Queen Street (Toronto)
Queen Street is a major east-west thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. It extends from King Street in the west to Victoria Park Avenue in the east. Queen Street was the cartographic baseline for the original east-west avenues of Toronto's and York County's grid pattern of major roads; the western section of Queen is a centre for Canadian broadcasting, fashion and the visual arts. Over the past twenty-five years, Queen West has become an international arts centre and a tourist attraction in Toronto. Since the original survey in 1793 by Sir Alexander Aitkin, commissioned by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, Queen Street has had many names. For its first sixty years, many sections were referred to as Lot Street, section west of Spadina was named Egremont Street until about 1837. East of the Don River to near Coxwell Avenue it was called Kingston Road, but not be mistaken for Kingston Road, a continuation of King Street and Eastern Avenue; the first park lots laid out in the new city of York were given to loyal officials who were willing to give up the amenities of modern cities such as Kingston to take up residence in the forests north of Lot Street.
These 40 hectares lots were placed along the south side of the first east–west road laid in York, Lot Street. In 1837 Lot Street was renamed in honour of Queen Victoria."Queen West" is local vernacular which refers to the collection of neighbourhoods that have developed along and around the thoroughfare. Many of these were ethnically-based neighbourhoods; the earliest example from the mid-19th century was Claretown, an Irish immigrant enclave in the area of Queen Street West and Bathurst Street. From the 1890s to the 1930s, Jewish immigrants coalesced in the neighbourhood known as "the Ward", for which Queen Street between Yonge and University served as the southern boundary; the intersection of Queen and Bay Streets served as the southern end of a thriving Chinatown in the 1930s. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the area was the heart of Toronto's Polish and Ukrainian communities. From the 1950s through the 1970s, many immigrants from Portugal settled in the area. Gentrification over the past twenty years has caused most recent immigrants to move to more affordable areas of the city as desirability of the area drives up prices.
Like other gentrified areas of Toronto, the original "Queen West" —the stretch between University Avenue and Spadina Avenue — is now lined with upscale boutiques, chain stores, tattoo parlours and hair salons. The best-known landmark on this section of Queen West is the broadcast hub at 299 Queen Street West the headquarters of Citytv and MuchMusic and earlier the site of the Ryerson Press, now housing the broadcast operations of a number of television outlets owned by Bell Media. Queen Street East, though not as famous as Queen Street West, is known for its shopping in nearby neighbourhoods; until the 1940s and 50's Queen Street extended west along what is today The Queensway, with the name changed through the westernmost segment though the former Etobicoke in 1947 to avoid confusion due to the break. The other sections were a stub of the street continuing west of Roncesvalles and ending at Colborne Lodge Drive by High Park, a short side street in Swansea running west from Ellis Avenue; when The Queensway was extended east in the 1950s, the latter two section where absorbed into it, rather than having the name "Queen Street" restored to the now-continuous street due to the Borough of Etobicoke desiring a counterpart to another street called The Kingsway.
The commercial district of Queen Street East lies at the heart of The Beaches community. It is characterized by a large number of independent specialty stores; the stores along Queen are known to change tenants quite causing the streetscape to change from year to year, sometimes drastically. Before Woodbine, Queen street has less traffic and is reduced to one lane each way; the centre lanes are used by the 501 streetcar, causing slight delays at streetcar stops and traffic lights. From Fallingbrook to Victoria Park Avenue, Queen Street East is located in Scarborough, the easternmost part of Toronto. Around the intersection with Vicotoria Park, the south side of the street is beside the R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, a crucial water treatment plant for both Toronto and York Region. From Woodbine to Coxwell, the queen is in parts of two neighbourhoods, Upper Beaches and The Beaches. From Woodbine to Kingston Road, there's a mix of newer commercial/residential buildings; the northern half is coved with various modern looking stores, with the southern half covered by retail development by The Behar Group, consist of 5 residential condos, with ground floor retail spaces.
