was named C 220 CDI, had an improved output of 30 PS compared with the C 220 Diesel, better fuel average and lower emissions. The inline six engines were replaced by a family of V6, the M112; the new engines featured SOHC heads instead of the previous DOHC, three valves per cylinder instead of four, twin sparkplugs.
The four-cylinder C 230 was replaced by the C 240 and the I6 C 280 by the V6 C 280. These changes reduced improved fuel consumption, without sacrificing power. In the last four years of production, the W202 received a few changes in the choices of engine. In 1998, a less powerful version of the 2.2 L turbodiesel was added, called C 200 CDI, which replaced the C 220 Diesel. In 2000, the C 200 Kompressor's output was cut to 163 PS, the C 240 displacement was enlarged from 2.4 L to 2.6 L, but output remained at 170 PS and the C 180 got a 2.0 L engine. The original W202 came standard in Germany with a five-speed manual and four-speed automatic transmissions optional. In the United States, automatic transmission was standard, with manual available as a delete option; the four-speed automatic was the 722.4 version of the 4G-Tronic. In 1996, this old transmission—released in 1981—was replaced by a five-speed automatic, the 722.6 or 5G-Tronic, which received a manual shift mode in 1999. In 2000, with the T-Model only remaining on sale, the RWD C 240 was available with the optional six-speed G56 manual from the W203.
At the launch the C-Class had ABS and integrated side-impact protection. In 1997 ASR became standard in the C 280s equipped with the automatic transmission and in the C 36 AMG, as ETS in the 4-cylinder models, except for the C 180 and the C 220 Diesel. With the 1997 restyling ASR became standard except in the C 180 and C 220 Diesel; this last model continued to offer ETS available as extra cost. Moreover, front side airbags and Brake assist came in the list of standard safety features; the two basic models joined ASR in 1998, and, in 1999, the W202 was the first compact sedan to offer ESP as standard in all the range. In 1995, the C-Class received its first genuine performance model, the C 36 AMG, to counter the new six-cylinder BMW M3. Developed with AMG, the tuning house that had now become a subsidiary of Daimler-Benz, it had racing-tune
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W203)
The Mercedes-Benz C-Class is an automobile, produced by German manufacturer Mercedes-Benz from July 2000 to December 2006. It was the second C-Class model from Mercedes-Benz. Design work on the W203 C-Class began in mid-1994, with the final design being approved in December 1995 by the executive board. Design patents were filed on 20 April 1998 and 4 March 1999. Testing began in 1997, with development concluding in 2000; the second generation C-Class was unveiled on March 21, 2000, going on sale starting in September 2000. The sedan debuted with a range of inline-four and V6 petrol engines and inline-four and -five diesels. Most of the engines were carried over from the W202, but the C 320 was exclusive, offering 160 kW; the diesels now featured variable geometry turbochargers. Six-speed manual gearboxes were now standard for the entire range, except the C 320. Mercedes-Benz debuted a coupe variant in October 2000, labelled the C-Class SportCoupé and given the model designation CL203; the US model, labeled C230 Kompressor, became available for the 2002 model year with the M111.981 engine, a 2.3-liter supercharged inline-four making 143 kW at 5500 rpm and 280 Nm at 2500–4800 rpm.
The third body variant, a station wagon codenamed S203 arrived in 2001. In 2002 for the 2003 model year, a new family of supercharged four cylinder engines, dubbed M271, debuted for the entire C-Class range. All of them used the same 1.8-litre engine, with different designations according to horsepower levels, including a version powered by natural gas. The C 230 Kompressor variant sported 140 kW; the newer 1.8-litre was less powerful but smoother and more efficient than the older 2.3-litre engine (143 kW compared to 140 kW. For the C 240 and C 320, 4MATIC four-wheel drive versions were offered in addition to rear-wheel drive. Along with the C-Class Estate, the SportCoupé was discontinued in Canada and the United States after the 2005 model year; the SportCoupé continued on sale in other markets until 2008. From October 2000 until 2007, a total of 230,000 SportCoupé were built in the Bremen factory and in Brazil; as of 20 Sep 2006, over two million C-Class vehicles had been sold since March 2000, with 1.4 million sedans since May 2000, 330,000 wagons since spring 2001, 283,000 Sports Coupé since spring 2001.
