Vanessa Redgrave is an English actress of stage and television, a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, received the 2010 BAFTA Fellowship. Redgrave rose to prominence in 1961 playing Rosalind in the Shakespeare comedy As You Like It with the Royal Shakespeare Company and has since starred in more than 35 productions in London's West End and on Broadway, winning the 1984 Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Revival for The Aspern Papers, the 2003 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the revival of Long Day's Journey into Night, she received Tony nominations for The Year of Magical Thinking and Driving Miss Daisy. On screen, she has starred in scores of films and is a six-time Oscar nominee, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the title role in the film Julia, her other nominations were for Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment, Mary, Queen of Scots, The Bostonians and Howards End. Among her other films are A Man for All Seasons, Camelot, The Devils, Murder on the Orient Express, Prick Up Your Ears, Mission: Impossible, Atonement and The Butler.
Redgrave was proclaimed by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams as "the greatest living actress of our times", has won the Oscar, Tony, BAFTA, Cannes, Golden Globe, the Screen Actors Guild awards. A member of the Redgrave family of actors, she is the daughter of Sir Michael Redgrave and Lady Redgrave, the sister of Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, the mother of actresses Joely Richardson and Natasha Richardson, the aunt of British actress Jemma Redgrave, the mother-in-law of actor Liam Neeson. Redgrave was born on 30 January 1937 in Blackheath, the daughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson. Laurence Olivier announced her birth to the audience at a performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic, when he said that Laertes had a daughter. In her autobiography, Redgrave recalls the East End and Coventry Blitzes among her earliest memories. Following the East End Blitz, Redgrave relocated with her family to Herefordshire before returning to London in 1943, she was educated at the Alice Ottley School and Queen's Gate School, before "coming out" as a debutante.
Her siblings, Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, were acclaimed actors. Vanessa Redgrave entered the Central School of Speech and Drama in 1954, she first appeared in the West End, playing opposite her brother, in 1958. In 1959, she appeared at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre under the direction of Peter Hall as Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream opposite Charles Laughton as Bottom and Coriolanus opposite Laurence Olivier, Albert Finney and Edith Evans. In 1960, Redgrave had her first starring role in Robert Bolt's The Tiger and the Horse, in which she co-starred with her father. In 1961, she played Rosalind in As You Like It for the Royal Shakespeare Company. In 1962, she played Imogen in William Gaskill's production of Cymbeline for the RSC. In 1966, Redgrave created the role of Jean Brodie in the Donald Albery production of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, adapted for the stage by Jay Presson Allen from the novel by Muriel Spark. Redgrave had her first credited film role, in which she co-starred with her father, in Brian Desmond Hurst's Behind the Mask.
Redgrave's first starring film role was in Morgan – A Suitable Case for Treatment, co-starring David Warner and directed by Karel Reisz, for which she received an Oscar nomination, a Cannes award, a Golden Globe nomination and a BAFTA Film Award nomination. Following this, she portrayed a cool London swinger in Blowup. Co-starring David Hemmings, it was the first English-language film of the Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni. Reunited with Karel Reisz for the biographical film of dancer Isadora Duncan in Isadora, her portrayal of Duncan led her gaining a National Society of Film Critics' Award for Best Actress, a second Prize for the Best Female Performance at the Cannes Film Festival, along with a Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination. In the same period came other portrayals of historical figures – ranging from Andromache in The Trojan Women to the lead in Mary, Queen of Scots, the latter earning her a third Oscar nomination, she played the role of Guinevere in the film Camelot with Richard Harris and Franco Nero, as Sylvia Pankhurst in Oh!
What a Lovely War. She portrayed the character of Mother Superior Jeanne des Anges in The Devils, the once controversial film directed by Ken Russell. Redgrave funded and narrated a documentary film, The Palestinian, about the situation of the Palestinians and the activities of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. In the film Julia, she starred in the title role as a woman murdered by the Nazi German regime in the years prior to World War II for her anti-Fascist activism, her co-star in the film was Jane Fonda, who, in her 2005 autobiography, noted that: there is a quality about Vanessa that makes me feel as if she resides in a netherworld of mystery that eludes the rest of us mortals. Her voice seems to come from some deep place that knows all secrets. Watching her work is like seeing through layers of glass, each layer painted in mythic watercolor images, layer after layer, until it becomes dark, but then you know you haven't come to the bottom of it... The only other time I had experienced this with an actor was with Marlon Brando...
