An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators. Languages other than English may lift; because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are a legal requirement in new multistory buildings where wheelchair ramps would be impractical. There are some elevators which can go sideways in addition to the usual up-and-down motion; the earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.
Some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. Louis XV of France had a so-called'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on windlasses; the invention of a system based on the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793. Several years another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow; the development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides.
The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the coal mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories; these steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—in 1823, two architects working in London and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room". It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; the elevator used a counterweight for extra power. The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846 for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo; these supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force.
A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in 1850. In 1845, the Neapolitan architect Gaetano Genovese installed in the Royal Palace of Caserta the "Flying Chair", an elevator ahead of its time, covered with chestnut wood outside and with maple wood inside, it included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants. Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect, it consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke, he demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City on 23 March 1857.
The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years. Construction for Peter Cooper's Cooper Union Foundation building in New York began in 1853. An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented; the shaft was cylindrical. Otis designed a special elevator for the building; the Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators. However Peter Ellis, an English architect, installed the first elevators that could be described as paternoster elevators in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool in 1868; the first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880 in Germany. The inventor Anton Freissler developed the ideas of von Siemens and built up a successful enterprise in Austria-Hungary; the safety and speed of electric elevators were enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hyd
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Sears Canada Inc. was the Canadian subsidiary of the American-based Sears department store chain. In operation from 1953 until January 14, 2018, headquartered in Toronto, the company's roots were in Simpsons-Sears—a joint venture between the Simpsons retail chain and the U. S. Sears chain—which operated a national mail order business and co-branded Simpsons-Sears stores modelled after the U. S. Sears chain. Following the purchase of Simpsons by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1978, the joint venture was dismantled, the Simpsons-Sears stores became owned by Sears. In 1999, Sears Canada acquired the remaining assets and locations of the historic Canadian chain Eaton's. From 2014, Sears Holdings owned a 10% share in the company. ESL Investments was the largest shareholder of Sears Canada. In 2016, the retailer had a network that included 140 corporate stores, 71 Hometown stores, over 900 catalogue and online merchandise pick-up locations, 69 Sears Travel offices and a nationwide repair and service network.
The company published a general merchandise catalogue until the last quarter of 2016 and offered shopping online at sears.ca until October 19, 2017. After filing for creditor protection in June 2017, Sears Canada announced that they would be closing 20 full-line locations, 15 Home stores, 10 Outlet stores and 14 Sears Hometown stores; the stores closings resulted 2,900 employee layoffs. These stores closed on Sunday, October 1, 2017. In September 2017, Sears Canada announced the closing of 10 additional stores, in addition to the 59 store closings announced in June. On October 10, 2017, Sears Canada announced that it would seek court approval to shut down all of its remaining stores in Canada and lay off 11,240 remaining staff; the approval was granted by the Ontario Superior Court on October 13, 2017. Liquidation sales began on October 19, 2017; the remaining Sears stores closed on January 14, 2018. Store fixtures and equipment from the closed stores were sold until January 26, 2018. Sears Canada began its operations as Simpsons-Sears Limited, a catalogue and mid-market suburban retailer, as a joint-venture between the Simpsons Limited, a Canadian department store chain, Sears, Roebuck and Co. of the United States.
In 1952, General Robert E. Wood, the Chairman of U. S. retailer Sears, sent a letter to Edgar G. Burton, President of the Robert Simpson Company of Toronto, proposing a partnership between their two companies in order to serve the Canadian market; the deal to create Simpsons-Sears Limited, a Canadian catalogue and department store chain separate from the Simpson's chain, was signed on September 18, 1952 and the terms were 50-50. Each company invested $20 million and had equal representation on the new company's Board of Directors; the new company was to have two main objectives. The first was to expand Simpson's mail order business, sold to the new company; the second goal was to build a string of stores modelled on Sears, Roebuck's format across the country. The agreement contained a provision that would prove to be a major challenge in years. Under its terms, Simpsons-Sears could not open a retail store within 25 miles of Simpson's existing stores in Toronto, Halifax and London. In return, Simpson's promised not to build any stores outside of those five cities.
Simpsons-Sears mail order business, was free to operate anywhere in Canada as was the new Simpsons-Sears Acceptance Company, the credit arm of the operation. The business operations of Simpsons-Sears began when the first Simpsons-Sears Spring/Summer Catalogue was printed by Photo-Engravers and Electrotypers, Ltd. and delivered to 300,000 Canadian homes in early 1953. On September 17, 1953, the first Simpsons-Sears retail store opened in Ontario; the second Simpsons-Sears store opened in Kamloops, British Columbia in December of that year. In 1954, Simpsons-Sears opened Canada’s first large suburban department store, in Vancouver – Burnaby, BC, based on new the modern Sears, Roebuck model, spreading across the U. S. Simpsons-Sears introduced “We Service What We Sell”, in 1955, a slogan backed up by a trained nationwide corps of service technicians. In 1963, Simpsons-Sears opened its first full-line store in Quebec, in Quebec City’s Fleur de Lys complex; the company made its public debut on the Toronto and Montreal stock exchanges on April 5, 1965, with the listing of its Class “A” non-voting shares.