Over 30 percent of total sales occurred in Germany, over 20 percent in the United States. The last W203 C-Class sedan was produced on 14 December 2006 at the Sindelfingen plant, although US-market sedans were made as late as March 2007; the C-Class W203 was refreshed in early 2004. In North America, the refresh took effect for the 2005 model year; the interior styling was changed in all three body styles. The instrument cluster was revised to display a set of analogue gauges, the center console and audio systems were revised. A integrated iPod connection kit was available as was a better Bluetooth phone system made optional. For the North American market C 230, the "sport" package was made standard which included AMG edition bumpers, side skirts, a rear spoiler. Several all-new M272 and OM642 V6 engines were introduced in the year. In North America, the changes took effect for the 2006 model year; the C 230, C 280, C 350 replaced the C 240 and C 320, the new-generation six-cylinder engines developed more power than the older versions, by as much as 24 percent, whilst increasing fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions.
The C 230, C 280 and C 350 developed 150 kW, 170 kW and 200 kW respectively. The three-valve twin spark design was replaced by a four-valve design, now with variable valve timing. On the diesel side, Mercedes-Benz released a brand-new 3.0-litre V6. Fitted to the C 320 CDI, the new diesel cut CO2 emissions and fuel consumption over the old C 270 CDI, increased outputs to 165 kW and its torque of 510 N⋅m made it the worlds most powerful diesel at the time; the C 220 CDI received a power increase from 105 to 110 kW. In addition, these engines received the new seven-speed 7G-Tronic automatic transmission. After the performance of the AMG models in the previous generation, Mercedes-Benz attempted to increase sales among high-end buyers by introducing two different AMG versions of the new model in 2001; the C 32 AMG scaled back down to a 3.2-litre V6 engine, to match the BMW E46 M3 displacement and improve weight distribution, but it required a twin-screw type supercharger to reach 260 kW and 450 N⋅m.
Like its predecessors, it used a five-speed automatic, helping it to complete a 0 to 100 km/h sprint in 5.2 seconds. The C 32 AMG Sportcoupe was only offered by request as an AMG STUDIO order; this car was produced only in 2003 and the production numbers are unknown. The C 32 was sold as a sedan. However, a limited run of C 32 station wagons were made for some markets. Another version was the C 30 CDI AMG, using a 3.0-litre five-cylinder diesel engine, capable of 170 kW and 540 N⋅m. Like the C 32, it was available in all three body styles, but this diesel model did not reach sales expectations and was retired in 2004; the car's exterior resembled that of the C 32 AMG. This was the only diesel AMG produced. Along with the mid-generation refresh of the C-Class in 2005, the C 32 AMG was replaced, giving way to a new 5.4-litre aspirated V8-powered C 55 AMG. This was an evolution of the V8 engine found in the previous E-Class, with power raised to 270 kW and torque climbing to 510 N⋅m; the C 55 AMG uses a V8 from the same engine family as the W202 generation C 43 AMG.
4Matic is the marketing name of an AWD four-wheel drive system developed by Mercedes-Benz. It is designed to increase traction in slippery conditions; the four-wheel-drive system was developed in conjunction with Steyr-Daimler-Puch, who manufactured the Mercedes-Benz G-Class in Austria. Nearly all Mercedes-Benz vehicles that feature this system are paired with an automatic transmission as the default transmission; the first design of 4Matic system was introduced in 1987 on the W124 series saloons and estate cars. It was available with the 2.6 3.0 L 6-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. The first generation 4Matic system was a complex electronically controlled system with automatically engaging four-wheel drive, the system employing locking central and rear differentials to provide additional traction in slippery conditions; the centre differential known as the transfer case, contains two clutches. Each hydraulically enabled clutch is controlled separately to allow for three modes of operation: 2WD where 100% of available torque is available to the rear axle while the front axle is disconnected, two 4WD modes which allow for 35/65 front/rear axle torque split or 50/50 front/rear axle torque split.
The rear differential lock known as ASD on Mercedes-Benz models, can be locked if rear wheel slip is still present when the transfer case 50/50 4WD mode 2 is engaged. Due to safety and stability concerns there is no front differential lock; the 4Matic system uses inputs from the three channel ABS system and a steering wheel angle sensor to decide when to intervene. 4WD is disengaged automatically. Engine throttle control is not inherent in the W124 system. Two W124 variants of the 4Matic system were produced: the first system used a mechanical pressure test lever to disable the system hydraulically while the second system variant used an electrical test switch to break power to the system; the system variant when in test mode allows for continued operation of the rear shock self-levelling system when installed. Plagued with reliability factors, the multi-plate clutch central differentials were subject to failure; the second generation of 4Matic was reintroduced on the W210 series in 1998/1999.
