United States Merchant Marine
The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U. S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels. Both the civilian mariners and the merchant vessels are managed by a combination of the government and private sectors, engage in commerce or transportation of goods and services in and out of the navigable waters of the United States; the Merchant Marine transports cargo and passengers during peacetime. Merchant Marine officers may be commissioned as military officers by the Department of Defense; this is achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the Naval Reserves. Merchant mariners move cargo and passengers between nations and within the United States, operate and maintain deep-sea merchant ships, towboats, dredges, excursion vessels, charter boats and other waterborne craft on the oceans, the Great Lakes, canals and other waterways; as of October 1, 2018, the United States merchant fleet had 181 owned, self-propelled vessels of 1,000 gross register tons and above that carry cargo from port to port.
Nearly 800 American-owned ships are flagged in other nations. The federal government maintains fleets of merchant ships via organizations such as Military Sealift Command and the National Defense Reserve Fleet, managed by the United States Maritime Administration. In 2004, the federal government employed 5% of all American water transportation workers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, various laws fundamentally changed the course of American merchant shipping; these laws put an end to common practices such as flogging and shanghaiing, increased shipboard safety and living standards. The United States Merchant Marine is governed by more than 25 international conventions to promote safety and prevent pollution. P. L. 95–202, approved November 23, 1977, granted veteran status to Women Airforce Service Pilots and "any person in any other situated group" with jurisdiction for determination given to the Secretary of Defense who delegated that determination to the Secretary of the Air Force. Although the Merchant Marine suffered a per capita casualty rate greater than those of the US Armed Forces, merchant mariners who served in World War II were denied such veterans recognition until 1988 when a federal court ordered it.
The Court held that "the Secretary of the Air Force abused its discretion in denying active military service recognition to American merchant seamen who participated in World War II." Captains and pilots supervise ship operations on domestic waterways and the high seas. A captain is in overall command of a vessel, supervises the work of other officers and crew. A captain has the ability to take the conn from a pilot at any time he feels the need. On smaller vessels the captain may be a regular watch-stander, similar to a mate, directly controlling the vessel's position. Captains and department heads ensure that proper procedures and safety practices are followed, ensure that machinery is in good working order, oversee the loading and discharging of cargo and passengers. Captains directly communicate with the company or command, are overall responsible for cargo, various logs, ship's documents, efforts at controlling pollution and passengers carried. Mates direct a ship's routine operation for the captain during work shifts, which are called watches.
Mates stand watch for specified periods in three duty sections, with four hours on watch and eight hours off. When on a navigational watch, mates direct a bridge team by conning, directing courses through the helmsman and speed through the lee helmsman; when more than one mate is necessary aboard a ship, they are designated chief mate or first mate, second mate and third mate. In addition to watch standers, mates directly supervise the ship's crew, are assigned other tasks; the chief mate is in charge of cargo and the deck crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates and the third mate as the safety officer. They monitor and direct deck crew operations, such as directing line handlers during moorings, anchorings, monitor cargo operations and supervise crew members engaged in maintenance and the vessel's upkeep. Harbor pilots guide ships in and out of confined waterways, such as harbors, where a familiarity with local conditions is of prime importance. Harbor pilots are independent contractors who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port, may pilot many ships in a single day.
Engine officers, or engineers, operate and repair engines, generators and other machinery. Merchant marine vessels have four engine officers: a chief engineer and a first and third assistant engineer. On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the safe operation of engines and other machinery. However, most modern ships sailing today utilize Unmanned Machinery Space automation technology, Assistant Engineers are Dayworkers. At night and during meals and breaks, the engine room is unmanned and machinery alarms are answered by the Duty Engineer. Able seamen and ordinary seamen operate the vessel and its deck equipment under officer supervision and keep their assigned areas in good order, they watch for other vessels and obstructions in the ship's path, as well as for navigational aids such as buoys and lighthouses. They steer the ship, measure water depth in shallow
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Awards and decorations of the United States Merchant Marine
Awards and decorations of the United States Merchant Marine are civilian decorations of the United States which are issued to the members of the United States Merchant Marine for a variety of duties both in peace and war. Authorized to be issued by the War Shipping Administration of the World War II era, these awards were issued by the Maritime Commission and are issued by the Department of Transportation's Martitime Administration. All historical and active decorations of the U. S. Merchant Marine are as follows: The Prisoner of War Medal — may be awarded to any person, a prisoner of war after April 5, 1917, it is awarded to any person, taken prisoner or held captive while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. Hostages of terrorists, persons detained by governments in which the U. S. is not engaged in armed conflict are not eligible for the medal. The person's conduct, while in captivity, must have been honorable; this medal may be awarded posthumously to the surviving next of kin of the recipient.
