New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Accenture PLC is a global management consulting and professional services company which provides strategy, digital and operations services. A Fortune Global 500 company, it has incorporated in Dublin, Ireland. In 2016, the company reported net revenues of $32.9 billion, in 2015, the company had about 130,000 employees in India, about 48,000 in the US, and about 50,000 in the Philippines. Accentures current clients include 94 of the Fortune Global 100 and more than three-quarters of the Fortune Global 500, Accenture common equity is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, under the symbol ACN, and was added to the S&P500 index on 5 July 2011. In 2016, Fortune magazine named it as the worlds most admired Information Technology Services company, Accenture began as the business and technology consulting division of accounting firm Arthur Andersen. S. Joseph Glickauf, a pioneer of computer consulting, held a position as head of Arthur Andersens administrative services division. In 1989, Arthur Andersen and Andersen Consulting became separate units of Andersen Worldwide Société Coopérative, throughout the 1990s, there was increasing tension between Andersen Consulting and Arthur Andersen.
This dispute came to a head in 1998 when Andersen Consulting claimed breach of contract against AWSC, Andersen Consulting put the 15% transfer payment for that year and future years into escrow and issued a claim for breach of contract. In August 2000, as a result of the conclusion of arbitration with the International Chamber of Commerce, Andersen Consulting broke all ties with AWSC. As part of the settlement, Andersen Consulting paid the sum held in escrow to Arthur Andersen. On 1 January 2001, Andersen Consulting adopted its current name, the word Accenture is supposedly derived from Accent on the future. The name Accenture was submitted by Kim Petersen, a Danish employee from the companys Oslo, Norway office, Accenture stock closed the day at $15.17, with the days high at $15.25. On the first day of the IPO, Accenture raised nearly $1.7 billion, in October 2002, the Congressional General Accounting Office identified Accenture as one of four publicly traded federal contractors that were incorporated in a tax haven country.
The other three, unlike Accenture, were incorporated in the United States before they re-incorporated in a tax haven country, the government of the United Kingdom ultimately abandoned the project 5 years for the same reasons. Accenture announced on 26 May 2009 that its Board of Directors unanimously approved changing the place of incorporation to Ireland from Bermuda. Accenture was chosen to replace CGI Group as the contractor for HealthCare. gov in January 2014. In December 2014, Accenture won a million contract to provide ongoing maintenance, software development. In July 2015 the United States Department of Defense awarded a major Electronic Health Records contract to Cerner, the contract valued $4.33 billion will serve 55 hospitals and 600 clinics
PA Consulting Group
PA Consulting Group is a consultancy specialising in management consulting and innovation. It has clients in both the private and public sector including local and national Governments and the defence sector and it has offices in Europe, the Nordics, the United States, the Persian Gulf and Asia Pacific and operates as an employee-owned company. PA was founded in 1943 as Personnel Administration by three Englishmen, Ernest E. Butten, Tom H. Kirkham and Dr David Seymour, Britains war effort created great demand for munitions and goods, which had to be produced by a relatively unskilled workforce. Butten and his colleagues formed Personnel Administration Limited to provide advice to industry as to how to improve the productivity of their workers, like the other three firms that dominated consulting in the 1940s, 50s and 60s, PA was an offshoot of the pre-war Bedaux Company. Bedaux in turn had been developed based on scientific management theories of Frederick Winslow Taylor, Butten sought to take the mechanistic and task-orientated concepts of scientific management and add a human dimension to them.
By 1964, the company had dropped the name Personnel Administration and was known as simply PA Consulting Group, PA expanded over the next 20 years, and by 1970 it was one of the world’s largest management consulting firms by headcount. Staff can buy shares with deferred elements to bonus, 80% own them, PA had expanded geographically, mostly along the lines of the Commonwealth, with its operation in Australia providing about a third of the firms revenue. In the 1960s PA diversified its business significantly by developing the use of the newspaper box advertisement for recruitment, Butten retired from PA in 1970, having earlier sold his 100% shareholding in PA to the Butten Trust in 1958. The Trust was intended as a long term guardian of PAs fortunes, while there were occasional years with strong revenues, the company was never very profitable. The only strong area of business during this period was PAs work advising companies on potential applications of technology to business issues, arising out of this success, major technology centres were built in Melbourne, UK and Princeton, USA.
Towards the end of the 80s, after an upsurge in the industry, the Butten Trust, after an application to the courts in the UK, agreed to give 15% of its shares to its employees, as part of a long-term plan to float. Between 1991 and 1994, PA reduced its workforce by almost half, in 1992, Jon Moynihan was appointed as chief executive of PA, with a remit to turn the company around. With a new strategy, aggressive cost-cutting, and an upturn, the turnaround succeeded. Jeremy Asher became group CEO in 1998, and during his three-year tenure, the firm expanded significantly in the United States through the acquisition of Hagler Bailly Inc. in 2000 for around $96 million in cash. This included the sale of a number of subsidiaries including UbiNetics, Volume Product Technology, by 2005, the company was ranked 8th in the Sunday Times list of Britains biggest mid-market private firms. In 2008, PA suffered a loss of a USB data stick containing Home Office information on prisoners that led to the Home Office cancelling the firm’s contract.
