United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
The deck department is an organisational team on board naval and merchant ships. The department and its manning requirements, including the responsibilities of each rank are regulated within the STCW Convention; the department is led by deck officers, who are licensed mariners and they are commanded overall by the ship's captain. Seafarers in the deck department work a variety of jobs on a ship or vessel, but they will carry out the navigation of a vessel, from the bridge. However, they are also responsible for supervising and monitoring any maritime cargo onboard, as well as ensuring maintenance of the deck and upper hull structure, monitoring the stability of the ship including loading and discharging ballast water, carrying out mooring operations and anchoring a ship; the deck department is divided into deck ratings. All ranks in the deck department are required to have undertaken training in accordance with the STCW Convention. For officers this involves the passing of an exam to receive a certificate of competency, the level of understanding and certification varies according to ship size.
All ranks are required to have undertaken generic maritime training, which involves time at sea and time in an approved college. International standards under the STCW Code set out the minimum requirements for training, however individual nations have their own maritime training regulations. For example, in the United Kingdom the Maritime and Coastguard Agency ensure that the deck department receive training and examinations in order to assume the responsibilities of their rank at sea. All seafarers of the deck department are required to have undertaken a series of short course training, in various elements under the STCW Convention; this includes general security and lifeboat training, as well as vessel-specific training, such as operations in the polar regions and on tankers. While the master or captain is in overall command of the ship, the chief mate is the head of the deck department; this involves administrative tasks such as scheduling work, quality control, coordinating with other departments, conflict resolution.
The chief mate compiles supply and cost control records, requisitions or purchases stores and equipment. Depending on the number of officers carried, he may not be a watch officer. If the ship carries a second mate and two third mates, he will be a dayworker, with a duty day from 0800 to 1700 ship's time. If only one third mate is carried, he will stand the 4 to 8 watch in addition to handling his executive duties; the ship's other deck officers a second mate and third mate, are members of the deck department. Each watchstanding officer is responsible for the unlicensed crewmen on his watch. In a four-mate ship where the chief mate is a dayworker, the second mate will stand the 4 to 8 watch, because sunrise and sunset fall on that watch. In the days before satellite navigation systems, the second mate shot morning and evening star fixes to determine the ship's position; the second mate is responsible for maintaining the ship's charts and navigational publications, the ship's gyrocompass, all navigational gear.
He keeps the log extract for each voyage used by company management as a short form "howgozit" sheet, covering time at sea, time under pilotage, time in port, types and tonnages of cargoes moved. The two third mates are called the senior third and the junior third; the senior third mate stands the junior third the 8 to 12 watch. While on duty, they are responsible for handling the ship and fixing its position by shooting sun lines, taking hourly fixes from the satellite navigation gear, piloting the ship in coastal waters. See also: First lieutenant § U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast GuardIn the military, the deck department comprises sailors who perform a variety of functions depending on ship type and size. Examples include maintenance and upkeep of the ship, handling of the ship's rigging and ground tackle, coordination of underway replenishment operations, conductance of minesweeping operations and operation of the ship's boats, supervision of diving and salvage operations, serving as shipboard seamanship specialists.
Undesignated seamen, or those who have not selected a rating, are the most junior sailors on board and are sent to the deck department for their first assignment. Engine department
An identity document is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is called an identity card, or passport card; some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID. In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver's license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification; some countries do not accept driver's licenses for identification because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification; some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or a national identity card from their country available at any time if they do not have a residence permit in the country.
The identity document is used to connect a person to information about the person in a database. The photo and the possession of it is used to connect the person with the document; the connection between the identity document and information database is based on personal information present on the document, such as the bearer's full name, birth date, address, an identification number, card number, gender and more. A unique national identification number is the most secure way, but some countries lack such numbers or don't write them on identity documents. A version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414. For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document. Photographic identification appeared in 1876 but it did not become used until the early 20th century when photographs became part of passports and other ID documents such as driver's licenses, all of which came to be referred to as "photo IDs".
Both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal. The shape and size of identity cards were standardized in 1985 by ISO/IEC 7810; some modern identity documents are smart cards including a difficult-to-forge embedded integrated circuit that were standardized in 1988 by ISO/IEC 7816. New technologies allow identity cards to contain biometric information, such as a photograph. Electronic identity cards are available in countries including Belgium, Chile, Finland, Hong Kong, Morocco, Portugal and Slovakia. Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier and therefore support the universal adoption of identity cards. In countries that don't have a national identity card, there is, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards. In many countries – English-speaking countries such as Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States – there are no government-issued compulsory identity cards for all citizens.