Available only with left hand drive, the cars were again manufactured at the Magna-Steyr plant in Austria. The second generation of 4Matic utilized a full-time 4-wheel drive system with three open differentials front and rear. Traction control is achieved using ETS; this employs the ABS system with additional valves to monitor and partially brake any wheel which loses traction. This much simpler system is featured in the Mercedes-Benz M-Class SUV. Since 2008, some versions of 4Matic have provided true AWD where the system remains active at all times. Sophisticated engine management and ABS systems control the amount of torque transferred to each wheel allowing the system to be effective at any speed. In 2016, Mercedes introduced a new 4WD system called 4Matic+; this system can send 100 percent of the available engine torque to either rear axles. In the fifth-generation E-Class an additional setting was introduced in the E63 S AMG model that disconnects the front axle from the powertrain turning it into a rear wheel drive automobile.
This has become known as "Drift Mode", riding the wave of attention drawn by the eponymous setting first deployed in the third-generation Ford Focus RS. The second and third generation 4Matic systems are available on the A-Class, B-Class, C-Class, E-Class, G-Class, S-Class, GLA-Class, GLK-Class, ML-Class, GL-Class, CLA-Class, CLS-Class and Viano, Sprinter 4x4 although certain right-hand-drive models are not available due to the position of the steering column; these systems include engine and automatic stability controls. W124 Mercedes-Benz E Class quattro - the four-wheel-drive system from Audi BMW xDrive - BMW's AWD system 4motion - Volkswagen-branded four-wheel-drive system Locking differential - provides additional information on differentials S-AWC - a torque-vectoring four-wheel-drive system from Mitsubishi Motors Symmetrical All Wheel Drive - the four wheel drive system from Subaru Details of 4MATIC system on Daimler's PR site 4MATIC system on Mercedes' USA site
Mercedes-Benz GL-Class (X164)
The X164 GL-Class is a full-size luxury SUV produced by Mercedes-Benz, from 2006 to 2012. The X164 GL-Class debuted at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, deliveries commenced on September in Europe. Around US$600,000,000 was invested in the Mercedes Alabama plant in preparation for the production of vehicles including the X164 GL-Class. Unlike most three-row luxury SUV's at the time, the GL-Class is based on an elongated and widened version of the M-Class platform, instead of the body-on-frame construction found on vehicles such as the Lexus LX and Cadillac Escalade. GL500 models are badged as GL550 in the United States. All models feature leather electric seats, an automatic climate control system, 19-inch alloy wheels, 4MATIC all-wheel drive, air suspension, a 7-speed 7G-Tronic automatic transmission. GL-Class models are optionally available with a tyre pressure monitoring system, DAB digital radio, reversing camera, rear seat infotainment screens. Grand Edition models were offered from 2011, feature a redesigned front bumper, taller grille with three slats, 20-inch AMG alloy wheels, bi-xenon wheels, a two-tone interior.
The following changes apply for models produced since June 2009: Exterior design changes including: redesigned radiator grille, bumpers, wing-mirrors, LED headlights and tail-lights Interior design changes including: redesigned seats and steering wheel Addition of Tenorite Grey and Palladium Silver exterior colour options All diesel models now receive urea-injection in exhaust system, to meet 50-state emissions requirement Introduction of GL350 CDI BlueTec, GL320 CDI model rebadged as GL350 CDI, GL420 CDI rebadged as GL450 CDI GL350 CDI engine updated and GL450 CDI ends production Introduction of Grand Edition model for GL450 and GL350 CDI BlueTec The following are the sales figures for the X164 GL-Class: Note: 2012 sales figures include the next generation model. 2007 MotorTrend “SUV of the Year” 2008 Car and Driver "10 Best Trucks and SUVs" award 2011 AutoPacific "Motorist Choice Award" in the SUV category
The Land Rover Range Rover is a full-sized luxury sport utility vehicle from Land Rover, a marque of Jaguar Land Rover. The Range Rover was launched in 1970 by British Leyland; this flagship model is now in its fourth generation. Jaguar Land Rover has extended the use of the Land Rover Range Rover sub-brand with the introduction of Range Rover Evoque, the Range Rover Velar and the Range Rover Sport; the Rover Company was experimenting with a larger model than the Land Rover Series in 1951, when the Rover P4-based two-wheel-drive "Road Rover" project was developed by Gordon Bashford. This was shelved in 1958, the idea lay dormant until 1966, when engineers Spen King and Bashford set to work on a new model. In 1967, the first Range Rover prototype was built, with the classic Range Rover shape discernible, but with a different front grille and headlight configuration; the design of the Range Rover was finalised in 1969. Twenty-six Velar engineering development vehicles were built between 1969 and 1970 and were road registered with the number plates YVB151H through to YVB177H.