It has gained publicity for its work on analysing what it has called the zombie economy, other work includes its annual survey of opinion in higher education, and ongoing technological innovations including a new type of round kitchen towel. On 31 December 2013, Jon Moynihan retired as chairman, and was replaced by Marcus Agius
Aon has approximately 500 offices worldwide, serving 120 countries with 72,000 employees. In 2011, Aon was ranked as the largest insurance broker in the based on revenue. Aon was the partner and global shirt sponsor of the Premier League team Manchester United F. C. from 2010 until 2014. Aon was created in 1982 when the Ryan Insurance Group merged with the Combined Insurance Company of America, in 1987, that company was renamed Aon, a Gaelic word meaning. In January 2012, Aon announced that its headquarters would be moved to London, Aon is a global professional services firm that advises clients on the topics of risk and human resources. The company is a provider of management and reinsurance brokerage, human resource solutions. Aon is divided into three units that each specialize in a particular line of business. The firms risk management business, Aon Risk Solutions provides retail property/casualty and its reinsurance business, Aon Benfield, specializes in reinsurance brokerage and investment banking & capital advisory.
The firms human resource solutions business, Aon Hewitt, provides consulting and outsourcing services to clients, W. Clement Stones mother bought a small Detroit insurance agency, and in 1918 brought her son into the business. Mr. Stone sold low-cost, low-benefit accident insurance and issuing policies on-site, the next year he founded his own agency, the Combined Registry Co. As the Great Depression began, Stone reduced his workforce and improved training, forced by his sons respiratory illness to winter in the South, Stone moved to Arkansas and Texas. In 1939 he bought American Casualty Insurance Co. of Dallas, Texas and it was consolidated with other purchases as the Combined Insurance Co. of America in 1947. The company continued through the 1950s and 1960s, continuing to sell health, in the 1970s, Combined expanded overseas despite being hit hard by the recession. Ryan, the son of a Ford dealer in Wisconsin, had started his company as a credit insurer in 1964. In 1976, the company bought the insurance brokerage units of the Esmark conglomerate, Ryan focused on insurance brokering and added more upscale insurance products.
He trimmed staff and took other cost-cutting measures, and in 1987 he changed Combineds name to Aon, in 1992, he bought Dutch insurance broker Hudig-Langeveldt. In 1995, the company sold its remaining direct life insurance holdings to General Electric to focus on consulting, the following year, it began offering hostile takeover insurance policies to small and mid-sized companies. Aon built a presence through purchases
Ernst & Young
EY is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. EY is one of the largest professional services firm in the world and is one of the Big Four accounting firms, the organisation operates as a network of member firms which are separate legal entities in individual countries. It has 231,000 employees in over 700 offices around 150 countries in the world and it provides assurance, tax and advisory services to companies. The firm dates back to 1849 with the founding of Harding & Pullein in England, the current firm was formed by a merger of Ernst & Whinney and Arthur Young & Co. in 1989. It was known as Ernst & Young until 2013, when it underwent a rebranding to EY, the acronym EY was already an informal name for the firm prior to its official adoption. In 2016, Fortune magazine ranked EY as 49th of the 100 Best Companies to Work For, EY is the result of a series of mergers of ancestor organizations. The oldest originating partnership was founded in 1849 in England as Harding & Pullein, in that year the firm was joined by Frederick Whinney.
He was made a partner in 1859 and with his sons in the business it was renamed Whinney Smith & Whinney in 1894, in 1903, the firm of Ernst & Ernst was established in Cleveland by Alwin C. Ernst and his brother Theodore and in 1906, Arthur Young & Co. was set up by the Scotsman Arthur Young in Chicago. As early as 1924, these American firms allied with prominent British firms, Young with Broads Paterson & Co. in the year 1979, this led to the formation of Anglo-American Ernst & Whinney, creating the fourth largest accountancy firm in the world. Also in 1979, the European offices of Arthur Young merged with large local European firms. In 1989, the four firm Ernst & Whinney merged with the number five, Arthur Young. The merger plans were abandoned in February 1998 due to client opposition, antitrust issues, cost problems, EY had built up its consultancy arm heavily during the 1980s and 1990s. In 2002, EY took over many of the ex-Arthur Andersen practices around the world, although not those in the UK, China, in 2010, EY acquired Terco, the Brazilian member firm of Grant Thornton.