The section of Kingston to Coxwell is similar in design, but without the retail development on the southern side, there is the Alliance Cinemas The Beach location. A little to east of the Queen/Eastern/Kingston intersection there is the northern border of Woodbine Park, a park used for outdoor events; the area from Greenwood to Logan is known as Leslieville. Queen passes underneath the elevated CN railway tracks, this marks the border of Leslieville. Queen Street East is the commercial hub Leslieville. In Leslieville, Queen is home to restaurants. From Greenwood to Woodfield, the northern side of the street is beside the Ashbridge Estate, a large historic estate; the Russell Carhouse is on this stretch of Queen Street. The place between Logan and the Don River is c
The National Post is a Canadian English-language newspaper. The paper is the flagship publication of Postmedia Network, is published Tuesdays through Saturdays, it was founded in 1998 by Conrad Black. Once distributed nationally, it began publishing a daily edition in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, with only its weekend edition available in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; as of 2006, the Post is no longer distributed in the territories. Conrad Black built the National Post around the Financial Post, a financial newspaper in Toronto which Hollinger Inc. purchased from Sun Media in 1997. Financial Post was retained as the name of the new newspaper's business section. Outside Toronto, the Post was built on the printing and distribution infrastructure of Hollinger's national newspaper chain called Southam Newspapers, that included the newspapers Ottawa Citizen, Montreal Gazette, Edmonton Journal, Calgary Herald, Vancouver Sun; the Post became Black's national flagship title, Ken Whyte was appointed editor.
Beyond his political vision, Black attempted to compete directly with Kenneth Thomson's media empire led in Canada by The Globe and Mail, which Black and many others perceived as the platform of the Liberal establishment. When the Post launched, its editorial stance was conservative, it advocated a "unite-the-right" movement to create a viable alternative to the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien, supported the Canadian Alliance. The Post's op-ed page has included dissenting columns by ideological liberals such as Linda McQuaig, as well as conservatives including Mark Steyn and Diane Francis, David Frum. Original members of the Post editorial board included Ezra Levant, Neil Seeman, Jonathan Kay, Conservative Member of Parliament John Williamson and the author/historian Alexander Rose; the Post's magazine-style graphic and layout design has won awards. The original design of the Post was created by a design consultant based in Montreal; the Post now bears the motto "World's Best-Designed Newspaper" on its front page.
The Post was unable to maintain momentum in the market without continuing to operate with annual budgetary deficits. At the same time, Conrad Black was becoming preoccupied by his debt-heavy media empire, Hollinger International. Black divested his Canadian media holdings, sold the Post to CanWest Global Communications Corp, controlled by Israel "Izzy" Asper, in two stages – 50% in 2000, along with the entire Southam newspaper chain, the remaining 50% in 2001. CanWest Global owned the Global Television Network. Izzy Asper died in October 2003, his sons Leonard and David Asper assumed control of CanWest, the latter serving as chairman of the Post. Editor-in-chief Matthew Fraser departed in 2005 after the arrival of a new publisher, Les Pyette – the paper's seventh publisher in seven years. Fraser's deputy editor, Doug Kelly succeeded him as editor. Pyette departed seven months after his arrival, replaced by Gordon Fisher; the Post limited print distribution in Atlantic Canada in 2006, part of a trend to which The Globe and Mail and the Toronto Star, Canada's other two papers with inter-regional distribution, have all resorted.
Print editions were removed from all Atlantic Canadian newsstands except in Halifax as of 2007. Focussing further on its online publishing, in 2008, the paper suspended weekday editions and home delivery in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; the reorientation towards digital continued into its next decade. Politically, the Post has retained a conservative editorial stance although the Asper family has long been a strong supporter of the Liberal Party of Canada. Izzy Asper was once leader of the Liberal Party in his home province of Manitoba; the Aspers had controversially fired the publisher of the Ottawa Citizen, Russell Mills, for calling for the resignation of Liberal prime minister Jean Chrétien. However, the Post endorsed the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2004 election when Fraser was editor; the Conservatives narrowly lost that election to the Liberals. After the election, the Post surprised many of its conservative readers by shifting its support to the victorious Liberal government of prime minister Paul Martin, was critical of the Conservatives and their leader, Stephen Harper.