Though being chassis no. 3, the vehicle YVB 153H is believed to have been the first off the production line as a vehicle in that colour was urgently required for marketing. The Velar name was derived from the Italian "velare" meaning to cover. Range Rover development engineer Geof Miller used the name as a decoy for registering pre-production Range Rovers; the Velar company was registered in London and produced 40 pre-production vehicles that were built between 1967 and 1970. Most of these Velar pre-production vehicles have survived into preservation; the Range Rover was launched in 1970. In the early 1970s, the Musée du Louvre in Paris exhibited a Range Rover as an "exemplary work of industrial design". In 1972, the British Trans-Americas Expedition became the first vehicle-based expedition to traverse the Americas from north-to-south, including traversing the roadless Darién Gap; the specially modified Range Rovers used for this expedition are now on display in the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust collection at Gaydon, Warwickshire.
Between 1974 and 1987, Land Rover vehicles were only sold in the United States through the grey market. The Land Rover company began selling the Range Rover in the U. S. on 16 March 1987. From that time until 1993, the U. S. marketing was all in the name of Range Rover, because it was the only model offered in the American market. In 1993, with the arrival of the Defender 110 and the imminent arrival of the Land Rover Discovery, the company's U. S. sales were under the name "Land Rover North America". In 2004, Land Rover launched another model under the Range Rover brand – the Range Rover Sport, based on the Land Rover Discovery platform, but the new Range Rover Sport has the latest Range Rover platform. In 2011, the Range Rover Evoque was launched; the first-generation Range Rover was produced between 1970 and 1996. It was available only in a 2-door body until 1981, though prior to this 4-door models were produced by specialist firms. Unlike other 4x4s such as the Jeep Wagoneer, the original Range Rover was not designed as a luxury-type vehicle.
While up-market compared to preceding Land Rover models, the early Range Rovers had basic, utilitarian interiors with vinyl seats and plastic dashboards that were designed to be washed down with a hose. Convenience features such as power steering, carpeted floors, air conditioning, cloth/leather seats, wooden interior trim were fitted later; the Range Rover was a body-on-frame design with a box section ladder type chassis, like the contemporary Series Land Rovers. The Range Rover used coil springs as opposed to leaf springs, permanent four-wheel drive, four-wheel disc brakes; the Range Rover was powered by various Rover V8 engines and diesel engines. The Range Rover was fitted with a detuned 130 hp version of the Buick-derived Rover V8 engine. In 1984, the engine was fitted with Lucas fuel injection; the 3.5-litre engine was bored out to a displacement of 3.9 litres for the 1990 model year, 4.2-litre in 1992 for the 108-inch Long Wheelbase Vogue LSE. One of the first significant changes came with the introduction of a four-door body.
Shortly after twin thermo fan technology was introduced to reduce significant overheating problems 1970s models experienced in Australia. In 1988, LR introduced a 2.4-litre turbodiesel arrived with 112 bhp, manufactured by Italian VM Motori. The same engine was available in the Rover SD1 passenger car; the diesel project was codenamed project Beaver. During the project, 12 world records were broken, including the fastest diesel SUV to reach 100 mph, the furthest a diesel SUV has travelled in 24 hours. In 1990 project Otter was unveiled; this was a mildly tuned 2.5-litre, 119 bhp version of the'Beaver' 2.4. In 1992, Land Rover introduced their own diesel engines in the Range Rover, beginning with the 111 bhp 200TDi, first released in the Land Rover Discovery and following in 1994, the 300 TDi, again with 111 bhp; the Range Rover with chassis no. 1 was a green model with the registration "YVB 151H", is now on exhibition at Huddersfield Land Rover Centre, West Yorkshire. The first generation model was known as the Range Rover until the end of its run, when Land Rover introduced the name Range Rover Classic to distinguish it from its successors.