Soviet Commemorative Medal — "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Jubilee Medal — Awarded to U. S. merchant mariners. Philippine Defense Medal — Was presented to any service member, of either the Philippine military or an allied armed force, which participated in the defense of the Philippine Islands between December 8, 1941 and June 15, 1942. Philippine Liberation Ribbon — Was presented to any service member, of both Philippine and allied military forces, who participated in the liberation of the Philippine Islands between the dates of October 17, 1944 and September 2, 1945. Korean Service Medal is a civil decoration awarded for Merchant Marine service during the Korean War between June 30, 1950 and September 30, 1953, in waters adjacent to Korea. Vietnam Service Medal is a civil decoration awarded to officers and men for service aboard merchant vessels flying the American flag in Vietnam waters between July 4, 1965 and August 15, 1973.9-11 Medal is a special decoration of the U.
S. Department of Transportation, first created in 2002; the decoration recognizes those civilians and members of the military who performed heroic deeds and valorous accomplishments in the immediate aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States of America. 9-11 Ribbon is a military decoration of the U. S. Department of Transportation, issued to both civilians and military personnel who, through service with the United States Department of Transportation, contributed to the recovery of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States of America; the ribbon was issued to the United States Coast Guard, but was authorized for any civilian personnel, members of other military branches, who were assigned to the Department of Transportation for relief efforts against the terrorist attacks. The Merchant Marine Expeditionary Medal is awarded to U. S. merchant seamen who serve on U. S.-flag ships in support of operations involving American and allied military forces. The medal is not specific to a certain military operation or conflict, but the award citation would give such details.
It has been presented to individuals for service in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom. It has been presented to Merchant Mariners sailing in support of Naval Operations with the US Navy's Military Sealift Command, including Cadet Midshipman at the United States Merchant Marine Academy. U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46, Chapter II, Subchapter J, Part 350 Seamen's Service Awards Merchant Marine Emblem and Ribbons, USMM.org
Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are the medals, service ribbons, specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U. S. Armed Forces; such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career. While each service has its own order of precedence, the following general rules apply to all services: U. S. military personal decorations U. S. military unit awards U. S. non-military personal decorations Presidential awards National Medals DoD and JCS Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Superior Service awards Agency-specific Meritorious Service awards Agency-specific Commendation awards Agency-specific Achievement awards Civilian unit awards Civilian service awards U. S. non-military unit awards U. S. military campaign and service medals U. S. military service and training awards U. S. Merchant Marine awards and non-military service awards Foreign military personal decorations Foreign military unit awards Non-U.
S. Service awards Foreign military service awards Marksmanship awards Awards of U. S. military societies and other organizations6a 6b State awards of the National Guard Notes on branch-specific exceptions to the above: 1a In the Army, unit awards are worn as a separate grouping, on the right side of the uniform and without frames, are worn in the order of precedence from the wearer’s right to left. 1b In the Navy, unit award ribbons are only worn on the right side of the uniform, when wearing full medals on the left side. Arrange ribbons in order of precedence in rows from top down, inboard to outboard. For U. S. Navy, the USPHS unit awards are considered unit awards. However, if Navy personnel are awarded USPHS personal decorations the USPHS order of precedence would apply. 2 Some awards, despite being ribbon-only, are higher in precedence. The Navy & Coast Guard Combat Action Ribbons and the Coast Guard's Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon are included with personal decorations, while two Air Force ribbon-only awards and the Coast Guard Enlisted Person of the Year Ribbon are considered in the same category as service medals.
3a Marksmanship Awards in the Air Force are considered training awards. 3b The Army and Marine Corps issue Marksmanship Qualification Badges instead of Marksmanship awards. 4 For Navy, Merchant Marine awards are considered U. S. non-military awards. 5 The obsolete Philippine Commonwealth service awards, when still listed in the order of precedence, come before the United Nations medals or before the Merchant Marine awards. 6a For Navy and ribbons from military societies, such as the Army and Navy Union of the United States, worn in the order earned may be worn after marksmanship awards. Medals and badges issued by these societies may be worn only while attending meetings or conventions or while participating in parades or other ceremonies as a member of these organizations. 6b For Army, no allowance of military society medals or ribbons is prescribed. More badges of the Army and Navy Union of the United States of America are authorized for such active duty ANU members without further restriction.