Like Vanessa, he always seemed to be in another reality, working off some secret, magn
Historical period drama
The term historical period drama refers to a work set in a past time period used in the context of film and television. It is an informal crossover term that can apply to several genres and is heard in the context of historical fiction and romances, adventure films, swashbucklers. A period piece may be set in a vague or general era such as the Middle Ages or a specific period such as the Roaring Twenties. A religious work can qualify as period drama but not as historical drama; some works attempt to portray historical events or persons, to the degree that the available historical research and the length of the work will allow. These types of works are known as docudrama, examples being Cinderella Man, Schindler's List, Lincoln. Other works are fictionalized stories based on actual people or events, such as Braveheart and Les Misérables. Film and television examples of period pieces include Marie Antoinette, The Leopard, Barry Lyndon, The Age of Innocence, Last Man Standing, Shakespeare in Love, The Young Victoria, Darkest Hour and The Favourite.
Examples of television series include Robin Hood, Middlemarch and Prejudice, The Tudors, Mad Men, Boardwalk Empire, Call the Midwife, Downton Abbey, Deadwood and Catch Fire, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Father Brown, Stranger Things, The Americans, Little House on the Prairie, That'70s Show, The Get Down, Another Period, Better Call Saul and The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel. List of films about the American Revolution List of films and television shows about the American Civil War Historical fiction Sword-and-sandal List of films set in ancient Rome Western films Asian historical period drama films Jidaigeki Wuxia Sageuk Phim lịch sử Middle Ages in film War film
Savages (1972 film)
Savages is a 1972 Merchant Ivory Film directed by James Ivory and screenplay by George W. S. Trow and Michael O'Donoghue, based on an idea by Ivory; the film concept given to Trow and O'Donoghue was to tell a story, the reverse of Luis Buñuel's 1962 film The Exterminating Angel, in which guests at an elegant dinner party become bestial. Writing began in late 1968 and continued through 1969, its first showing came at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1972. In contrast to Buñuel's story, Savages starts when a tribe of primitive "mudpeople" performing a sacrifice encounter a croquet ball, rolling through their forest. Following it, they find themselves on a deserted Westchester estate in the 1930s. Entering, they begin to become civilized and assume the stereotypical roles and dress of people at a weekend party. There follows an allegory of upper-class behavior. At last, they begin to devolve toward their original status, after a battle at croquet, they disappear into the woods; the film received mixed to negative reviews by the critics.
Matt Brunson noted that Savages is an "intriguing short-film idea stretched out to feature length, worth a glance as an artifact of its time." Variety however, noted that "the playing has flair and grace." This film has been released on DVD in 2004 as part of the Merchant-Ivory Collection produced by Criterion. Mr. Mike: The Life and Work of Michael O'Donoghue by Dennis Perrin, 1999. ISBN 0-380-72832-X. List of American films of 1972 Merchant Ivory Productions Cannes Film Festival Savages on IMDb
Rupert S. Graves is an English film and theatre actor, he is known for his roles in A Room with a View, The Madness of King George and The Forsyte Saga. Since 2010 he has starred as DI Lestrade in the BBC television series Sherlock. Graves was born in Weston-super-Mare in Somerset, England, to Mary Lousilla Graves, a travel coordinator, Richard Harding Graves, a music teacher and musician. Graves was educated at Wyvern Community School, a state comprehensive school in his home town of Weston-super-Mare, which he left at the age of 15; the school has since re-opened as the Hans Price Academy. Graves's first job after leaving school was as a circus clown, he has appeared in more than 35 television productions. He has appeared on stage. Graves first came to prominence in costume-drama adaptations of E. M. Forster's novels A Room with a View and Maurice, before going on to appear in films including A Handful of Dust, the Oscar nominated The Madness of King George, Different for Girls, Intimate Relations.