The paper switched camps again in the runup to the 2006 election. During the election campaign, David Asper appeared publicly several times to endorse the Conservatives. Like its competitor The Globe and Mail, the Post publishes a separate edition in Toronto, Canada's largest city and the fourth largest English-language media centre in North America after New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago; the Toronto edition includes additional local content not published in the edition distributed to the rest of Canada, is printed at the Toronto Star Press Centre in Vaughan. On September 27, 2007, the Post unveiled a major redesign of its appearance. Guided by Gayle Grin, the Post's managing editor of design and graphics, the redesign features a standardization in the size of typeface and the number of typefaces used, cleaner font for charts and graphs, the move of the nameplate banner from the top to the left side of Page 1 as well as each section's front page. In 2009, the paper announced that as a temporary cost-cutting measure, it would not print a Monday edition from July to September 2009.
On October 29, 2009, Canwest Global announced that due to a lack of funding, the National Post might close down as of October 30, 2009, subject to moving the paper to a new holding company. Late on October 29, 2009, Ontario Superior Court Justice Sarah Pepall ruled in Canwest's favour and allowed the paper to move into a holding company. Investment bankers hired by Canwest received no
George Bures Miller
George Bures Miller is a Canadian artist noted for his collaborative works with his wife Janet Cardiff. Miller and Cardiff represented Canada at the 2001 Venice Biennale, they are based in Canada. Bures Miller and Cardiff represented Canada the 49th Venice Biennale with Paradise Institute, a 16-seat movie theatre where viewers watched a film, becoming entangled as witnesses to a possible crime played out in the real world audience and on the screen; the artists won La Biennale di Venezia Special Award at Venice, presented to Canadian artists for the first time and the Benesse Prize, recognizing artists who break new artistic ground with an experimental and pioneering spirit. Cardiff and Bures Miller have had exhibitions at Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, Modern Art Oxford, the Fruitmarket Gallery, Scotland Vancouver Art Gallery, Luhring Augustine, New York, Contemporary Arts Center, Art Gallery of Ontario, National Gallery of Canada and Oakville Galleries, Ontario. Cardiff and George Bures Miller.
The Killing Machine and Other stories 1995 - 2007. Texts by Ralph Beil and Bartomeo Mari and other authors. MACBA Barcelona and Mathildenhohe Darmstadt, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7757-2002-1 Cardiff and George Bures Miller. Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller: Louisiana Contemporary. Michael Juul Holm and Mette Marcus. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Denmark, 2006. ISBN 87-91607-32-9 Cardiff and George Bures Miller; the Secret Hotel. Janet Cardiff + George Bures Miller. Kunsthaus Bregenz and Eckgard Schneider. Buchhandlung Walther Koenig, 2005. ISBN 3-86560-014-X Cardiff and George Bures Miller. Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller – Venice Biennial – The Paradise Institute. Texts by Wayne Baerwald. Buchhandlung Walther Koenig, 2001. ISBN 0-921381-23-9 Miller, George Bures. George Bures Miller – Simple Experiments in Aerodynamics: 6 & 7. Texts by Wayne Baerwaldt & Dana Samuel. Toronto: Mercer Union, A Centre for Contemporary Art, 2001. ISBN 0-921527-41-1 Smith, Roberta. "Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller." The New York Times: E33.
Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller official website George Bures Miller at Ontario College of Art & Design alumni Whitechapel Art Gallery Review, London, By Greg Whitfield
Michel de Broin
Michel de Broin is a Canadian sculptor. De Broin has created numerous public artworks in Canada and Europe, including the Salvador Allende monument in Montreal, he was the recipient of the 2007 Sobey Art Award. Michel de Broin was born in Montreal, Quebec in 1970, he studied studio arts at Concordia University, receiving a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1995, at UQÀM where he received a Master of Fine Arts degree in 1997. After starting his career in Montreal, from 2005 he lived in Paris and Berlin before returning to Montreal in 2011. Since the 1990s, Michel de Broin has developed an interdisciplinary practice that questions the limits of social and technical systems, he incorporates humour and playfulness in his work, but critique. Energy and resistance are recurrent themes in his practice. De Broin uses video, drawing and found objects in his work. Many of the objects he has created consist of a détournement of familiar objects and forms that turn back against themselves to show their internal paradoxes.
Conceptual art is a source of inspiration for his practice. For example, in his show "Dangerous Substance", he reinterpreted Kasimir Malevitch's famous "black square on white ground". Shared Propulsion Car consists of a wrecked Buick 1986 car whose engine was replaced by bicycle pedals, it was presented in New York at Exit Toronto at Mercer Union. A Toronto policeman issued a ticket for "Operating an Unsafe Vehicle" to Dean Baldwin, the driver of the pedal car, but the charge was dismissed in court. Black Whole Conference consists of a group of chairs attached to each other at the legs to create a sphere, it is part of the collection of the Musée d'art contemporain du Val-de-Marne. Overflow, a piece in the ruined remains of an old Toronto prison chapel, consisted of a waterfall bursting out of a window. La maîtresse de la Tour Eiffel was created for the Nuit Blanche in Paris, it consists of a 26 feet mirror ball made of 1000 mirrors and suspended from a crane 150 feet above the Luxembourg Garden.
The mirror ball broke a Guinness World Record. Majestic was presented as a satellite project of New Orleans Biennal in 2011. Lamposts blown down by hurricane Katrina were assembled in the shape of a star; the sculpture was acquired by the National Gallery of Canada thanks to a donation by the philanthropists Donald and Beth Sobey. De Broin's sculpture entitled Bloom, inaugurated in August 2015, is "one of the most visible landmarks on Calgary's St. Patrick's Island; the sculpture, commissioned by the Calgary Municipal Land Corporation, is "23 metres-high, with working lights on many of its branches that illuminate its surroundings at night."Révolutions is a sculpture representing a staircase twisted into a knot. It was installed in 2003 during the renovation of Papineau metro station in Montreal. Monument is a sculpture installed in a parc of Winnipeg in 2009, it reinterprets the classical theme of drapery by presenting two ghostly characters standing under a sheet. L'Arc is a monument commemorating Salvador Allende.
It is situated on the île Notre-Dame in Montreal. In 2006, he received the Prix Reconnaissance UQAM. In 2007, he received the Sobey Art Award. 2013 Solo show at the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal2012 Oh Canada, Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, MA, USA2011 Car Fetish. I drive therefore I am, Museum Tinguely, Suisse Parking de sculptures, Le Confort Moderne, France2009 La Maîtresse de la Tour Eiffel, Nuit Blanche, France Disruption from Within, Plug In, Manitoba, Canada2008 Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed, Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, Quebec, Canada Énergie Reciproque, Museum of Contemporary Art of Val-de-Marne, Vitry-sur-Seine, France Nuit Blanche, Ontario, Canada Acclimatation, Centre d'art Villa Arson, France2007 De-con-struction, National Gallery of Canada, Ontario, Canada Machinations, UQAM Gallery, Quebec, Canada2006 Michel de Broin.
Canadian art refers to the visual as well as plastic arts originating from the geographical area of contemporary Canada. Art in Canada is marked by thousands of years of habitation by First Nations Peoples followed by waves of immigration which included artists of European origins and subsequently by artists with heritage from countries all around the world; the nature of Canadian art reflects these diverse origins, as artists have taken their traditions and adapted these influences to reflect the reality of their lives in Canada. The Government of Canada has, at times, played a central role in the development of Canadian culture, enabling visual exposure through publications and periodicals, as well as establishing and funding numerous art schools and colleges across the country; the Group of Seven is considered the first uniquely Canadian artistic group and style of painting. The Catholic Church was the primary patron of art in early Canada Quebec, in times artists have combined British and American artistic traditions, at times embracing European styles and at other times working to promote nationalism by developing distinctly Canadian styles.
