Hormel Foods Corporation is an American food products company founded 1891 in Austin, Minnesota, by George A. Hormel as George A. Hormel & Company. Focusing on the packaging and selling of ham, SPAM, sausage and other pork, chicken and lamb products to consumers; the company changed its name to Hormel Foods in 1993. Hormel serves 80 countries with brands such as Applegate, Columbus Craft Meats, Dinty Moore, Jennie-O and Skippy; the company was founded as George A. Hormel & Company in Austin by George A. Hormel in 1891, it changed its name to Hormel Foods in 1993. George A. Hormel worked in a Chicago slaughterhouse before hide buyer, his travels took him to Austin and he decided to settle there, borrow $500, open a meat business. Hormel handled the production side of the business and his partner, Albert Friedrich, handled the retail side, their partnership dissolved in 1891 as Hormel started his own meat packing operation in northeast Austin in a creamery building on the Cedar River. To make ends meet in those early days, Hormel continued to trade in hides, eggs and poultry.
The name Dairy Brand was first used in 1903. In the first decade of the 20th century distribution centers were opened in St. Paul, Duluth, San Antonio, Chicago and Birmingham. In 1915 Hormel began selling dry sausages under the names of Cedar Cervelat and Noxall Salami. Hormel products began appearing in national magazines such as Good Housekeeping as early as 1916. In 1921, when George's son Jay Hormel returned from service in WWI, he uncovered that assistant controller Cy Thomson had embezzled $1,187,000 from the company over the previous ten years; the embezzlement scandal provided George Hormel with additional incentive to fortify his company. He did so by arranging for more reliable capital management, by dismissing unproductive employees, by continuing to develop new products with the mantra “Originate, don't imitate." In 1926, the company introduced Hormel Flavor-Sealed Ham, America's first canned ham, added a canned chicken product line in 1928. Throughout the 1930s, Hormel ads were featured on the radio program The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show.
Hormel Chili and Spam were introduced in 1937 respectively. In 1938, Jay C. Hormel introduced the "Joint Savings Plan" which allowed employees to share in the proceeds of the company. In 1933, led by itinerant butcher Frank Ellis, formed the Independent Union of All Workers and conducted one of the nation's first successful sit-down strikes. By 1942, George and Jay established The Hormel Foundation to act as trustees of the family trusts; the Foundation funded the Hormel Institute at the University of Minnesota started with a study of the food value of soybeans. The Institute's scope grew towards studying nutrition, animal diseases and food technology. Hormel's production increased to aid in World War II and 65% of its products were purchased by the U. S. government by 1945. In 1959, Hormel was the first meatpacker to receive the Seal of Approval of the American Humane Society for its practice of anesthetizing animals before slaughter. Little Sizzlers sausages were introduced in 1961 and Cure 81 hams were introduced in 1963.
Not-So-Sloppy-Joe Sloppy Joe sauce made its debut in 1985. In 1986, Hormel Foods acquired Jennie-O Foods and began an exclusive licensing arrangement to produce Chi-Chi's brand products; the following year, Hormel Foods introduced the Top Shelf line of microwavable non-frozen products. The company added to their poultry offerings by purchasing Chicken by George, created by former Miss America Phyllis George, in 1988; that same year, Hormel Foods introduced microwave bacon. In 1984 Hormel introduced the Stuff brand of stuffed hot dogs. In August 1985, Hormel workers went on strike at the Hormel headquarters in Minnesota. In the early 1980s, recession impacted several meatpacking companies, decreasing demand and increasing competition which led smaller and less-efficient companies to go out of business. In an effort to keep plants from closing, many instituted wage cuts. Wilson Food Company declared bankruptcy in 1983, allowing them to cut wages from $10.69 to $6.50 and reduce benefits. Hormel Foods had avoided such drastic action.
