Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Sir George James Frampton, RA was a notable British sculptor and leading member of the New Sculpture movement. He was born on 18 June 1860 in London to a stonemason, he began his working life in an architect's office before studying under William Silver Frith at the City and Guilds of London Art School. He went on to the Royal Academy Schools where he won Travelling Scholarship. From 1887 to 1890 Frampton undertook further study and work at the studio of Antonin Mercie in Paris. Frampton returned to England and took up a teaching position at the Slade School of Art in 1893 By this time, Frampton was, according to the critic M. H. Spielmann "in open rebellion against white sculpture". In 1895 he showed Mother and Child at the Royal Academy, a polychromatic work, with the figures in bronze against a copper plaque, a white disc behind the head. In his statue of Dame Alice Owen he combined bronze and marble, in Lamia contrasted an ivory head and neck with bronze clothing, he made many busts and reliefs as memorials.
His statues include a large bronze of Queen Victoria erected in Calcutta in 1901 and the Queen Victoria Statue in the grounds of the Manitoba Legislative Building in Winnipeg in 1904. Frampton's first house and studio was at 32 Queen's Grove, but he built a larger house nearby in Carlton Hill, both in St John's Wood, London, he was married to the artist Christabel Cockerell and had one son, the painter and etcher Meredith Frampton. He was an active member of The Art Workers' Guild and became Master in 1902, he sculpted the Art Workers' Guild's Master's Jewel in silver representing'Art is Unity' He died on 21 May 1928 and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium on 25 May. His ashes lie in a niche on the ground floor of the east wing of the Ernest George Columbarium. A memorial sculpted by Ernest Gillick in 1930 depicting a bronze child holding a miniature copy of Frampton's statue of Peter Pan is located in the Crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral. Among Frampton's notable public sculptures are the figures of Peter Pan playing a set of pipes, the lions at the British Museum and the Edith Cavell Memorial that stands outside the National Portrait Gallery, London.
The original Peter Pan statue in Kensington Gardens, was commissioned by J. M. Barrie in 1912. Six more casts were made of the statue, situated in: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Parc d'Egmont, Belgium Bowring Park in St. John's, Canada. Toronto, Canada Sefton Park, England Camden, New Jersey, United StatesA number of his works can be seen at the restored St James' Church, Warter in Yorkshire. Frampton created Dr Barnardo's Memorial, in Barkingside, London, in 1908, a work he undertook without claiming a fee. Frampton worked with Sir Edwin Lutyens on two of the architect's war memorials in the aftermath of the First World War—Hove War Memorial in East Sussex and Fordham War Memorial in Cambridgeshire. Both feature a bronze statue of Saint George, sculpted by Frampton atop a column designed by Lutyens. After the death of Queen Victoria in early 1901, Frampton was chosen to create a bronze statue of the late queen in Calcutta, the capital of the British India, it was unveiled in March 1902, was placed outside the Victoria Memorial.
He created the sculpture of the late Queen Victoria situated outside the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1906, unveiled by her son King Edward VII in the same year. John Angel 2 paintings by or after George Frampton at the Art UK site Sir George Frampton RA Collection
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
War Artists' Advisory Committee
The War Artists Advisory Committee, was a British government agency established within the Ministry of Information at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 and headed by Sir Kenneth Clark. Its aim was to compile a comprehensive artistic record of Britain throughout the war; this was achieved by appointing official war artists who were sent to specific locations to capture how the war affected the area. When the committee was dissolved in December 1945 its collection consisted of 5,570 works of art produced by over four hundred artists; this collection was distributed to museums and institutions in Britain and around the world, with over half of the collection, some 3,000 works, going to the Imperial War Museum. The stated aim of the WAAC, the War Artists Advisory Scheme, which it ran, was: to draw up a list of artists qualified to record the war at home and abroad. In co-operation with the Services Departments, other Government Departments...to advise on the selection of artists on this list for war purposes and on the arrangements for their employment Clark Director of the National Gallery, was the driving force behind the establishment of the Committee.
The advent of World War II saw many artists cease working and lose their incomes as commercial galleries closed, private commissions ceased and the art schools reduced their teaching or closed altogether. This led Clarke to fear that there would not be a contemporary visual record of the war, his lobbying for Government support for artists during the conflict directly led to the formation of WAAC. Whilst the primary purpose of the Committee was propaganda and organising art exhibitions in Britain and America to raise morale and promote Britain's image abroad, Clarke admitted that he hoped that the scheme might prevent artists from being killed on front line service; the WAAC met at the National Gallery once a month, with members drawn from government departments, the forces and London art schools. The original members of the Committee were Sir Kenneth Clark, Chair of WAAC E. M. O'R. Dickey, Committee Secretary until 1942 a Committee member E. C. Gregory, Committee Secretary from 1942 Muirhead Bone, artist member and trustee of the Imperial War Museum Percy Jowett, artist member and Principal of the Royal College of Art Walter Russell, artist member and Keeper of the Royal Academy Schools Colin Coote, War Office representative R.
M. Y. Gleadowe, Admiralty representative W. P. Hildred, Air Ministry representative, until 1940 T. P. Barund, Ministry of Home Security representative, until 1940 Randolph Schwabe, member from 1941 and Slade Professor of Fine Art UCLLater in the war representatives from the ministries of Supply and War Transport joined the Committee. Although some of the original members were moved to other duties as the war developed, Bone and Russell remained active members throughout the conflict; the Committee operated by employing artists on full-time contracts, offering short-term commissions to artists on individual subjects and by purchasing finished works offered to it. In total WAAC acquired artworks from some four hundred artists, it issued permits allowing artists access to otherwise restricted areas and rationed materials. Wartime rationing restricted good quality paper for printmaking and materials for sculpture so such works were under-represented in the WAAC collection. In June 1941, WAAC established a scheme to obtain artworks by artists from Britain's overseas colonies.