Graves's role in Intimate Relations won him the Best Actor award at the 1996 Montreal World Film Festival. He was acclaimed for his portrayal of Young Jolyon Forsyte in the television miniseries The Forsyte Saga. In 1987 in his hometown of Weston-super-Mare, Graves met Yvonne, a stained glass artist, in a café, they lived together in Stoke Newington, he helped her raise her two daughters, who were 10 and 14 years old when the relationship began. Graves and Yvonne were together for 13 years. In September 2000, shortly after Graves's relationship with Yvonne ended, he met Australian-born production coordinator Suzanne Lewis at the opening-night party for The Caretaker, a play he was appearing in at the time with Michael Gambon, they married, have five children together. In addition to his screen work, Graves has won acclaim for his stage acting, including roles on the American stage in Broadway-theatre productions in New York City, New York, of the plays Closer and The Elephant Man. Graves's notable London theatre credits includes his performance as Presley Stray in the original production of Philip Ridley's The Pitchfork Disney at the Bush Theatre, west London, which won him Best Actor at the 1991 Charrington London Fringe Awards.
Official website Rupert Graves on IMDb Rupert Graves at the Internet Broadway Database
Natasha Jane Richardson was an English-American actress of stage and screen. Richardson was a member of the Redgrave family, being the daughter of actress Vanessa Redgrave and director/producer Tony Richardson, the granddaughter of Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson. Early in her career, she portrayed Mary Shelley in Ken Russell's Gothic and Patty Hearst in the 1988 biopic film directed by Paul Schrader, received critical acclaim and a Theatre World Award for her Broadway debut in the 1993 revival of Anna Christie, she appeared in The Handmaid's Tale, The Parent Trap, Maid in Manhattan and The White Countess. She won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical, the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Musical, the Outer Critics Circle Award for her performance as Sally Bowles in the 1998 Broadway revival of Cabaret. Richardson died on 18 March 2009 from an epidural hematoma after hitting her head in a skiing accident in Quebec. Richardson was born and raised in Marylebone, London, a member of the Redgrave family, known as a theatrical and film acting dynasty.
She was the daughter of director and producer Tony Richardson and actress Vanessa Redgrave, granddaughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson, sister of Joely Richardson, half-sister of Carlo Gabriel Nero and Katharine Grimond Hess, niece of actress Lynn Redgrave and actor Corin Redgrave, cousin of Jemma Redgrave. Richardson's parents divorced in 1967; the following year, she made her film debut at the age of four in an uncredited role in The Charge of the Light Brigade, directed by her father. Richardson was educated in London at two independent schools, the Lycée Français Charles de Gaulle in South Kensington, St. Paul's Girls' School in Hammersmith, before training at the Central School of Speech and Drama. Richardson began her career in regional theatre at the West Yorkshire Playhouse in Leeds, and, in 1984, at the Open Air Theatre in London's Regent's Park, when she appeared in A Midsummer Night's Dream with Ralph Fiennes and Richard E. Grant, her first professional work in London's West End was in a revival of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull in 1985.
This production featured her mother, Vanessa Redgrave. Soon afterward she starred in a London stage production of High Society, adapted from the Cole Porter film, she made her Broadway debut in 1993, in the title role of Anna Christie, where she met future husband Liam Neeson. In 1998, she played the role of Sally Bowles in Sam Mendes' revival of Cabaret on Broadway, for which she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical; the following year she returned to Broadway in Closer, for which she was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Play, in 2005, she appeared again with the Roundabout, this time as Blanche DuBois in the revival of Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire, opposite John C. Reilly as Stanley Kowalski. In January 2009, two months before her death, Richardson played the role of Desirée in a concert production of Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music, with her mother Vanessa Redgrave who played Mme. Armfeldt. At the time of Richardson's death, the pair were preparing to co-star in a Broadway revival of the musical.
In 1984, Richardson made her first credited screen appearance as an art tutor in the James Scott-directed Every Picture Tells A Story, based on the early life of the painter William Scott. She starred as Mary Shelley in the 1986 film Gothic, a fictionalised account of the author's creation of Frankenstein; the following year she starred with Kenneth Branagh and Colin Firth in A Month in the Country, directed by Pat O'Connor. Director Paul Schrader signed her for the title role in Patty Hearst, his 1988 docudrama about the heiress and her kidnapping, her performances with Robert Duvall and Faye Dunaway in The Handmaid's Tale and Christopher Walken, Rupert Everett and Helen Mirren in The Comfort of Strangers won her the 1990 Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress. In 1991, she appeared in the Watch and the Very Big Fish with Bob Hoskins, he credited her with giving him the best kiss of his life during the film. "She kissed me like I've never been kissed before. I was gobsmacked". Richardson was named Best Actress at the 1994 Karlovy Vary International Film Festival for Widows' Peak, that same year appeared in Nell with Jodie Foster and future husband Liam Neeson.
