Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling is a historic county and registration county of Scotland, based in Stirling, the county town. See Registers of Scotland, Land Register Counties and it borders Perthshire to the north, Clackmannanshire and West Lothian to the east, Lanarkshire to the south, and Dunbartonshire to the south-west. Stirling and Falkirk are still covered by the same lieutenancy area, until the 1890s the county had two small exclaves, part of the parish of Logie, which was surrounded by Perthshire, and the parish of Alva, locally in Clackmannanshire. The Perthshire part of Logie was added to Stirlingshire, while Alva was annexed by Clackmannanshire, the County Council of Stirling was granted a coat of arms by Lord Lyon King of Arms on 29 September 1890. The design of the arms commemorated the Scottish victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in the county, on the silver saltire on blue of St Andrew was placed the rampant red lion from the royal arms of Scotland. Around this were placed two caltraps and two spur-rowels recalling the use of the weapons against the English cavalry, on the abolition of the Local Government council in 1975, the arms were regranted to the Local Government Stirling District Council. They were regranted a second time in 1996 to the present Local Government Stirling Council, in 1130 Stirling, one of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, was created a Royal burgh by King David I. On 22 July 1298 the Battle of Falkirk saw the defeat of William Wallace by King Edward I of England, in 1314 the Battle of Bannockburn, Bannockburn, was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. It was one of the battles of the First War of Scottish Independence. On 11 June 1488 the Battle of Sauchieburn was fought at the side of Sauchie Burn, on 17 January 1746 the Battle of Falkirk Muir saw the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart defeat a government army commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Hawley. In 2001, according to the website of the General Register Office for Scotland, list of civil parishes in Scotland Civil parishes are still used for some statistical purposes, and separate census figures are published for them. As their areas have been unchanged since the 19th century this allows for comparison of population figures over an extended period of time. The remaining four burghs became small burghs, with limited powers, some Stirlingshire towns listed in the Registers of Scotland, Land Register Counties. In 1894 parish Local Government councils were established for the civil parishes, the Local Government parish councils were in turn superseded by Local Government district councils in 1930. In 1930 the parishes ceased to be used for government purposes. These Local Government districts were abolished in 1975, the Royal Burgh of Stirling formed part of the Stirling burghs constituency along with burghs in Fife and Perthshire. The Burgh of Falkirk formed part of Falkirk Burghs, along with burghs in Lanarkshire and Linlithgowshire, the remainder of the county returned a single member as the parliamentary county of Stirlingshire. The detached parish of Alva was annexed to the constituency of Clackmannanshire, in 1918 seats in the House of Commons were redistributed
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
East Stirlingshire F.C.
East Stirlingshire Football Club is a Scottish association football club based in the town of Falkirk. The club was founded in 1881 and competes in the Lowland Football League, the clubs origins can be traced to 1880 when a local cricket club formed a football team under the name Britannia, based in the village of Bainsford. The club was elected to the Scottish Football League in 1900–01 and has competed in the system for most of its existence. East Stirlingshire has won the tier of Scottish football once and finished runners-up once. The clubs highest league ranking came during the two seasons it competed in the top flight in 1932–33 and 1963–64. In 2016, East Stirlingshire became the first club ever to be relegated out of the league system. East Stirlingshire first entered in the Scottish Cup in 1882, its best result reaching the quarter-finals on three occasions, the last in 1981. The clubs best result in a cup competition was in the 2000–01 season when it reached the semi-finals of the Scottish Challenge Cup. In 2008, the club left Firs Park and moved to Ochilview Park to ground-share with local rivals Stenhousemuir, the clubs nickname is The Shire, which refers to the Stirlingshire part of the club name. In December 1883, the Stirlingshire Football Association was founded, with open to clubs exclusively from the county of Stirlingshire. It resulted in the establishment of a new tournament called the Stirlingshire Cup. East Stirlingshire dominated the tournament in its years, winning it for a record four years in a row between 1885 and 1889, including an emphatic 9–0 victory against Falkirk in the 1888 final. Two goals came from Lawrence McLachlan who was an influential goalscorer in the early successes. The latter years of the 19th century was East Stirlingshires most successful era in the Scottish Cup, in the 1888–89 and 1890–91 tournaments, the club reached the quarter-finals in what was to be the last time for 91 years, losing to Celtic and Hearts respectively. It was during this period that four East Stirlingshire players earned caps for their countries. The first was the Wales national team captain, Humphrey Jones, Three other players, David Alexander, Archibald Ritchie, and James McKie made appearances for the Scotland national team from 1891 to 1898. In March 1905, a proposal was raised for the club to merge with neighbours Falkirk with an aim to creating a bigger and more financially stable club, however, East Stirlingshires vote was not in favour and the club rejected the proposal. The club remained in Division Two until 1914–15 when it, at the end of World War I, the club was re-elected to the old Division Two which was re-established in the 1921–22 season