Workers had labored under a wage freeze and dangerous working conditions, leading to many cases of repetitive strain injury. When management demanded a 23% wage cut from the workers they decided to begin the strike, it became one of the longest strikes of the 1980s. The local chapter of the United Food and Commercial Workers Union, Local P-9, led the strike, but was not supported by their parent union; the strike gained national attention and led to a publicized boycott of Hormel products. The strike ended in June 1986, after lasting 10 months; the SPAM Museum in Austin, was opened in 2001. That same year, Hormel Foods acquired The Turkey Store, the business was combined with Jennie-O Foods to form Jennie-O Turkey Store. According to Triple Pundit, Hormel Foods began CSR reporting in 2006; the company has been included in Corporate Responsibility magazine's list of the "100 best corporate citizens" for 10 consecutive years. In 2008 an article in the New York Times, "SPAM Turns Serious and Hormel Turns Out More," detailed an overwhelming spike in the demand for SPAM due to the flagging economy.
In 2009 Hormel and Herdez del Fuerte created the joint venture MegaMex Foods to market and distribute Mexican food in the United States. Brand
American Refrigerator Transit Company
The American Refrigerator Transit Company was a St. Louis, Missouri-based private refrigerator car line established in 1881 by the Missouri Pacific and Wabash railroads, it is now a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Corporation. American Refrigerator Transit Company, 1900–1970: *estimated. Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 16. Green, Gene "Refrigerator Car Color Guide", Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. ISBN 1-58248-165-2. White, John W.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632
A credit card is a payment card issued to users to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the other agreed charges. The card issuer creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance. A credit card is different from a charge card, which requires the balance to be repaid in full each month. In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers to build a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card differs from a cash card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card. A credit card differs from a charge card in that a credit card involves a third-party entity that pays the seller and is reimbursed by the buyer, whereas a charge card defers payment by the buyer until a date; the size of most credit cards is 85.60 mm × 53.98 mm and rounded corners with a radius of 2.88–3.48 mm, conforming to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard, the same size as ATM cards and other payment cards, such as debit cards.
Credit cards have a printed or embossed bank card number complying with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard. The card number's prefix, called the Bank Identification Number, is the sequence of digits at the beginning of the number that determine the bank to which a credit card number belongs; this is the first six digits for Visa cards. The next nine digits are the individual account number, the final digit is a validity check code. Both of these standards are maintained and further developed by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17/WG 1. Credit cards have a magnetic stripe conforming to the ISO/IEC 7813. Many modern credit cards have a computer chip embedded in them as a security feature. In addition to the main credit card number, credit cards carry issue and expiration dates, as well as extra codes such as issue numbers and security codes. Not all credit cards do they use the same number of digits. Credit card numbers were embossed to allow easy transfer of the number to charge slips. With the decline of paper slips, some credit cards are no longer embossed and in fact the card number is no longer in the front.
The concept of using a card for purchases was described in 1887 by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. Bellamy used the term credit card eleven times in this novel, although this referred to a card for spending a citizen's dividend from the government, rather than borrowing, making it more similar to a Debit card. Charge coins and other similar items were used from the late 19th century to the 1930s, they came in various sizes. Each charge coin had a little hole, enabling it to be put in a key ring, like a key; these charge coins were given to customers who had charge accounts in department stores, so on. A charge coin had the charge account number along with the merchant's name and logo; the charge coin offered a simple and fast way to copy a charge account number to the sales slip, by imprinting the coin onto the sales slip. This sped the process of copying done by handwriting, it reduced the number of errors, by having a standardized form of numbers on the sales slip, instead of various kind of handwriting style.
Because the customer's name was not on the charge coin anyone could use it. This sometimes led to a case of mistaken identity, either accidentally or intentionally, by acting on behalf of the charge account owner or out of malice to defraud both the charge account owner and the merchant. Beginning in the 1930s, merchants started to move from charge coins to the newer Charga-Plate; the Charga-Plate, developed in 1928, was an early predecessor of the credit card and was used in the U. S. from the 1930s to the late 1950s. It was a 2 1/2" × 1 1/4" rectangle of sheet metal related to military dog tag systems, it was embossed with the customer's name and state. It held a small paper card on its back for a signature. In recording a purchase, the plate was laid into a recess in the imprinter, with a paper "charge slip" positioned on top of it; the record of the transaction included an impression of the embossed information, made by the imprinter pressing an inked ribbon against the charge slip. Charga-Plate was a trademark of Farrington Manufacturing Co.