Additional film credits include The Parent Trap, Blow Dry, Chelsea Walls, Waking Up in Reno, Maid in Manhattan, which won her a second Evening Standard Award for Best Actress, The White Countess, Evening. Her last screen appearance was as headmistress of a girls' school in the 2008 comedy Wild Child. During the last week of January 2009, she recorded her offscreen role of the wife of climber George Mallory, who disappeared while climbing Mount Everest during a 1924 expedition, in the 2010 documentary film The Wildest Dream, for which Liam Neeson provided narration. Director Anthony Geffen described listening to the film since her death as "harrowing". Richardson made her American television debut in a small role in the 1984 miniseries Ellis Island; that same year she made her British television debut in an episode of the BBC series Oxbridge Blues. The following year she appeared as Violet Hunter with Jeremy Brett and David Burke in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes in the episode entitled "The Copper Beeches".
She starred with Judi Dench, Michael Gambon and Kenneth Branagh in a 1987 BBC adaptation of the Henrik Ibsen play Ghosts.
Islam in India
Islam is the second-largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or 201 million people identifying as adherents of Islam. It makes India the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries; the majority of Indian Muslims belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. The religion first arrived at the western coast of India when Arab traders as early as the 7th century CE came to coastal Malabar and Konkan-Gujarat. Cheraman Juma Mosque in Kerala is thought to be the first mosque in India, built in 629 CE by Malik Deenar. Following an expedition by the governor of Bahrain to Bharuch in the 7th century CE, immigrant Arab and Persian trading communities from South Arabia and the Persian Gulf began settling in coastal Gujarat. Ismaili Shia Islam was introduced to Gujarat in the second half of the 11th century, when Fatimid Imam Al-Mustansir Billah sent missionaries to Gujarat in 467 AH/1073 CE. Islam arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Turkic invasions and has since become a part of India's religious and cultural heritage.
Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindu and Muslim cultures across India and Muslims have played a notable role in economics and culture of India. By 2050, India's Muslim population is projected to grow to 311 million and surpass Indonesia to become the world's largest Muslim population, although India will retain a Hindu majority. Trade relations have existed between the Indian subcontinent since ancient times. In the pre-Islamic era, Arab traders used to visit the Konkan-Gujarat coast and Malabar region, which linked them with the ports of Southeast Asia. Newly Islamised Arabs were Islam's first contact with India. Historians Elliot and Dowson say in their book The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, that the first ship bearing Muslim travellers was seen on the Indian coast as early as 630 CE. H. G. Rawlinson in his book Ancient and Medieval History of India claims that the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century CE.
This fact is corroborated by J. Sturrock in his Madras District Manuals and by Haridas Bhattacharya in Cultural Heritage of India Vol. IV, it was with the advent of Islam. Arab merchants and traders became the carriers of the new religion and they propagated it wherever they went; the first Indian mosque, Cheraman Juma Mosque, is thought to have been built in 629 CE by Malik Deenar although some historians say the first mosque was in Gujarat in between 610 CE to 623 CE. In Malabar, the Mappilas may have been the first community to convert to Islam. Intensive missionary activities were carried out along the coast and many other natives embraced Islam. According to legend, two travellers from India, Moulai Abdullah and Maulai Nuruddin, went to the court of Imam Mustansir / and were so impressed that they converted to Islam and came back to preach in India in 467 AH/1073 CE. Moulai Ahmed was their companion. Abadullah was the first Wali-ul-Hind, he came across a married couple named Kaka Akela and Kaki Akela who became his first converts in the Taiyabi community.
There is much historical evidence to show that Arabs and Muslims interacted with Indians from the early days of Islam or before the arrival of Islam in Arab regions. Arab traders transmitted the numeral system developed by Indians to Europe. Many Sanskrit books were translated into Arabic as early as the 8th century. George Salibain his book "Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance", writes that "some major Sanskrit texts began to be translated during the reign of the second Abbasid caliph al-Mansur, if not before. People living on the western coast of India were as familiar with the annual coming of Arab traders as they were with the flocks of monsoon birds. However, whereas monsoon birds flew back to Africa after a sojourn of few months, not all traders returned to their homes in the desert; the advent of Muhammad changed the idolatrous and easy-going Arabs into a nation unified by faith and fired with zeal to spread the gospel of Islam. The merchant seamen who brought dates year after year now brought a new faith with them.