Badges of other civic and quasi-military societies of the United States, international organizations of a military nature may be worn with restrictions. These include badges of organizations composed of members who served in a U. S. force during the Revolutionary War. The badges are worn only while the wearer is attending meetings or functions of such organizations, or on occasions of ceremony. Personnel will not wear these badges to and from such events. Notes: Precedence of particular awards will vary among the different branches of service. All awards and decorations may be awarded to any service member unless otherwise designated by name or notation. Note: ^ The precedence of the Purple Heart was before the Good Conduct Medals until changed to its current precedence in 1985. Inter-service Air Force Army Coast Guard Navy and Marine CorpsTo denote additional achievements or multiple awards of the same decoration, the United States military maintains a number of award devices which are pinned to service ribbons and medals.
Awards and decorations of the National Guard Awards and decorations of the state defense forces U. S. military personnel having received these awards have either been discharged or retired for a substantial length of time and/or are deceased. The following decorations were designed for issuance with an approved medal, but were either never approved for presentation or were discontinued bef
United States Maritime Administration
The United States Maritime Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation. Its programs promote the use of waterborne transportation and its seamless integration with other segments of the transportation system, the viability of the U. S. merchant marine. The Maritime Administration works in many areas involving ships and shipping, port operations, vessel operations, national security and safety; the Maritime Administration is charged with maintaining the health of the merchant marine, since commercial mariners and intermodal facilities are vital for supporting national security, so the agency provides support and information for current mariners, extensive support for educating future mariners, programs to educate America's young people about the vital role the maritime industry plays in the lives of all Americans. MARAD maintains the National Defense Reserve Fleet as a ready source of ships for use during national emergencies, assists the NDRF in fulfilling its role as the nation's fourth arm of defense, logistically supporting the military when needed.
When the United States Maritime Commission was abolished on May 24, 1950, its functions were split between the Federal Maritime Board, responsible for regulating shipping and awarding subsidies for construction and operation of merchant vessels, Maritime Administration, responsible for administering subsidy programs, maintaining the national defense reserve merchant fleet, operating the United States Merchant Marine Academy. In 1961, the Federal Maritime Board regulatory functions were assumed by the newly created Federal Maritime Commission, while the subsidy functions were assigned to the Maritime Subsidy Board of the Maritime Administration. On August 6, 1981, MARAD came under control of the Department of Transportation thereby bringing all transportation programs under one cabinet-level department. MARAD administers financial programs to develop and operate the U. S. Maritime Service and the U. S. Merchant Marine. S. documented vessels to foreign registries. Mark H. Buzby, Administrator Richard Balzano, Deputy Administrator David Tubman, Chief Counsel Michael Novak, Director and Public Affairs Kevin Tokarski, Associate Administrator, Strategic Sealift Rear Admiral James Helis, USMS, United States Merchant Marine Academy Delia Davis, Associate Administrator, Administration John P. Quinn, Associate Administrator and Compliance Lauren Brand, Associate Administrator, Intermodal System Development Owen Doherty, Associate Administrator and Finance Development The Maritime Administration collaborates extensively with stakeholders from all transportation sectors and modes in order to accomplish its mission to improve and strengthen the U.
S. marine transportation system. MARAD operates one federal service academy and administers a Grant-In-Aid Program for six state-operated maritime academies: Students at these academies can graduate with appropriate United States Coast Guard licenses if they choose to take the Coast Guard License exam, may become commissioned reserve officers in any branch of the service when graduating from USMMA or a ROTC scholarship from one of the other maritime schools; the Maritime Subsidy Board negotiates contracts for ship construction and grants operating-differential subsidies to shipping companies. The Maritime Administrator is vested with the residual powers of the Director of the National Shipping Authority, established in 1951 to organize and direct emergency merchant marine operations; the Maritime Security Program authorizes MARAD to enter into contracts with U. S.-flag commercial ship owners to provide service during times of war or national emergencies. As of 2007, ten companies have signed contracts providing the MSP with a reserve of sixty cargo vessels.
Harold E. Shear: October 19, 1981 – May 31, 1985 John A. Gaughan: November 26, 1985 – March 26, 1989 Warren G. Leback: October 11, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Albert J. Herberger: September 14, 1993 – June 30, 1997 Clyde J. Hart, Jr.: August 6, 1998 - December 2000 William G. Schubert: December 6, 2001 – February 11, 2005 Sean T. Connaughton: September 6, 2006 – January 2009 David T. Matsuda: September 6, 2009– June 2013 Chip Jaenichen: September 2013 - January 13, 2017 United States Federal Maritime Commission United States Merchant Marine, the U. S. merchant shipping fleet. United States Maritime Service, a training organization for the U. S. Merchant Marine. U. S. Merchant Marine Academy Official website United States Maritime Administration in the Federal Register MARAD page in the U. S. Naval Vessel Register Papers of Louis S. Rothschild, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library United States Maritime Administration at the Wayback Machine