Charga-Plates were issued by large-scale merchants to their regular customers, much like department store credit cards of today. In some cases, the plates were kept in the issuing store rather than held by customers; when an authorized user made a purchase, a clerk retrieved the plate from the store's files and processed the purchase. Charga-Plates speeded back-office bookkeeping and reduced copying errors that were done manually in paper ledgers in each store. In 1934, American Airlines and the Air Transport Association simplified the process more with the advent of the Air Travel Card, they created a numbering scheme that identified the issuer of the card as well as the customer account. This is the reason the modern UATP cards still start with the number 1. With an Air Travel Card, passengers could "buy now, pay later" for a ticket against their credit and receive a fifteen percent discount at any of the accepting airlines. By the 1940s, all of the major U. S. airlines offered Air Travel Cards.
By 1941, about half of the airlines' revenues came through the Air Travel Card agreement. The airlines had started offering i
New York Central Railroad
The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad connected greater New York and Boston in the east with Chicago and St. Louis in the Midwest along with the intermediate cities of Albany, Cleveland and Detroit. New York Central was headquartered in New York City's New York Central Building, adjacent to its largest station, Grand Central Terminal; the railroad was established in 1853. In 1968 the NYC merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. Penn Central went bankrupt in 1970 and merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail was broken up in 1998, portions of its system were transferred to CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway, with CSX acquiring most of the old New York Central trackage. Extensive trackage existed in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and West Virginia plus additional trackage in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. At the end of 1925, the NYC operated 26,395 miles of track; the railroad was formed in 1853 through a consolidation of earlier independent companies running between Albany and Buffalo: The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the oldest segment of the NYC merger and was the first permanent railroad in the state of New York and one of the first railroads in the United States.
It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany. The Mohawk and Hudson opened on September 24, 1831, changed its name to the Albany and Schenectady Railroad on April 19, 1847; the Utica and Schenectady Railroad was chartered April 29, 1833. Revenue service began August 2, 1836, extending the line of the Albany and Schenectady Railroad west from Schenectady along the north side of the Mohawk River, opposite the Erie Canal, to Utica. On May 7, 1844 the railroad was authorized to carry freight with some restrictions, on May 12, 1847 the ban was dropped, but the company still had to pay the equivalent in canal tolls to the state; the Syracuse and Utica Railroad was chartered May 1, 1836, had to pay the state for any freight displaced from the canal. The full line opened July 1839, extending the line further to Syracuse via Rome.
This line was not direct, going out of its way to stay near the Erie Canal and serve Rome, so the Syracuse and Utica Direct Railroad was chartered January 26, 1853. Nothing of that line was built, though the West Shore Railroad, acquired by the NYC in 1885, served the same purpose; the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad was chartered May 1, 1834, opened in 1838, the remaining 4 miles opening on June 4, 1839. A month with the opening of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad, this formed a complete line from Albany west via Syracuse to Auburn, about halfway to Geneva; the Auburn and Rochester Railroad was chartered May 13, 1836, as a further extension via Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, opening on November 4, 1841. The two lines merged on August 1850, to form the rather indirect Rochester and Syracuse Railroad. To fix this, the Rochester and Syracuse Direct Railway was chartered and merged into the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad on August 6, 1850; that line opened June 1, 1853, running much more directly between those two cities parallel to the Erie Canal.
The Tonawanda Railroad, to the west of Rochester, was chartered April 24, 1832 to build from said city to Attica. The first section, from Rochester southwest to Batavia, opened May 5, 1837, the rest of the line to Attica opened on January 8, 1843; the Attica and Buffalo Railroad chartered in 1836 and opened on November 24, 1842, running from Buffalo east to Attica. When the Auburn and Rochester Railroad opened in 1841, there was no connection at Rochester to the Tonawanda Railroad, but with that exception there was now an all-rail line between Buffalo and Albany. On March 19, 1844, the Tonawanda Railroad was authorized to build the connection, it opened that year; the Albany and Schenectady Railroad bought all the baggage and emigrant cars of the other railroads between Albany and Buffalo on February 17, 1848, began operating through cars. On December 7, 1850, the Tonawanda Railroad and Attica and Buffalo Railroad merged to form the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad. A new direct line opened from Buffalo east to Batavia on April 26, 1852, the old line between Depew and Attica was sold to the Buffalo and New York City Railroad on November 1.