Canadian art remains the combination of these various influences. Aboriginal peoples were producing art in the territory, now called Canada for thousands of years prior to the arrival of European settler colonists and the eventual establishment of Canada as a nation state. Like the peoples that produced them, Indigenous art traditions spanned territories that extended across the current national boundaries between Canada and the United States. Indigenous art traditions are organized by art historians according to cultural, linguistic or regional groups, the most common regional distinctions being: Northwest Coast, Northwest Plateau, Eastern Woodlands and Arctic; as might be expected, art traditions vary enormously within these diverse groups. One thing that distinguishes Indigenous art from European traditions is a focus on art that tends to be portable and made for the body rather than for architecture, although this is only a general tendency and not an absolute rule. Indigenous visual art is often made to be used in conjunction with other arts, for example masks and rattles play an important role in ceremonialism that involves dance and music.
Many of the artworks preserved in museum collections date from the period after European contact and show evidence of the creative adoption and adaptation of European trade goods such as metal and glass beads. The distinct Métis cultures that have arisen from inter-cultural relationships with Europeans have contributed new culturally hybrid art forms. During the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, the Canadian government pursued an active policy of assimilation toward Indigenous peoples. One of the instruments of this policy was the Indian Act, which banned manifestations of traditional religion and governance, such as the Sun Dance and the Potlatch, including the works of art associated with them, it was not until the 1950s and 60s that Indigenous artists such as Mungo Martin, Bill Reid and Norval Morrisseau began to publicly renew and, in some cases, re-invent indigenous art traditions. There are many Indigenous artists practising in all media in Canada and two Indigenous artists, such as Edward Poitras and Rebecca Belmore, who have represented Canada at the prestigious Venice Biennale in 1995 and 2005, respectively.
Early explorers such as Samuel de Champlain made sketches of North American territory as they explored, but it was the Roman Catholic Church in and around Quebec City, the first to provide artistic patronage. Abbé Hughes Pommier is believed to be the first painter in New France. Pommier left France in 1664 and worked in various communities as a priest before taking up painting extensively. Painters in New France, such as Pommier and Claude Francois, believed in the ideals of High Renaissance art, which featured religious depictions formally composed with classical clothing and settings. Few artists during this early period signed their works. Near the end of the 17th century, the population of New France was growing but the territory was isolated from France. Fewer artists arrived from Europe, but artists in New France continued with commissions from the Church. Two schools were established in New France to teach the arts and there were a number of artists working throughout New France up until the British Conquest.
Pierre Le Ber, from a wealthy Montreal family, is one of the most recognized artists from this period. Believed to be self-taught since he never left New France, Le Ber's work is admired. In particular, his depiction of the saint Marguerite Bourgeoys was hailed as "the single most moving image to survive from the French period" by Canadian art historian Dennis Reid. While early religious painting told little about everyday life, numerous ex-votos completed by amateur artists offered vivid impressions of life in New France. Ex-votos, or votive painting, were made as a way to thank the saints for answering a prayer. One of the best known examples of this type of work is Ex-voto des trois naufragés de Lévis. Five youths were crossing the Saint Lawrence River at night when their boat overturned in rough water. Two girls drowned, weighed down by their heavy dresses, while two young men and one woman were able to hold on to the overturned boat until help arrived. Saint Anne is depicted in the sky; this work was donated to the church at Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré as
General Idea was a collective of three Canadian artists, Felix Partz, Jorge Zontal and AA Bronson, who were active from 1967 to 1994. As pioneers of early conceptual and media-based art, their collaboration became a model for artist-initiated activities and continues to be a prominent influence on subsequent generations of artists. Working in Toronto, from 1968 through 1993 they divided their time between Toronto and New York before returning to Toronto for the last few months of their time together. General Idea's work inhabited and subverted forms of popular and media culture, including boutiques, television talk shows, trade fair pavilions, mass media and beauty pageants; the beauty pageant, The 1971 Miss General Idea Pageant, allowed for both male and female artist to send in pictures of them wearing the taffeta dress provided. Their work was presented in unconventional media forms such as postcards, posters, balloons and pins. Self-mythology was a continuous strategy, they created a fictional system that self-referenced and self-legitimized, claiming a space for their local art scene in Canada.
