Battle of Vercellae
Much credit for this victory has been given to the actions of Proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catuluss legate, Lucius Cornelius Sulla who led the Roman and allied Italian cavalry. The Cimbri were virtually wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 140,000 and captured 60,000, some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling slaves in the Third Servile War. Traditionally most historians locate the settlement of the battle in or near the modern Vercelli, some historians think that vercellae is not a proper name and may refer to any mining area at the confluence of two rivers. At Borgo Vercelli, near the river Sesia,5 km from Vercelli, another suggested location is the hamlet of Roddi, in what is now the province of Cuneo, Piedmont. The 13,000 strong Cimbric cavalry rode onto the battlefield, behind them came the 197,000 strong infantry. According to Plutarch, Marius made a sacrifice to the gods. Marius washed his hands, and lifting them up to heaven, the Romans got into position first, therefore the sun would be reflecting off the Romans armor.
The Cimbri thought the sky was on fire, sensing their sudden anxiety, the Romans attacked. The Cimbri cavalry were completely by surprise by the Roman cavalry. The Roman legionaries engaged the Cimbri infantry, the Cimbri were very unnerved by this. Plutarch writes that the Romans now were able to slaughter the enemy with ease and his noblemen made a last stand in which they were all killed. The Romans had won a complete and stunning victory, the victory of Vercellae, following close on the heels of Marius destruction of the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae the previous year, put an end to Germanic plans to invade Rome. The Cimbri were virtually wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 140,000 and captured 60,000, children of the surviving captives may have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. Politically, this battle had great implications for Rome as well and it marked a continuation in the rivalry between Marius and Sulla, which would eventually lead to the first of Romes great civil wars.
As a reward for their gallant service, Marius granted Roman citizenship to his Italian allied soldiers, when some senators questioned this action, he would claim that in the heat of battle he could not distinguish the voice of Roman from ally from the voice of the law. Henceforth all Italian legions would be Roman legions, and Julius Caesar, when ordered by the Senate to lay down his command and return to Rome to face misconduct charges, would instead lead one of his legions across the Rubicon in 49 BC. This would mark the start of the war between himself and senatorial forces under Pompey which would effectively end the Roman Republic. Battle of Aquae Sextiae Sources Mommsen, History of Rome, Book IV The Revolution, Epitome rerum Romanarum, III, IV, partim Todd, The Barbarians, Goths and Vandals, pp 121–122
Jutland, known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, jutlands terrain is relatively flat, with open lands, heaths and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north and historically, Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. There are several subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still occasionally encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydvestjylland and Slesvig, Jutland was regulated by the Law Code of Jutland. This civic code covered the Jutland Peninsula from the north of the River Eider to Funen as well as the North Jutlandic Island. The Danish part of Jutland is currently divided into three regions, North Denmark Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark.
These three regions have an area of 29,775 km2, a population of 2,599,104. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord and this area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord, it is only partly co-terminous with the North Jutland region. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders, the Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight. Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c.450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England and this is thought by some to be related to the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the part of the Christian era.
Old Saxony was on referred to as Holstein, during the First World War, the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea west of Jutland was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the Imperial German Navy, the British fleet sustained greater losses, but remained in control of the North Sea, so in strategic terms, most historians regard Jutland either as a British victory or as indecisive. The distinctive Jutish dialects differ substantially from standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic, dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark, and Jutlander speech remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmarks five regions, namely the Region Nordjylland, Region Midtjylland and the half of Region of Southern Denmark
It is thus a comparative methodology that looks for equivalencies and shared characteristics. Interpretatio romana is comparative discourse in reference to ancient Roman religion and myth, both the Romans and the Gauls reinterpreted Gallic religious traditions in relation to Roman models, particularly Imperial cult. …The meaning of a deity is his or her character as it unfolded in myths, rites. This character makes a deity comparable to other deities with similar traits, the similarity of gods makes their names mutually translatable. … The practice of translating the names of the created a concept of similarity. Pliny the Elder expressed the translatability of deities as different names to different peoples and this capacity made possible the religious syncretism of the Hellenistic era and the pre-Christian Roman Empire. Herodotus was one of the earliest authors to engage in this form of interpretation, in his observations regarding the Egyptians, he establishes Greco-Egyptian equivalents that endured into the Hellenistic era, including Amon/Zeus, Osiris/Dionysus, and Ptah/Hephaestus.