Jaguar-Rover-Australia began assembly of the Range Rover from CKD kits at its Enfield plant, in New South Wales
Full-size car— known as large car is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars larger than mid-size cars. It is the largest size class for cars; the equivalent European categories are E-segment and executive car. After World War II, the majority of full-size cars have used the sedan and station wagon body styles, however in recent years most full-size cars have been sedans; the highest-selling full-size car nameplate is the Chevrolet Impala, sold as a full-size car from 1958 to 1986 and from 1994 to 1996. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, large cars are defined as having an interior volume index of more than 120 cu ft for sedan models, or 160 cu ft for station wagons. From the introduction of the Ford Flathead V8 in the 1930s until the 1980s, most North American full-size cars were powered by V8 engines.
However, V6 engines and straight-six engines have been available on American full-size cars, have become common since the downsizing of full-sized cars in the 1980s. The lineage of mass-produced full-size American cars begins with the 1908 Ford Model T. In 1923, General Motors introduced the Chevrolet Superior, becoming the first vehicle to adopt a common chassis for several brands. In comparison to the cars of the 21st century, these vehicles are small in width. From the 1920s to the 1950s, most manufacturers produced model lines in a single size, growing in size with each model redesign. While length and wheelbase varied between model lines, width was a constant dimension, as the American federal government required the addition of clearance lights on a width past 80 inches. In 1960, following the introduction of compact cars, the "full-size car" designation came into wider use. In the 1960s, the term was applied to the traditional car lines of lower-price brands, including Chevrolet and Plymouth.
As a relative term, full-size cars were marketed by the same brands offering compact cars, with entry-level cars for buyers seeking the roominess of a luxury car at a lower cost. Into the 1970s, the same vehicles could transport up to six occupants comfortably, at the expense of high fuel consumption; the sales of full-size vehicles in the United States declined after the early 1970s fuel crisis. By that time, full-size cars had grown to wheelbases of 121–127 inches and overall lengths of around 225 in. In response to the 1978 implementation of CAFE, American manufacturers implemented downsizing to improve fuel economy, with full-size vehicles as the first model lines to see major change. While General Motors and Ford would reduce the exterior footprint of their full-size lines to that of their intermediates, AMC withdrew its Ambassador and Matador full-size lines. To save production costs, Chrysler repackaged its intermediates as full-size vehicles, exiting the segment in 1981. During the 1980s, to further comply with more stringent CAFE standards, manufacturers further reduced the exterior footprint of several model lines out of the full-size segment into the mid-size class.
For 1982, Chrysler exited the full-size segment with the mid-size Dodge Diplomat and Plymouth Gran Fury serving as its largest sedan lines. Following the 1985 model year, General Motors replaced most of its full-size model lines with front-wheel drive mid-size sedans. Developed to replace the Ford LTD Crown Victoria, the 1986 Ford Taurus was produced alongside it as the Ford mid-size model line. After abandoning the full-size segment for compact cars and minivans, Chrysler gained reentry into the full-size segment in 1988 with the Eagle Premier. Developed by AMC before its acquisition by Chrysler, the Premier was a version of the front-wheel drive Renault 25 adapted for North America. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the market share of full-size cars began to decline. From 1960 to 1994, the market share of full-size cars declined from 65 percent to 8.3 percent. From 1990 to 1992, both GM and Ford redesigned its full-size car lines for the first time since the late 1970s. For 1992, Chrysler developed its first front-wheel drive full-size car line, replacing the Eagle Premier/Dodge Monaco with the Chrysler LH cars.
The same year, the Buick Roadmaster was introduced, becoming the first rear-wheel drive GM model line adopted outside of Chevrolet and Cadillac since 1985. In 1995, the Toyota Avalon was introduced, becoming the first Japanese non-luxury full-size car with six seats to be sold in the North America; the 1989 Lexus LS400 luxury sedan was the first Japanese full-size car sold in North America. Following the 1996 model year, GM ended production of rear-wheel drive sedans, with full-size vehicles becoming exclusive to Cadillac. From 1997 to 2016, the longest vehicle produced by an American manufacturer was a Lincoln. By 2000, with the sole exception of the Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, Lincoln Town Car, full-size cars had abandoned rear-wheel drive and body-on-frame construction. Instead of model lineage, the EPA "large car" definition of over 120 interior cubic feet came into wide use