That year, Sears began its long-standing partnership with the Boys and Girls Clubs of Canada, to support its youth programming. In 1968, Simpsons-Sears became the first Canadian retailer to begin buying products from Mainland China. In 1971, Simpsons-Sears opened a new head office building in downtown Toronto. In 1972, Simpsons and Simpsons-Sears agreed to end the 25-mile restriction and permit Simpsons and Simpsons-Sears stores anywhere; the following year Simpsons-Sears opened a store in the city of Mississauga 30 km west of Toronto. To avoid confusing customers used to Simpsons, new stores were opened under the "Sears" banner. All existing Simpsons-Sears stores were rebranded to the Sears banner as well. However, the name of the company remained Simpsons-Sears Limited. In 1973, Sears achieved its first billion-dollar sales year. In 1974, Simpsons-Sears opened a Sears store at Hillcrest Mall in Richmond Hill, its first location in a mall that had a Simpsons store. In 1978, Simpsons and Simpsons-Sears put forward a plan to merge their businesses.
This plan had to have approval of the Foreign Investment Review Agency, as Sears, Roebuck would become the prime shareholder. Before approval could be attained, the Hudson’s Bay Company made a counter bid and acquired Simpsons Limited. Simpson
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
Hudson's Bay (retailer)
Hudson's Bay is a chain of 90 department stores that operate in Canada and the Netherlands. It is the main brand of the North America's oldest company, it has its headquarters in the Simpson Tower in Toronto. In French, the chain is known as la Baie d'Hudson, short for "Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson"; the chain uses both the French versions of the name in some parts of Canada. The stores are full-line department stores, with a focus on high-end fashion apparel and home goods. Flagship downtown stores are located in Canada's largest cities, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa and Winnipeg being multi-storey, historic buildings, they carry selection of goods than regular Hudson's Bay stores. The largest of the flagship stores is the Toronto store on Queen Street, at about 93,000 square metres. Toronto has another smaller store along the Mink Mile at Bloor Street East and Yonge Street in the Hudson's Bay Centre; the origin of the Hudson's Bay Company's department store format can be traced to 1881, when the company opened its first department store in Winnipeg, under its proper name "Hudson's Bay Company".
From 1881 up until 1960, all "Hudson's Bay Company" stores were located in Western Canada and the Canadian Arctic. In 1960, the HBC acquired Morgan's, a Montreal department chain with stores in Ontario and the island of Montreal; that same year, all the Morgan's stores in Ontario were converted to the "Hudson's Bay Company" brand. In 1965, the "Hudson's Bay Company" branded stores were renamed as "The Bay", its stores in Quebec maintained the Morgan's name until 1972, when they were re-branded as "La Baie". That same year, Hudson's Bay purchased Ottawa's Freimans department store and moved from the former Morgan's building on Sparks Street to the Freiman building on Rideau Street, closer to competing Ogilvy's and Caplan's; the Bay further expanded its presence between 1989 and 1991 in Eastern Canada by absorbing the Simpsons department store chain, 1993 in Western Canada by taking over many former Woodward's outlets. The Toronto Queen Street flagship store was a Simpsons department store. In 1991, Hudson's Bay Company stopped selling fur.
In 1997 the company reopened its fur salons, including a wider assortment of high-end designer furs. Fur salons included many exclusive fur designers, including Louis Féraud, Black Diamond Mink, Grosvenor. On 16 July 2008, it was announced that Hudson's Bay Company had been purchased by the US firm NRDC Equity Partners, which owned Lord & Taylor and Fortunoff. In August 2008, Bonnie Brooks was hired as president and chief executive officer of the Hudson's Bay Company; as the result of market research, Brooks began to focus on bolstering high-end fashion as a growth segment. These moves included a major revamp of the chain's selection of labels, a renovation and relaunch of The Room—a luxury women's department at the Queen Street location. During the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, a heritage-oriented campaign was used to promote The Bay and an accompanying line of Olympic-themed apparel, considered to be a significant success. In 2010, the Queen Street location saw a 22% increase in year-over-year sales.