Some pairs of Greek and Roman gods, such as Zeus and Jupiter, are thought to derive from a common Indo-European archetype, some deities dating to Romes oldest religious stratum, such as Janus and Terminus, had no Greek equivalent. Other Greek divine figures, most notably Apollo, were adopted directly into Roman culture, the phrase interpretatio romana was first used by the Imperial-era historian Tacitus in the Germania. Tacitus reports that in a grove of the Nahanarvali, a priest adorned as a woman presides. Elsewhere, he identifies the god of the Germans as Mercury. Some information about the deities of the ancient Gauls, who left no written literature other than inscriptions, is preserved by Greco-Roman sources under the names of Greek, a large number of Gaulish theonyms or cult titles are preserved, for instance, in association with Mars. As with some Greek and Roman divine counterparts, the similarities between a Gallic and a Roman or Greek deity may reflect a common Indo-European origin.
Lugh was identified with Mercury, Nodens with Mars as healer and protector, in some cases, however, a Gallic deity is given an interpretatio romana by means of more than one god, varying among literary texts or inscriptions. These tendencies extended to cross-cultural identifications, in the Eastern empire, the Anatolian storm god with his double-headed axe became Jupiter Dolichenus, a favorite cult figure among soldiers. Roman scholars such as Varro interpreted the monotheistic god of the Jews into Roman terms as Caelus or Jupiter Optimus Maximus, some Greco-Roman authors seem to have understood the Jewish invocation of Yahweh Sabaoth as Sabazius. Interpretatio germanica is the practice by the Germanic peoples of identifying Roman gods with the names of Germanic deities, according to Rudolf Simek, this occurred around the 1st century of the common era, when both cultures came into closer contact. This is the case with Saturn in some West Germanic languages, such as the English Saturday, the West Frisian Saterdei, the Low German Saterdag and the Dutch zaterdag all meaning Saturns day
Pliny the Elder
In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions. Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncles now missing work on the History of the German Wars. The wind caused by the sixth and largest pyroclastic surge of the eruption would not allow his ship to leave the shore, and Pliny probably died during this event. Plinys dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 and a statement of his nephew that he died in his 56th year, Pliny was the son of an equestrian, Gaius Plinius Celer, and his wife, Marcella. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names and their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription found in a field in Verona and recorded by the 16th century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. The reading of the inscription depends on the reconstruction, but in all cases the names come through, whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Jean Hardouin presents a statement from a source that he claims was ancient, that Pliny was from Verona.
Hardouin cites the conterraneity of Catullus, additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the scholar to use his unknown source. He kept statues of his ancestors there, a statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. He had a sister, who married into the Caecilii and was the mother of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, whose letters describe his work and study regimen in detail. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncles breakfasts would be light and simple following the customs of our forefathers. This shows that Pliny the Younger wanted it to be conveyed that Pliny the Elder was a good Roman and this statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory, one commemorates the youngers career as imperial magistrate and details his considerable charitable and municipal expenses on behalf of the people of Como.
Another identifies his father Lucius village as Fecchio near Como and it is likely therefore that Plinia was a local girl and Pliny the Elder, her brother, was from Como. Gaius was a member of the Plinii gens and he did not take his fathers cognomen, but assumed his own, Secundus. As his adopted son took the same cognomen, Pliny founded a branch, no earlier instances of the Plinii are known. In 59 BC, only about 82 years before Plinys birth, Julius Caesar founded Novum Comum as a colonia to secure the region against the Alpine tribes, whom he had been unable to defeat
Mainz is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. It was the capital of the Electorate of Mainz at the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city is famous as the home of the invention of the printing press. Until the twentieth century, Mainz was usually referred to in English by its French name, Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the west bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people, Mainz can easily be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway. Mainzs history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine river historically handling much of the regions waterborne cargo, todays huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town.
The river provides another positive effect, moderating Mainzs climate, after the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city. The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a reserve with a unique landscape. When the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC, the buildings near the Rhine River, historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. The Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus perhaps as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later, although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main river, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being perhaps due to diachronic analogy. Main is from Latin Menus, the name the Romans used for the river, linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name Mainz has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum.