The line was added to the New York and Erie Railroad system and converted to the Erie's 6 ft broad gauge. The Schenectady and Troy Railroad was chartered in 1836 and opened in 1842, providing another route between the Hudson River and Schenectady, with its Hudson River terminal at Troy; the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was incorporated April 24, 1834 to run from Lockport on the Erie Canal west to Niagara Falls. On December 14, 1850, it was reorganized as the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad, an extension east to Rochester opened on July 1, 1852; the railroad was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad under the act of 1853. A portion of the line is operate
GATX Corporation is an equipment finance company based in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1898, GATX's primary activities consist of railcar operating leasing in North America and Europe. In addition, GATX leases locomotives in North America, has significant investments in industrial equipment and marine assets, including ownership of the American Steamship Company, which operates on the Great Lakes; the CEO/Chairman is Brian A. Kenney. GATX Corporation is divided into four business segments: Rail North America, Rail International, American Steamship Company, Portfolio Management. Portfolio Management consists of the corporation's non-rail and non-Great Lakes assets. GATX is one of several major North American rail operating lessors, measured by fleet size, ranks as number two in this market behind GE Rail Services. Other major North American rail operating lessors include CIT, First Union, Union Tank Car Company, Trinity Industries Leasing, ARL, Helm Financial. GATX derives its name from its primary reporting mark for its North American railcars, "GATX".
The mark itself was derived from GATX's prior corporate name, "General American Transportation Corporation". History includes GATX working with famous designer Russel Wright to develop "Meladur", a famous melamine dinnerware from 1943-1945, using Melmac by American Cyanamid, to be used on passenger cars and in hospitals marked with the name "General American". Since all non-railroad owners of railcars must append an "X" to the end of their mark, GAT became GATX. GATX applies the GATX mark to tank cars, although the mark has been used in other examples such as with hoppers. GATX owns a number of other marks, including GABX, GAEX, GFSX, GOHX, GSCX, IPSX, TRIX. Many GATX cars carry a large "GATX" logo in the upper right-hand corner of the car regardless of the reporting mark they carry; the General American Transportation Corporation became GATX Rail Corporation, a unit of the GATX Corporation, on January 1, 2000. GATX engages in both net leasing of railcars. In a full-service lease, a GATX-owned mark is applied to the car, GATX maintains the railcar and pays for any required property insurance and property taxes.
In a net lease, the lessee applies its mark to the car, the lessee pays for any required property insurance and property taxes. On a net-leased car, there is no evidence of GATX ownership, although some net lease cars carry a GATX logo; the most common type of car in the GATX North American fleet is the tank car. GATX invests in nearly every type of railcar operated in North America. In Europe, tank cars make up GATX's largest fleet, but unlike in North America, GATX's European fleet includes substantial quantities of intermodal cars which are owned in a GATX joint venture called AAE Cargo. In contrast, GATX's North American intermodal car fleet is small; this is true of most North American operating lessors. GATX official website
Cornelius Vanderbilt was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping. Born poor and having only a mediocre education, Vanderbilt worked his way into leadership positions in the inland water trade and invested in the growing railroad industry. Nicknamed "The Commodore", he is known for owning the New York Central Railroad, his biographer says, "He vastly improved and expanded the nation's transportation infrastructure, contributing to a transformation of the geography of the United States. He embraced new technologies and new forms of business organization, used them to compete.... He helped to create the corporate economy that would define the United States into the 21st century." As one of the richest Americans in history and wealthiest figures overall, Vanderbilt was the patriarch of a wealthy, influential family. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University in Tennessee. According to historian H. Roger Grant: "Contemporaries, too hated or feared Vanderbilt or at least considered him an unmannered brute.