Ireland's Public Services Card is not considered a national identity card by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection, but many say it is in fact becoming that, without public debate or a legislative foundation. There is debate in these countries about whether such cards and their centralised database constitute an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. A 2006 survey of UK Open University students concluded that the planned compulsory identity card under the Identity Cards Act 2006 coupled with a central government database generated the most negative response among several alternative configurations. None of the countries listed above mandate possession of identity documents, but they have de facto equivalents since these countries still require proof of identity in many situations. For example, all vehicle drivers must have a driving licence, young people may need to use specially issued "proof of age cards" when purchasing alcohol.
In addition, uniquely amongst native English speaking countries without ID cards, the USA requires all its male residents between the ages of 18 and 25, including foreigners, to register for military conscription. Arguments for identity documents as such: In order to avoid mismatching people, to fight fraud, there should be a way, as securely as possible, to prove a person's identity; every human being carries their own personal identification in the form of DNA, hard to falsify or to discard. For non-state commercial and private interactions, this may shortly become the preferred identifier, rendering a state-issued identity card a lesser evil than the extensive privacy risks associated with everyday use of a person's genetic profile for identification purposes. Arguments for national identity documents: If using only private alternatives, such as id cards issued by banks, the inherent lack of consistency regarding issuance policies can lead to downstream problems. For example, in Sweden private companies such as banks refused to issue ID cards to individuals without a Swedish card.
This forced the government
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort, or organization through subversion, disruption, or destruction. One who engages in sabotage is a saboteur. Saboteurs try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their actions. Any unexplained adverse condition might be sabotage. Sabotage is sometimes called tampering, tinkering, malicious pranks, malicious hacking, a practical joke, or the like to avoid needing to invoke legal and organizational requirements for addressing sabotage. A popular but false account of the origin of the term's present meaning is the story that less wealthy workers in France, who wore not leather but wooden shoes, used to throw these sabots into the machines to disrupt production; this account is not supported by the etymology. Rather, the French source word means to "walk noisily", as was done by sabot-wearing labourers, who interrupted production by means of labor disputes, not damage. One of its first appearances in French literature is in the Dictionnaire du Bas-Langage ou manières de parler usitées parmi le peuple of D'Hautel, edited in 1808.
The verb "saboter" is found in 1873–1874 in the Dictionnaire de la langue française of Émile Littré. But it is at the end of the 19th century that it began to be used with the meaning of "deliberately and maliciously destroying property" or "working slower". In 1897, Émile Pouget, a famous syndicalist and anarchist wrote "action de saboter un travail" in Le Père Peinard and in 1911 he wrote a book entitled Le Sabotage. At the inception of the Industrial Revolution, skilled workers such as the Luddites used sabotage as a means of negotiation in labor disputes. Labor unions such as the Industrial Workers of the World have advocated sabotage as a means of self-defense and direct action against unfair working conditions; the IWW was shaped in part by the industrial unionism philosophy of Big Bill Haywood, in 1910 Haywood was exposed to sabotage while touring Europe: The experience that had the most lasting impact on Haywood was witnessing a general strike on the French railroads. Tired of waiting for parliament to act on their demands, railroad workers walked off their jobs all across the country.
The French government responded by drafting the strikers into the army and ordering them back to work. Undaunted, the workers carried their strike to the job, they could not seem to do anything right. Perishables sat for weeks and forgotten. Freight bound for Paris was misdirected to Marseille instead; this tactic — the French called it "sabotage" — won the strikers their demands and impressed Bill Haywood. For the IWW, sabotage's meaning expanded to include the original use of the term: any withdrawal of efficiency, including the slowdown, the strike, working to rule, or creative bungling of job assignments. One of the most severe examples was at the construction site of the Robert-Bourassa Generating Station in 1974, in Québec, when workers used bulldozers to topple electric generators, damaged fuel tanks, set buildings on fire; the project was delayed a year, the direct cost of the damage estimated at $2 million CAD. The causes were not clear, but three possible factors have been cited: inter-union rivalry, poor working conditions, the perceived arrogance of American executives of the contractor, Bechtel Corporation.
Certain groups turn to destruction of property to stop environmental destruction or to make visible arguments against forms of modern technology they consider detrimental to the environment. The U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement agencies use the term eco-terrorist when applied to damage of property. Proponents argue that since property cannot feel terror, damage to property is more described as sabotage. Opponents, by contrast, point out that property operators can indeed feel terror; the image of the monkey wrench thrown into the moving parts of a machine to stop it from working was popularized by Edward Abbey in the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang and has been adopted by eco-activists to describe destruction of earth damaging machinery. From 1992 to late 2007 a radical environmental activist movement known as ELF or Earth Liberation Front engaged in a near constant campaign of decentralized sabotage of any construction projects near wild lands and extractive industries such as logging and the burning down of a ski resort of Vail Colorado.