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Falkirk is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, historically within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley,23.3 miles north-west of Edinburgh and 20.5 miles north-east of Glasgow, Falkirk had a resident population of 32,422 at the 2001 census. The population of the town had risen to 34,570 according to a 2008 estimate, the town is at the junction of the Forth and Clyde and Union Canals, a location which proved key to its growth as a centre of heavy industry during the Industrial Revolution. In the 18th and 19th centuries Falkirk was at the centre of the iron and steel industry, the company was responsible for making carronades for the Royal Navy and later manufactured pillar boxes. In the last 50 years heavy industry has waned, and the economy relies increasingly on retail, despite this, Falkirk remains the home of many international companies like Alexander Dennis, the largest bus production company in the United Kingdom. Falkirk has an association with the publishing industry. The company now known as Johnston Press was established in the town in 1846, the company, now based in Edinburgh, produces the Falkirk Herald, the largest selling weekly newspaper in Scotland. Attractions in and around Falkirk include the Falkirk Wheel, The Helix, Callendar House and Park, in a 2011 poll conducted by STV, it was voted as Scotlands most beautiful town, ahead of Perth and Stirling in 2nd and 3rd place respectively. The Scottish Gaelic name was translated into Scots as Fawkirk, then amended to the modern English name of Falkirk. The Latin name Varia Capella also has the same meaning, Falkirk Old Parish Church stands on the site of the medieval church, which may have been founded as early as the 7th century. The Antonine Wall, which stretches across the centre of Scotland, passed through the town and remnants of it can be seen at Callendar Park. Much of the best evidence of Roman occupation in Scotland has been found in Falkirk, including a hoard of Roman coins. In the 18th century the area was the cradle of Scotlandss Industrial Revolution, james Watt cast some of the beams for his early steam engine designs at the Carron Iron Works in 1765. The area was at the forefront of construction when the Forth. The Union Canal provided a link to Edinburgh and early railway development followed in the 1830s and 1840s, the canals brought economic wealth to Falkirk and led to the towns growth. Through time, trunk roads and motorways followed the same canal corridors through the Falkirk area, many companies set up work in Falkirk due to its expansion. A large brickworks was set up at this time, owned by the Howie family. During the 19th century, Falkirk became the first town in Great Britain to have an automated system of street lighting, designed and implemented by a local firm
Forth and Clyde Canal
It is 35 miles long and it runs from the River Carron at Grangemouth to the River Clyde at Bowling, and had an important basin at Port Dundas in Glasgow. Successful in its day, it suffered as the vessels were built larger. The railway age further impaired the success of the canal, the final decision to close the canal in the mid 1960s was made due to maintenance costs of bridges crossing the canal exceeding the revenues it brought in. However, subsidies to the network were also a cause for its decline. The lack of political and financial foresight also removed a historical recreational waterway, unlike the majority of major canals the route through Grangemouth was drained and back filled to create a new carriageway for port traffic. The M8 motorway in the approaches to Glasgow took over some of the alignment of the canal. The eastern end of the canal is connected to the River Forth by a stretch of the River Carron near Grangemouth, the canal continues past Twechar, through Kirkintilloch and Bishopbriggs to the Maryhill area north of Glasgow city centre. A branch to Port Dundas was built to secure the agreement, the western end of the canal connects to the River Clyde at Bowling. In 1840, a 0.5 mile canal, the Forth and Cart Canal was built to link the Forth and Clyde canal, at Whitecrook, to the River Clyde, robert Whitworth, an engineer possessing a well earned reputation. The work was completed on the 28 July 1790 and this magnificent canal commences in the River Forth, in Grangemouth Harbour, and near to where the Carron empties itself into that river. The summit level is sixteen miles in length, and in the remainder of its course, there is a fall to low water, in the Clyde, at Bowlings Bay, of 156 feet, by nineteen locks. The branch to the Monkland Canal at Glasgow is two miles and three quarters, and there is cut into the Carron River, at Carron Shore. It is supplied water from reservoirs, one of which, at Kilmananmuir, is seventy acres, and 22 feet deep at the sluice. By 1812 they carried 44,000 passengers, taking receipts of more than £3450, from 1828 there was a steamboat service, operated by Thomas Grahames boat Cupid. The canal was designed by John Smeaton, construction started in 1768 and after delays due to funding problems was completed in 1790. The Union Canal was then constructed to link the eastern end of the canal to Edinburgh. In 1842 an Act of Parliament was obtained authorising the Caledonian Railway to take over the Forth and Clyde Canal along with the Forth and Cart Canal, in the meantime the Canal company itself had built a railway branch line to Grangemouth Dock, which it owned. The canal was nationalised in 1948, along with the railway companies, in 1962, the British Transport Commission was wound up, and control passed to the British Waterways Board, subsequently Scottish Canals took control