While Vanderbilt could be a rascal and cunning, he was much more a builder than a wrecker being honorable and hard-working." Cornelius Vanderbilt's great-great-grandfather, Jan Aertson or Aertszoon, was a Dutch farmer from the village of De Bilt in Utrecht, who emigrated to New Amsterdam as an indentured servant in 1650. The Dutch van der was added to Aertson's village name to create "van der Bilt"; this was condensed to Vanderbilt. Cornelius Vanderbilt was born in Staten Island, New York on May 27, 1794 to Cornelius van Derbilt and Phebe Hand, he began working on his father's ferry in New York Harbor as a boy, quitting school at the age of 11. At the age of 16, Vanderbilt decided to start his own ferry service. According to one version of events, he borrowed $100 from his mother to purchase a periauger, which he christened the Swiftsure. However, according to the first account of his life, published in 1853, the periauger belonged to his father and the younger Vanderbilt received half the profit.
He began his business by ferrying freight and passengers on a ferry between Staten Island and Manhattan. Such was his energy and eagerness in his trade that other captains nearby took to calling him The Commodore in jest – a nickname that stuck with him all his life. While many Vanderbilt family members had joined the Episcopal Church, Cornelius Vanderbilt remained a member of the Moravian Church to his death. Along with other members of the Vanderbilt family, he helped erect a local Moravian parish church in his city. On December 19, 1813, at age 19 Vanderbilt married his first cousin, Sophia Johnson, daughter of Nathaniel Johnson and Elizabeth Hand, they moved into a boarding house on Broad Street in Manhattan. They had 13 children together: Phebe in 1814, Ethelinda in 1817, Eliza in 1819, William in 1821, Emily in 1823, Sophia in 1825, Maria in 1827, Frances in 1828, Cornelius Jeremiah in 1830, George in 1832, Mary in 1834, Catherine in 1836, another son named George in 1839. In addition to running his ferry, Vanderbilt bought his brother-in-law John De Forest's schooner Charlotte and traded in food and merchandise in partnership with his father and others.
But on November 24, 1817, a ferry entrepreneur named Thomas Gibbons asked Vanderbilt to captain his steamboat between New Jersey and New York. Although Vanderbilt kept his own businesses running, he became Gibbons's business manager; when Vanderbilt entered his new position, Gibbons was fighting against a steamboat monopoly in New York waters, granted by the New York State Legislature to the politically influential patrician Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton, who had designed the steamboat. Though both Livingston and Fulton had died by the time Vanderbilt started working for Gibbons, the monopoly was held by Livingston's heirs, they had granted a license to Aaron Ogden to run a ferry between New Jersey. Gibbons launched his steamboat venture because of a personal dispute with Ogden, whom he hoped to drive into bankruptcy. To accomplish this, he undercut prices and brought a landmark legal case – Gibbons v. Ogden – to the United States Supreme Court to overturn the monopoly. Working for Gibbons, Vanderbilt learned to operate a complicated business.
He moved with his family to New Brunswick, New Jersey, a stop on Gibbons' line between New York and Philadelphia. There his wife Sophia operated a profitable inn, using the proceeds to feed and educate their children. Vanderbilt proved a quick study in legal matters, representing Gibbons in meetings with lawyers, he went to Washington, D. C. to hire Daniel Webster to argue the case before the Supreme Court. Vanderbilt appealed his own case against the monopoly to the Supreme Court, next on the docket after Gibbons v. Ogden; the Court never heard Vanderbilt's case, because on March 2, 1824, it ruled in Gibbons' favor, saying that states had no power to interfere with interstate commerce. The case is still considered a landmark ruling; the protection of competitive interstate commerce is considered the basis for much of the prosperity which the United States has generated. After Thomas Gibbons died in 1826, Vanderbilt worked for Gibbons' son William until 1829. Though he had always run his own businesses on the side, he now worked for himself.