In 2013, EY changed its name from Ernst & Young to EY. EY expanded further and acquired all of KPMG Denmarks operations including its 150 partners,1500 employees and 21 offices. In 2015, EY opened its first ever global Security Operations Centre at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala in India, in 2017 EY announced it was opening an executive support center in Tucson, creating over 125 new jobs. In 2017 the company looking for a location for a new, $4.35 million professional services center in Louisville, creating 125 new jobs
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre. With over 250,000 residents, Vancouver municipality is the fourth most densely populated city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City according to the 2011 census. In that census, Vancouver was one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada, Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home, several matches of the 2015 FIFA Womens World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west, Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.
As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, archaeological records indicate the presence of Aboriginal people in the Vancouver area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. The city is located in the territories of the Squamish, Musqueam. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey, the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his became the first known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River, perhaps as far as Point Grey. The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men, mainly from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, a sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the citys long relationship with logging.
It was quickly followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the shore of the inlet. This mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus around which Vancouver formed, the mills central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s. It nevertheless remained important to the economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew up quickly around the original makeshift tavern established by Gassy Jack Deighton in 1867 on the edge of the Hastings Mill property
Boston Consulting Group
The Boston Consulting Group is an American worldwide management consulting firm with 88 offices in 48 countries. The firm advises clients in the private and not-for-profit sectors around the world, considered one of the most prestigious management consulting firms in a branche-internal survey, BCG was ranked third in Fortunes 100 Best Companies to Work For in 2017. The company was founded by Bruce D. Henderson, a Vanderbilt University, after many years in the purchasing department of Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, he joined Arthur D. Little in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was recruited by The Boston Company, where he founded a one-man, in 1975, Henderson arranged an employee stock ownership plan, and employees spun-off BCG from The Boston Company. The buyout of all shares was completed in 1979, in January 2013, Rich Lesser became the sixth president and chief executive officer of BCG. The headquarters will be located at the site of the former Anthonys Pier 4 restaurant, BCG received the number 1 spot in Consulting Magazines 2016 Best Firms to Work for ranking.
BCG won recognition in Consulting Magazines 2014 The Best Firms to Work For ranking. Fortune Magazine ranked BCG second in its 2011-2012 lists of the top 100 best companies to work for, the 2016 rankings by Fortune listed BCG as the third best company to work for. And in 2015 BCG ranked second, bCGs recruiting process is notoriously demanding, typically taking candidates through multiple rounds of case and experience-based interviews. In 2013, career review site Glassdoor ranked BCG as the 3rd most difficult company with which to interview, in 1968, BCG created the growth-share matrix, a simple chart to assist large corporations in deciding how to allocate cash among their business units. The experience curve illustrates that the more often a task is performed the lower the cost of doing it will be, the task can be the production of any good or service. Each time cumulative volume doubles, value-added costs fall by a constant, BCG founder, Bruce Henderson, expounded the implications of the experience curve for strategy. BCG research concluded that relatively low cost of operations is a very powerful strategic advantage, firms should capitalize on these learning.
In this matrix, the two axes are economies of scale and differentiation, the four quadrants formed are called Volume, Stalemated and Fragmented. Yves Morieux and Peter Tollman, Six Simple Rules, How to Manage Complexity without Getting Complicated,2014, ISBN1422190552 Luc de Brabandere and Alan Iny, Thinking in New Boxes, A New Paradigm for Business Creativity,2013. ISBN0812992954 Michael Deimler, Rich Lesser, David Rhodes, and Janmejaya Sinha, ISBN9781118591703 Michael J. Silverstein, Abheek Singhi, Carol Liao, and David Michael, The $10 Trillion Dollar Prize - Captivating the Newly Affluent in China and India,2012. ISBN1422187055 David Rhodes and Daniel Stelter, Accelerating Out of the Great Recession,2010, ISBN0071718141 Michael J. Silverstein and Kate Sayre. Women Want More, How to Capture Your Share of the Worlds Largest, ISBN0061776416 Harold L. Sirkin, James W. Hemerling and Arindam K. Bhattacharya
These resources are the total capacity of the people that represents a form of wealth which can be directed to accomplish the goals of the nation or state or a portion thereof. Human capital has been and continues to be criticized in numerous ways, Michael Spence offers signaling theory as an alternative to human capital. Pierre Bourdieu offers a nuanced conceptual alternative to capital that includes cultural capital, social capital, economic capital. These critiques, and other debates, suggest that human capital is a reified concept without sufficient explanatory power and it was assumed in early economic theories, reflecting the context, i. e. Just as land became recognized as natural capital and an asset in itself, in modern technical financial analysis, the term balanced growth refers to the goal of equal growth of both aggregate human capabilities and physical assets that produce goods and services. Accordingly, much attention was paid to factors that led to success versus failure where human management was concerned.