Their intent was to reach a greater audience and so their work moved from art galleries and museums to newsstands. This ensured that different types of people who spent time in different places could have a psychological or social reaction in a place comfortable to them. General Idea portrayed themselves as an ambiguous group, but soon realized it was causing confusion with the public; this led to a series of self portrayal or marketing images including "Fin de Siècle". From 1987 through 1994 their work addressed the AIDS crisis, with work that included some 75 temporary public art projects, their major installation, One Year of AZT/One Day of AZT, was featured as a project at the Museum of Modern Art and now resides in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada. In 2006 the three giant inflatable pills from their 1991 work PLA©EBO were displayed during Toronto's Nuit blanche. After publishing FILE Megazine for two years and amassing a large collection of artists books and multiples, General Idea founded Art Metropole in 1974, a non-profit space dedicated to contemporary art in multiple format: artists books, video and electronic media.
Both Partz and Zontal died of AIDS in 1994. Bronson continues to work and exhibit as an independent artist, was the director of Printed Matter, Inc in New York between 2006 and 2011; the General Idea Archive now resides at the Library of the National Gallery of Canada. AA Bronson attended the University of Manitoba in the School of Architecture, he dropped out of university with a group of friends to found a free school. There, he became involved in publishing as an editor for the Loving Couch Press, he became involved with the commune and radical education movements.:23Felix Partz was a student at the University of Manitoba, studying painting under Kenneth Lochhead:23 and developed a casual acquaintance with Bronson there.:15Jorge Zontal arrived in Caracas, Venezuela as a post-WWII refugee.:23 He went to Dalhousie University to study architecture, became involved with filmmaking. This interest took him to New York to take acting lessons.:23 By 1968, he studied video recording at Simon Fraser University, had established links with the Vancouver art scene.
He took a workshop with dancer Deborah Hay at Intermedia.:23 He met Bronson while in Vancouver.:26 Bronson came to Toronto in 1969 to investigate and participate in the Rochdale College experiment.:24 Partz's then-girlfriend Mimi Paige was involved in Rochdale College, Partz arrived in Toronto the same year, both to visit Paige and to find a gallerist.:24 Zontal arrived in Toronto in 1969, with the intention of filming a documentary at Theatre Passe Muraille.:26 Page, Partz and Zontal all subsequently became involved in the scene in and surrounding Passe Muraille, which forged their initial collaboration.:27–28Before long, the four, along with actor Daniel Freedman, moved into a house at 78 Gerrard St, which became the first General Idea Headquarters.:29 Their neighbour from across the street, Sharon Venne became a part of the group.:29 The name General Idea was, in fact, the result of a miscommunication at their first group exhibition, Concept 70. A Space listed the title of the group's work as the name of the collective, the mistake stuck.
Bronson would joke that it was a reference to the "general idea" of the group's work. The central themes that would preoccupy General Idea throughout their career – self-mythologization, appropriation, media deconstruction, an ironic interest in commerce and the semiotics of advertising language – were present in the early days of the group, they shared an interest in the forms and methods of popular culture and mass media,:9 and were influenced by the writing of Marshall McLuhan, William Burroughs, by the Situationist International.:15The earliest activities of the group involved the use of their home: creating ersatz commercial shops, only visible to the general public through the street-facing window, creating installations and hosting exhibitions in their living room.:32 They worked on an uncompleted film which starred the five cohabitants, included Honey Novick and Tina Miller.:29–30 Bronson executed a series of chain-letter mail art projects, sparke
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site