Step by step, he started lines between the surrounding region. First he took over Gibbons' ferry to New Jersey switched to western Long Island Sound. In 1831, he took over his brother Jacob's line to Peekskill, New York, on the lower H
An autorack known as an auto carrier, is a specialized piece of railroad rolling stock used to transport automobiles and light trucks. Autoracks are used to transport new vehicles from factories to automotive distributors, to transport passengers' vehicles in car shuttles and motorail services, such as Amtrak's Auto Train route. In the early 20th century, when automobiles were still new technology, their production levels were low enough that they could be shipped in sufficient quantities in boxcars. Two to four automobiles would fit into one boxcar, but as the automobile industry grew in size, railroads found that they needed to modify the boxcars for more efficient loading. Some modifications included longer boxcars, larger sliding double side doors located near one end of the boxcar, or doors located on the boxcar ends; these modifications helped, but the demand for new automobiles outpaced the railroads' abilities to build and modify boxcars in which to ship them. In 1923, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad experimented with modifying a group of 61-foot -long wood-frame flat cars to increase their capacity by adding collapsible frames to allow for double-deck operation.
The concept therefore failed to gain acceptance. In the 1940s and 1950s, some railroads experimented with automobile-loading assemblies that would lift one or more automobiles above others within a boxcar; the success of these assemblies was limited due to specific size. By this time, in the United States, most circuses still traveled by rail. Circuses were major haulers of wheeled vehicles, carrying all of their vehicles on flat cars behind their own passenger cars or in separate sections of their trains; the circus solution to loading vehicles was to use a string of flatcars. A temporary ramp was placed at the end of the flatcars and temporary bridge plates spanned the gaps between adjacent flatcars; this type of vehicle loading became known as "circus style" due to its frequent use by circuses. In the 1950s, most railroads took the cue from circuses and started loading their own flatcars in this manner. But, loading up to six automobiles onto one flat car left a large amount of space above the vehicles, unused.
The natural solution was to take the temporary assemblies that were used to stack and load vehicles within boxcars and permanently attach them to the flatcars. The assemblies called racks, created two levels on which automobiles could be loaded. To complete the flatcar, foldaway bridges were added to the ends of the flatcar decks to allow the vehicles to be driven the entire length of a train for loading; such flatcars eliminated the need for specialized equipment to unload boxcar racks. All they needed now was a ramp at the right height. In the mid-1950s, in Germany, Volkswagen Beetle production was increasing beyond the capacity of highway trucks. Volkswagen engineers worked with German railroads to design a railroad car, an extra long version of a vehicle hauling trailer; the design they came up with was able to carry 10 vehicles on one car. VW's two-level flatcar design became the first autorack, entering service circa 1954. In 1954 Evans Products, a manufacturer of loading racks for carrying automobiles in conventional boxcars, developed a bi-level Auto-Loader superstructure with an elevating top deck capable of carrying six cars or light trucks on a typical flatcar.
Two prototype units were mounted on conventional 53 ft flat cars for field testing. NYC 500085 carried a semi-streamlined rack. Neither design went into commercial production. In late 1957, Canadian National introduced an innovative group of bi-level auto carriers; these CN cars were similar to conventional boxcars, except they had a second floor and doors at both ends of the car instead of the usual side doors. They were huge by the standards of the time; these cars helped lead to the development of today's enclosed auto racks. In 1959, when 85 ft flat cars capable of carrying two 40-foot highway trailers in trailer-on-flat-car, or "piggyback" service were introduced, new automobiles began to be shipped by rail loaded on highway auto-carrier trailers. Eight to ten autos could be carried per flat car in this manner. By 1960 several U. S. railroads were handling new automobiles in this way, including the CB&Q, C&NW, CRIP, D&H, D&RGW, ERIE/EL, GN, KCS, L&N, MILW, MKT, MP/TP, NP, SL-SF, SP, SSW, WAB and UP.
The New York Central, which used the Flexi-Van system of transporting only the highway trailer body without the wheel assembly, developed a Flexi-Van automobile carrier rack. Seeking a more efficient method, in February 1959 the Saint Louis-San Francisco Railroad designed and built a prototype bi-level rack mounted on 42-foot flat car SL-SF 95844. Satisfied that the basic concept was sound, the railroad contracted with Pullman-Standard to design and construct a full-size tri-level prototype; the result that rolled out of the Pullman plant on January 29, 1960 was SLSF 3000, an 83-foot tri-level car capable of carrying 12 automobiles. When testing proved the car satisfactory the Frisco ordered 130 production cars, SL-SF 3001–3130, delivered by Pullman that August and September. In 1960 the Frisco wasn't the only railroad experiment