ELF used sabotage tactics in loose coordination with other environmental activist movements to physically delay or destroy threats to wild lands as the political will developed to protect the targeted wild areas that ELF engaged. In war, the word is used to describe the activity of an individual or group not associated with the military of the parties at war, such as a foreign agent or an indigenous supporter, in particular when actions result in the destruction or damaging of a productive or vital facility, such as equipment, dams, public services, storage plants or logistic routes. Prime examples of such sabotage are the events of the Kingsland Explosion. Like spies, saboteurs who conduct a military operation in civilian clothes or enemy uniforms behind enemy lines are subject to prosecution and criminal penalties instead of detention as prisoners of war, it is common for a government in power during war or supporters of the war policy to use the term loosely against opponents of the war.
German nationalists spoke of a stab in the back having cost them the loss of World War I. A modern form of sabotage is the distribution of software intended to damage specific industrial systems. For example, the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency is alleged to have sabotaged a Siberian p
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Merchant Mariner Credential
The Merchant Mariner Credential is a credential issued by the United States Coast Guard in accordance with guidelines of the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to United States seafarers in order to show evidence of a mariner's qualifications. It will become the standard documentation required for all crew members of U. S. ships with a Gross Tonnage of over 100 and for all vessels required to operate with a licensed Master, regardless of size. As issued but still valid credentials expire, the MMC will replace the Merchant Mariner's Document, merchant mariner license, Certificate of Registry, STCW Certificate; the MMC contains professional qualification information listed on a merchant mariner license or Certificate of Registry as an officer endorsement, while information listed on a Merchant Mariner's Document would be included as a rating endorsement. STCW endorsements would still be listed as STCW endorsements; the combining of the mariner credentials was due to the recent requirement for U.
S. mariners to obtain the Transportation Worker Identification Credential, a biometric security card issued by the Transportation Security Administration that all workers in the transportation industry are required to obtain if their work involves access to a security-sensitive area. This reduces the number of documents needed to satisfy manning requirements from five to two: The TWIC and MMC. Newly accredited US mariners receive the MMC credential; the credential is obtained by applying by mail or in person to any of the 17 United States Coast Guard Regional Examination Centers in the United States. Previous to April 15, 2009, applications for credentials still had to be made in person at an REC to provide fingerprints and proof of identity. Now, TSA collects the fingerprints and proof of identity and forwards the information to the Coast Guard's National Maritime Center. Mariners have to visit a Regional Exam Center; the first Merchant Mariner Credential was issued on May 7, 2009, at a meeting of the Towing Safety Advisory Committee.
The new credential has been criticized by several groups. One organization says that the consolidation reduces the merchant marine officer license, a certificate of professional achievement and status, into a work permit. Another group suggests that the consolidation, together with STCW requirements, the coming TWIC requirement, new physical evaluation standards, have stressed the skilled labor pool, pose too much of an administrative burden, threaten mariner recruitment and retention; the MMC is in the format of a traditional passport book. Like a passport, the cover is imprinted with the Great Seal of the United States and the text United States of America. Unlike a passport, the cover is red-maroon in color and the text Merchant Mariner Credential appears in place of Passport; the cover does not hold a contactless smart card chip as do newer biometric passports. The MMC has twenty pages, exclusive of the front and back covers, sequentially numbered like the visa pages of a passport. Basic identity document data is page 3.
The MMC is not a passport, but it is a Seafarer's Identity Document and the format of the data page complies with the ICAO Machine Readable Travel Documents specifications for machine-readable passports. Rather than the document type of P used with US government issued passports, a document type of PG is used for MMCs. License information in the form of domestic and international endorsements begin on page 4 of the MMC and continue as many pages required to list competencies held by the mariner. Domestic and International license; when the mariner gain a new competency while holding an valid MMC, the new competency is printed on a sticker, placed on the next available blank page in the MMC, much like a visa in a passport. Thus new MMCs are only produced for original and renewals; the mariner's reference number and the MMC's serial number are printed on the bottom of every page containing endorsement information and on all stickers issued to be added. The endorsement pages are overprinted with a transparent plastic'watermark' with the words'Merchant Mariner Credential' and the seal of the United States.
MMC serial numbers are nine digits long, as required for a passport book, padded with leading zeros. As of December 2011, about 134,000 serial numbers had been used; the MMC has a clear plastic holder for the mariner's TWIC card on the inside of the back cover. The MMC is considered a form of REAL ID and is therefore accepted as proof of identity by the TSA. Merchant Mariner's Document STCW Transportation Worker Identification Credential United States Merchant Marine United States Coast Guard USCG National Maritime Center - Official website for MMC info U. S. Coast Guard's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the Merchant Mariner Credential