The name appears to be Celtic and ultimately it is, however, it had become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its position at the confluence of the Main. The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river, the castrum was the base of Legio XIIII Gemina and XVI Gallica, XXII Primigenia, IIII Macedonica, I Adiutrix, XXI Rapax, and XIIII Gemina, among others. Mainz was a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica, remains of Roman troop ships and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in 2000 and is open to the public
Miltenberg is a town in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. It is the seat of the district and has a population of over 9,000. The old town lies on the Main’s left bank on the knee of the Mainviereck between the Spessart and Odenwald ranges. The historic centre, which stands on land, often sustained considerable damage in these floods. Only in the 21st century efficient flood control measures, most of all a wall, have reduced the adverse effects of these floods. Since about the beginning of the 20th century, after buying land from the community of Großheubach. In pre-Roman times, circular ramparts were built on the Greinberg above Miltenberg and these were in use as early as the Neolithic but mostly date from the late Bronze Age. In the 150s, the Roman Empire pushed outwards its fortified border in Germania, from Miltenberg on northwards, the river Main became the border. East of Miltenberg a fortified palisade stretched to the south and east towards Walldürn, two castra were established, the Altstadtkastell between Miltenberg and Kleinheubach to the north and the Kastell Miltenberg-Ost in the direction of Bürgstadt.
The former, which was built some years in advance of the overall change in the borderline, housed a cohort. In 190/1, this was the cohort I Sequanorum et Rauricorum equitata, in addition, a scout unit was based in the area, either in the Altstadtkastell or in a nearby separate fort. The cohort castrum likely was occupied until about 260, when the Romans abandoned this part of their border after heavy raids by Germanic tribes. The castrum was destroyed by the Alemanni, the Limes itself met the Main near the eastern castrum, Miltenberg-Ost which housed a Numerus, a smaller military unit. The exact line the wall followed for the first few kilometers near the Main is not known and this smaller fort was likely built in the 2nd century, probably soon after 150. It was in use at most until the middle of the 3rd century, during their presence, the Romans built at least two sanctuaries dedicated to Mercury on the Greinberg. After the withdrawal of the Romans from the area, the population declined. Burgundians and Alemanni moved through the lower Main region, but it was only under the Franks that the population density again rose noticeably and their settlements often did not simply grow out of the formerly Roman cores but included separate newly established sites.
Early Medieval settlers concentrated on the south of the former Altstadtkastell
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix
Tacitus says that physically, the Germanic peoples appear to be a distinct nation, not an admixture of their neighbors, as nobody would desire to migrate to a climate as horrid as that of Germania. They are divided into three branches, the Ingaevones, the Herminones and the Istaevones, deriving their ancestry from three sons of Mannus, son of Tuisto, their common forefather. He mentions that the opinions of women are given respect, Tacitus further discusses the role of women in Chapters 7 and 8, mentioning that they often accompany the men to battle and offer encouragement. He says that the men are highly motivated to fight for the women because of an extreme fear of losing them to captivity. He records that adultery is very rare, and that a woman is shunned afterward by the community regardless of her beauty. In Chapter 45 Tacitus mentions that the tribe to the north of the Germans, the latter chapters of the books describe the various Germanic tribes, their relative locations and some of their characteristics.
Many of the tribes named correspond with other records and traditions. Ethnography had a long and distinguished heritage in literature. Tacitus himself had written a similar—albeit shorter—essay on the lands. In writing the work, Tacitus might have wanted to stress the dangers that the Germanic tribes posed to the Empire, Tacitus descriptions of the Germanic character are at times favorable in contrast to the opinions of the Romans of his day. All of these traits were highlighted perhaps because of their similarity to idealized Roman virtues. g, the possibility that the Batavians may therefore have been Celtic-speaking. Tacitus nevertheless shows no lack of precision in stating that the Nervii are not actually Germanic as they claim to be and he notes in Chapter 43 that a certain tribe called the Cotini actually speaks a Gallic tongue, and likewise the Osi speak a Pannonian dialect. Tacitus himself had never travelled in the Germanic lands, all his information is second-hand at best, the defection of these peoples in the year 89 during Domitians war against the Dacians modified the whole frontier policy of the Empire.