The role of leadership, even celebrity was explored, most theories attempt to break down human capital into one or more components for analysis – usually called intangibles. In general these analyses acknowledge that individual trained bodies, teachable ideas or skills, Management accounting is often concerned with questions of how to model human beings as a capital asset. However it is broken down or defined, human capital is vitally important for a success, human capital increases through education. In 2010, the OECD encouraged the governments of advanced economies to embrace policies to increase innovation and knowledge in products, studies of structural unemployment have increasingly focused on a mismatch between the stock of job-specific human capital and the needs of employers. In other words, there is increasingly a recognition that human capital may be specific to particular jobs or tasks and not general, recent work has attempted to improve the linkages between education and the needs of the labor market by linking labor market data to education loan pricing.
Adam Smith defined four types of fixed capital, Smith defined human capital as follows, “Fourthly, of the acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants or members of the society. Those talents, as make a part of his fortune. There is a relationship between the division of labor and human capital. Arthur Lewis is said to have begun the field of development economics, so soon as this is recognised, the distinction between economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred. For, up to a point, consumption is investment in personal productive capacity and this is especially important in connection with children, to reduce unduly expenditure on their consumption may greatly lower their efficiency in after-life. Then Theodore Schultz who is contributed to the development of the subject matter, the best-known application of the idea of human capital in economics is that of Mincer and Gary Becker of the Chicago School of economics. Beckers book entitled Human Capital, published in 1964, became a reference for many years
Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are, The forming of communicative motivation or reason, transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassemblying of the message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the original message. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying information in the form of non-linguistic representations, examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, and how one dresses.
Nonverbal communication relates to intent of a message, examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e. g. rhythm, tempo and it affects communication most at the subconscious level and establishes trust. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Wazlawicks laws, you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals received, Nonverbal cues are heavily relied on to express communication and to interpret others’ communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a role in communication. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes, e-mails and web chats allow individual’s the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium.
Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the time in communication acts. “Non-verbal behaviours may form a language system. ”Smiling, pointing, caressing. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers, Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a message
Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. A person may semi-retire by reducing work hours, an increasing number of individuals are choosing to put off this point of total retirement, by selecting to exist in the emerging state of Pre-tirement. In most countries, the idea of retirement is of recent origin, being introduced during the late 19th, low life expectancy and the absence of pension arrangements meant that most workers continued to work until death. Germany was the first country to introduce retirement, in 1889, most developed countries have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age, which may be sponsored by employers and/or the state. In many poorer countries, support for the old is still provided through the family. Today, retirement with a pension is considered a right of the worker in many societies, in many western countries this right is mentioned in national constitutions. Retirement, or the practice of leaving ones job or ceasing to work after reaching an age, has been around since around the 18th century.
Prior to the 18th century, the life expectancy of people was between 26 and 40 years. Due to this, only a percentage of the population were reaching an age where physical impairments began to be obstacles to working. Retirement as a government policy began to be adopted by countries during the late 19th century, a person may retire at whatever age they please. However, a countrys tax laws and/or state old-age pension rules usually mean that in a country a certain age is thought of as the standard retirement age. The standard retirement age varies from country to country but it is generally between 50 and 70, in some countries this age is different for males and females, although this has recently been challenged in some countries, and in some countries the ages are being brought into line. The table below shows the variation in eligibility ages for public benefits in the United States and many European countries. Notes, Parentheses indicate eligibility age for women when different, 1–2, OECD Pensions at a Glance, Cols.
3–6, Tabulations from HRS, ELSA and SHARE, square brackets indicate early retirement for some public employees. * In France, the retirement age has been extended to 62 and 67 respectively, for those turning 65 in 2008, full benefits will be payable beginning at age 66. Public servants are not covered by Social Security but have their own pension programs. Military members of the US Armed Forces may elect to retire after 20 years of active duty and their retirement pay is calculated on total number of years on active duty, their final pay grade and the retirement system in place when they entered service
Mercer Quality of Living Survey
The Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks 221 cities from Vienna to Baghdad on quality of life. Countries with cities commonly ranked in the top 50 include Austria, New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Australia, Vienna has been ranked first for eight consecutive years. The quality of living survey is conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments, the survey identifies those cities with the highest personal safety ranking based upon internal stability, effectiveness of law enforcement and relationships with other countries. In this case, Luxembourg is top, followed by Bern, Helsinki and Zürich, the cities —230 in total — were evaluated on 39 factors including political, environmental, personal safety, education and other public service factors. Cities were compared to New York City which was given a score of 100. Archived from the original on 28.11.2012,2011 Mercer Quality of Living Interactive World Map 2012 Quality of Living Worldwide Survey – city rankings Full rankings