The new faith was well received by South India. Muslims were allowed to build mosques, intermarry with Indian women, soon an Indian-Arabian community came into being. Early in the 9th century, Muslim missionaries gained a notable convert in the person of the King of Malabar. Muhammad bin Qasim at the age of 17 was the first Muslim invader and he managed to reach Sindh. In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms. Around the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic empire, the Ghaznavids, under Mahmud of Ghazni, was the second, much more ferocious invader, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion overran South Asia's north-western plains. U
Major film studio
A major film studio is a production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and commands a significant share of box office revenue in a given market. In the American and international markets, the major film studios simply known as the majors, are regarded as the five diversified media conglomerates whose various film production and distribution subsidiaries collectively command 80–85% of U. S. box office revenue. The term may be applied more to the primary motion picture business subsidiary of each respective conglomerate; the "Big Five" majors are all film studios active since Hollywood's Golden Age. Two of them – Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures – were members of the "Big Five", but the other three – Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, Walt Disney Pictures – did not gain their market shares until much later; the former two were part of the "Little Three" in the next tier down, the latter one was an independent production company during the Golden Age.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and RKO were the other two Golden Age "Big Five" majors, that exist today only as a mini-major and a small independent company. United Artists was a distribution company for several independent producers during the Golden Age began producing films, grew to major status merged with MGM; until 2019, 20th Century Fox served as a sixth member, when the industry was referred to as the "Big Six" since the 1980s. While the main studios of the Big Five are located within 15 miles of each other, Disney is the only studio, owned by the same conglomerate since its founding and was the sole member whose parent entity is still located near Los Angeles on Disney's studio lot and in the same building, until 2019, when the company acquired 20th Century Fox. Whereas the five others were owned by many different companies years ago and now report to conglomerates that are located elsewhere in Dallas, New York City and Tokyo. Paramount is the only one still based in Hollywood with Columbia being in Culver City.
Both Disney and Warner Bros. are located in Burbank and Universal is in the unincorporated area of Universal City. Most of today's Big Five control subsidiaries with their own distribution networks that concentrate on arthouse pictures or genre films; the five major studios are contrasted with smaller production and/or distribution companies, which are known as independents or "indies". The leading independent producer/distributors such as Lionsgate, STX Entertainment are sometimes referred to as "mini-majors". From 1998 through 2005, DreamWorks SKG commanded a large enough market share to arguably qualify it as a seventh major, despite its small output. In 2006, DreamWorks was acquired by Paramount's corporate parent. In late 2008, DreamWorks once again became an independent production company; the Big Five major studios are today backers and distributors of films whose actual production is handled by independent companies – either long-running entities or ones created for and dedicated to the making of a specific film.
The specialty divisions simply acquire distribution rights to pictures in which the studio has had no prior involvement. While the majors still do a modicum of true production, their activities are focused more in the areas of development, financing and merchandising; those business functions are still performed in or near Los Angeles though the runaway production phenomenon means that most films are now or shot on location at places outside Los Angeles. Since the dawn of filmmaking, the U. S. major film studios have dominated the global film industry. U. S. studios have benefited from a strong first-mover advantage in that they were the first to industrialize filmmaking and master the art of mass-producing and distributing high-quality films with broad cross-cultural appeal. Today, the Big Five majors distribute hundreds of films every year into all significant international markets, it is rare, if not impossible, for a film to reach a broad international audience on multiple continents and in multiple languages without being picked up by one of the majors for distribution.
Past majors include: RKO Pictures defunct several times revived as independent studio. United Artists acquired by MGM in 1981. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Acquired by Ted Turner in 1986 sold the studio back to Kirk Kerkorian that year and kept the pre-May 1986 library. Became a mini-major studio up on the sale. 20th Century Fox became a part of Walt Disney Studios when The Walt Disney Company bought 21st Century Fox for $71.3 billion on March 20, 2019. Mini-major studios are the larger film production companies that are smaller than the major studios and attempt to compete directly with them. Past mini-majors include: Castle Rock Entertainment - purchased in 1993 by T