All copies of Germania were lost during the Middle Ages and the work was forgotten until a manuscript was found in Hersfeld Abbey in 1425. It was brought to Italy, where Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Pope Pius II and this sparked interest among German humanists, including Conrad Celtes, Johannes Aventinus, and Ulrich von Hutten and beyond. Beginning in 16th-century German humanism, German interest in Germanic antiquity remained acute throughout the period of Romanticism and nationalism, a scientific angle was introduced with the development of Germanic philology by Jacob Grimm. Because of its influence on the ideologies of Pan-Germanism and Nordicism, christopher Krebs, a professor at Stanford University, claims in a 2012 study that Germania played a major role in the formation of the core concepts of Nazi ideology. The Codex Aesinas is believed to be portions of the Codex Hersfeldensis - the lost Germania manuscript brought to Rome from Hersfeld Abbey and it was rediscovered in 1902 by priest-philologist Cesare Annibaldi in the possession of Count Aurelio Balleani of Iesi
The Cimbri were an ancient people, either Germanic or Celtic who, together with the Teutones and the Ambrones, fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC. The Cimbri were initially successful, particularly at the Battle of Arausio, in which a large Roman army was routed, after which they raided areas in Gaul. In 101 BC, during an invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius. Some of the captives are reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War. Roman sources such as Strabo and Tacitus identify these Cimbri with a living in Jutland. Archaeologists have not found any clear indications of a migration from Jutland in the early Iron Age. Advocates for a northern point to Greek and Roman sources that associate the Cimbri with the peninsula of Jutland. On the map of Ptolemy, the Kimbroi are placed on the northernmost part of the peninsula of Jutland, I. e. in the modern landscape of Himmerland south of Limfjorden. Himmerland is generally thought to preserve their name, in a form without Grimms law.
Alternatively, Latin c- represents an attempt to render the unfamiliar Proto-Germanic h =, the origin of the name Cimbri is unknown. One etymology is PIE *tḱim-ro- inhabitant, from home, itself a derivation from tḱei- live, then. Because of the similarity of the names, the Cimbri have been at times associated with Cymry, this word is derived from Brittonic *Kombrogi, meaning “compatriots”, and is unrelated to Cimbri. The name has related to the word kimme meaning “rim”. Finally, since Antiquity, the name has been related to that of the Cimmerians, moreover, an assumption exists that the Cimbri as the Cimmerians too were an Iranian people. Some time before 100 BC many of the Cimbri, as well as the Teutons, after several unsuccessful battles with the Boii and other Celtic tribes, they appeared ca 113 BC in Noricum, where they invaded the lands of one of Romes allies, the Taurisci. Only a storm, which separated the combatants, saved the Roman forces from complete annihilation, now the road to Italy was open, but they turned west towards Gaul.
They came into frequent conflict with the Romans, who came out the losers. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico the Aduaticii—Belgians of Cimbrian origin—repeatedly sided with Romes enemies, in 109 BC, they defeated a Roman army under the consul Marcus Junius Silanus, who was the commander of Gallia Narbonensis
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms a source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life, the Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements. CIL refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and it was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the territory of the Roman Empire. The earlier volumes collected and published versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide range of publications. The language of the CIL is Latin, the leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen. Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible, the first volume appeared in 1853.
The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, thirteen supplementary volumes have plates and special indices. The other volumes cover other topics, volume XVII, for instance, is entirely devoted to milestones. A volume XVIII is planned, which contain the Carmina Latina Epigraphica. A two-volume Index of Numbers, correlating inscription numbers with numbers, was published in 2003. The Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL, epigraphy Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Prosopographia Imperii Romani Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. English translations of selected inscriptions from CIL. attalus. org
Histories is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus. 100–110, it covers the Year of Four Emperors following the downfall of Nero, the Histories and the Annals amounted to 30 books. Saint Jerome refers to these books explicitly, and about half of them have survived, although scholars disagree on how to assign the books to each work, fourteen are assigned to Histories and sixteen to the Annals. Tacitus friend Pliny the Younger referred to your histories when writing to Tacitus about the earlier work, by the time Tacitus had completed the Histories, it covered Roman history from AD69, following Neros death, to AD96, the end of Domitians reign. The Annals deals with the five decades before Nero, from AD14, the reign of Tiberius, to AD68, when Nero died. In one of the first chapters of the Agricola, Tacitus states that he wishes to speak about the years of Domitian, of Nerva, and of Trajan. In the Histories, the project has been modified, in the introduction, Tacitus says that he deal with the age of Nerva.