In 2011, The Bay launched White Space—a new younger-skewing "contemporary" department—at selected locations. During its initial public offering in October 2012, HBC announced that it would be re-branding The Bay's stores under the name "Hudson's Bay", marking the chain's first major re-branding since 1965; the new brand, designed by the New York City-based advertising agency Lipman, was introduced in March 2013. Reflecting on the company's heritage, the chain's new logo incorporates an updated rendition of the Hudson's Bay Company coat of arms. HBC did not provide a timeline for the conversion of the exterior signage to the new name on all of its stores; the Room is a luxury boutique found in selected Hudson's Bay locations, which features a curated selection of women's apparel from upscale brands such as Balmain, Emmanuel Ungaro, Gianfranco Ferre, Giorgio Armani and others. Nicholas Mellamphy is the buying director of The Room, its namesake at the Yonge & Queen location in Toronto was established in the 1930's as the St. Regis Room, dating back to its time as a Simpsons store.
It underwent a major renovation in 2009 by the design firm Yabu Pushelberg, with an increase to 2,000 square metres in floor space, expanding its stock from around 12 brands to 70. The $5.3 million renovation was positioned by Brooks as part of a plan to increase The Bay's focus on high-end fashion. The Room opened at the downtown Vancouver location in 2011, in the north-east section of the second floor; the 2,100 square metres department includes many of the designers available in the Toronto Queen Street flagship store, some not available in the flagship store, including DSquared², Jeremy Liang, Sid Neigum. The Room opened in the Downtown Montreal Hudson's Bay store in late 2013; the Toronto version of The Room was relocated to a different part of the store in 2015 to accommodate a new Saks Fifth Avenue location. The West End Shop is the Men's version of The Room; the Toronto Queen Street and the Vancouver Granville West End Shops underwent an extensive renovation. The current collection contains la
A condominium shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, New Zealand, the Canadian province of British Columbia. Residential condominiums are constructed as apartment buildings, but there has been an increase in the number of "detached condominiums", which look like single-family homes but in which the yards, building exteriors, streets are jointly owned and jointly maintained by a community association. Unlike apartments, which are leased by their tenants, condominium units are owned outright. Additionally, the owners of the individual units collectively own the common areas of the property, such as hallways, laundry rooms, etc. as well as common utilities and amenities, such as the HVAC system, so on.
Many shopping malls are industrial condominiums in which the individual retail and office spaces are owned by the businesses that occupy them while the common areas of the mall are collectively owned by all the business entities that own the individual spaces. The common areas and utilities are managed collectively by the owners through their association, such as a homeowner association. Scholars have traced the earliest known use of the condominium form of tenure to a document from first-century Babylon; the word condominium originated in Latin. Italy uses condominio, the modern Italian form of condominium. Both condo and condominium are used colloquially in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the official term is divided co-ownership. In France, the term is copropriété, the common areas of these properties are managed by a Syndicat de copropriété, or "co-property union". Latin American nations use the term propiedad horizontal meaning "horizontal property" but abstractly meaning that all owners of the property have equal interest.
The word condominio is used. However, in Spain, the legal term is comunidad de propietarios and the popular term is comunidad de vecinos. "Condominium" is a Latin word formed by adding the prefix con- to the word dominium. Its meaning is therefore "shared property". Condominia referred to territories over which two or more sovereign powers shared joint dominion; this technique was used to settle border disputes when multiple claimants could not agree on how to partition the disputed territory. For example, from 1818 to 1846, Oregon Country was a condominium over which both the United States and Great Britain shared joint sovereignty until the Oregon Treaty resolved the issue by splitting the territory along the 49th parallel and each country gaining sole sovereignty of one side; the difference between an "apartment" complex and condominium is purely legal. There is no way to differentiate a condominium from an apartment by looking at or visiting the building. What defines. A building developed as a condominium could be built at another location as an apartment building.
As a practical matter, builders tend to build condominiums to higher quality standards than apartment complexes because of the differences between the rental and sale markets. Technically, a condominium is a collection of individual home units and common areas along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home; the boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed on record with the local governing authority. These boundaries will include the wall surrounding a condo, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium's creation; the corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group—it may not have ownership itself. Condominiums have conditions and restrictions, additional rules that govern how the individual unit owners are to share the space.
It is possible for a condominium to consist of single-family dwellings. There are "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, etc. and "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and ownership over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by gated communities. A homeowners association, whose members are the unit owners, manages the condominium through a board of directors elected by the membership; this exists under various names depending on the jurisdiction, such as "unit title", "sectional title", "commonhold", "strata council", or "tenant-owner's association", "body corporate", "Owners Corporation", "condominium corporation" or "condominium association". Another variation of this concept is the "time share", although not all time shares are condominiums, not all time shares involve actual ownership of real property. C