Instead, he covers the period started with the civil wars of the Year of Four Emperors. Only the first four books and the first 26 chapters of the book have survived, covering the year 69. The work is believed to have continued up to Domitians death on September 18,96, like Galba, came to the throne by senatorial designation, in Nervas case, after the violent death of the previous emperor, Domitian. Like Galba, Nerva had to deal with a revolt of Praetorians and like Galba, described by Tacitus as a feeble old man, had chosen a successor unable, due to his severity, to obtain the faith and the control of the troops. Nerva, had consolidated his power by making a link between the throne and Trajan, who was general of the Upper Rhine legions and popular throughout the army. It is probable that Tacitus was a member of the council in which Trajan was chosen to be adopted. In the first book of the Historiae, a put in the mouth of Galba makes clear Tacitus ideological and political position. Galbas pure respect for formality and lack of political realism rendered him unable to control events, Tacitus was sure that only the principatus could maintain peace, the fidelity of the armies, and the cohesion of the empire.
Discussing Augustus Caesars rise to power, Tacitus says that after the Battle of Actium, the prince ought not to be a tyrant, like Domitian, nor a fool, like Galba. He should be able to keep the safe, while saving the prestige. Tacitus, without any illusions, considered the rule of the adoptive Emperors the only solution to the problems of Empire
The Odenwald is a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse and Baden-Württemberg. The part south of the Neckar valley is called the Kleiner Odenwald. The northern and western Odenwald belong to southern Hesse, with the south stretching into Baden, in the northeast, a small part lies in Lower Franconia in Bavaria. The Odenwald, along other parts of the Central German Uplands, belongs to the Variscan. The cause of this orogeny was the collision of Africa’s and Europe’s forerunner continents, in the Triassic, about 200,000,000 years ago, the land sank again, forming the Germanic Basin in which the metre-thick layers of red sandstone could build up. These were covered over with layers of muschelkalk from an inland sea. The South German Cuesta Land thus formed, the bedrock here is made out of a remarkably great number of different minerals, among them gneiss, diorite, gabbro in the Frankenstein pluton, and so on. In the eastern Odenwald, the red sandstone is all that is left of the sedimentary mixture, farther east in the Bauland, the muschelkalk deposits still overlie the Early Triassic layers.
Furthermore, in the south near Heidelberg, there is still zechstein under the Early Triassic deposits, roughly 50 to 60 million years ago, volcanoes formed along the great geological faults. Still bearing witness to this time are the Otzberg, the Daumberg, vulcanism with acidic minerals has left a legacy of rhyolites near Dossenheim. At roughly the time, the Central European plate began to tear apart so that the Upper Rhine Rift developed. Even as the Upper Rhine Rift valley still sinks today by just under a millimetre each year, along the faults, the small rivers Gersprenz and Weschnitz have, in part, carved their courses. The Upper Rhine Rift is part of a fracture zone reaching from the Mediterranean Sea to Norway, about 2500 BC, there is evidence that the Linear Pottery culture settled along the northern and southern edges of the Odenwald. About 400 BC, Celts settled throughout southern Germany, almost all of the Odenwald was covered with virgin forest, and the outer edges were not settled.
Germanic peoples drove the Celts westwards across the Rhine to what is now France, about AD100, the older Odenwald line of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes was built under Roman Emperor Trajan. Parts of the Odenwald now lay in Roman-ruled Germania Superior, about 159, the Limes was shifted about 30 kilometres eastwards to the Miltenberg–Walldürn–Buchen-Osterburken line. The Alamanni were thrusting into the Odenwald and settling the land between the Main and Neckar, after came the Franks. In the 5th century, the Franks, under Clovis I, in the 7th and 8th centuries came Christianization by Irish-Scottish and Anglo-Saxon monks