Although four artists were sent to record the activities of the British Expeditionary Force in France, at the start of the war the majority of WAAC commissions were for subjects on the British home front, but as the conflict progressed twenty-six men were given overseas commissions. Among these were Edward Ardizzone, Henry Carr, Edward Bawden who each went to the Middle East, Leslie Cole was sent to Malta and South-East Asia, Vivian Pitchforth went to Burma, Anthony Gross went to the Middle East and Burma before joining the Normandy landings. Two women, Mary Kessell and Laura Knight, were towards the end of the war, given overseas commissions. Other artists serving overseas but working without a WAAC commission or contract, submitted work, purchased by the Committee; these included Doris Zinkeisen and Stella Schmolle serving with the Red Cross and the Auxiliary Territorial Service respectively. Three artists, Thomas Hennell, Eric Ravilious and Albert Richards, were killed during the Second World War whilst working on WAAC commissions.
The Committee produced two sets of four paperback booklets during the war, both called War Pictures by British Artists. Each booklet consisted of fifty black-and-white reproductions; the first set of four, entitled Army, Blitz, R. A. F and War at Sea, sold some 24,000 copies and led to a second set, Air Raids, Production and Women, being published in 1943. Attempts by the Committee to produce more extensive and higher quality publications fell foul of war-time printing restrictions and rationing. Britain at War was the Committee's major overseas exhibition with oils and watercolours from over thirty artists, it opened at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in May 1941, with some 3,000 people attending on the opening day. The selection of works was aimed at undermining American neutrality; the exhibition went on to Baltimore before fourteen images, with Canadian themes, were added for showings in Ottawa and Montreal. The exhibition was split in two for display in Pittsburgh and London, Ontario before the entire catalogue was exhibited in San Francisco in 1942.
Britain at War toured Central and South America in place of 111 WAAC paintings, lost when the ship taking them to Rio de Janeiro was sunk. India in Action, which toured A
Ferens Art Gallery
The Ferens Art Gallery is an art gallery in the English city of Kingston upon Hull. The site and money for the gallery were donated to the city by Thomas Ferens, after whom it is named; the architects were S. N. Cooke and E. C. Davies. Opened in 1927, it was restored and extended in 1991; the gallery features an extensive array of both permanent collections and roving exhibitions. Among the exhibits is a portrait of an unknown woman by Frans Hals; the building houses a children's gallery and a popular cafe. The building is now a Grade II listed building. In 2009, an exhibition and live performance took place at the venue, to help celebrate the 25th anniversary of the opening of The New Adelphi Club, a live music venue less than 2 miles north. In 2013, the gallery acquired a fourteenth-century painting by Pietro Lorenzetti, depicting Christ Between Saints Paul and Peter; the acquisition was jointly funded by the Ferens Endowment Fund, the Heritage Lottery Fund and Art Fund. In May 2015, it was announced that the gallery would get a £4.5 million makeover to enable it to host the Turner Prize in 2017 as part of the UK City of Culture programme.
The gallery reopened on 13 January 2017. On 8 February 2017, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall visited the gallery to view the completed refurbishment. In January 2018, Hull City Council announced that a record 519,000 visits has been made to the gallery during 2017. Media related to Ferens Art Gallery at Wikimedia Commons Ferens Art Gallery Historic England. "Details from image database". Images of England
Penguin Classics is an imprint of Penguin Books under which classic works of literature are published in English, Brazilian Portuguese, Korean among other languages. Literary critics see books in this series as important members of the Western canon, though many titles are translated or of non-Western origin; the first Penguin Classic was E. V. Rieu's translation of The Odyssey, published in 1946, Rieu went on to become general editor of the series. Rieu sought out literary novelists such as Robert Graves and Dorothy Sayers as translators, believing they would avoid "the archaic flavour and the foreign idiom that renders many existing translations repellent to modern taste." In 1964 Betty Radice and William Baldick succeeded Rieu as joint editors, with Radice becoming sole editor in 1974 and serving as an editor for 21 years. As editor, Radice argued for the place of scholarship in popular editions, modified the earlier Penguin convention of the plain text, adding line references, maps, explanatory notes and indexes.
She broadened the canon of the'Classics', encouraged and diversified their readership while upholding academic standards. Penguin Books has paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold in 1947; the early minimalist designs were modernised by Italian art director Germano Facetti, who joined Penguin in 1961. The new classics were known as "Black Classics" for their black covers, which featured artwork appropriate to the topic and period of the work; this design was revised in 1985 to have pale yellow covers with a black spine, colour-coded with a small mark to indicate language and period. In 2002, Penguin redesigned its entire catalogue; the redesign restored the black cover, adding a white orange lettering. The text page design was overhauled to follow a more prescribed template, allowing for faster copyediting and typesetting, but reducing the options for individual design variations suggested by a text's structure or historical context.
Prior to 2002, the text page typography of each book in the Classics series had been overseen by a team of in-house designers. The in-house text design department still albeit much smaller than formerly. Recent design work includes the Penguin Little Black Classic series. Penguin Classics collaborated with Bill Amberg in 2008 in the design of six books. Within the broader category of Classics, Penguin has issued specialised series with their own designs; these include: Penguin Nature Classics, with authors such as John James Audubon, Rachel Carson, John Muir Penguin Modern Classics, issued from 1961 onwards, with authors such as Truman Capote, James Joyce, George Orwell, Vladimir Nabokov, Antoine de Saint Exupéry. Some titles come with critical apparatus; the series has gone through a number of redesigns, the most recent being in June 2017: see here here, here. The series was renamed Penguin 20th Century Classics in May 1989, but the series reverted to its old name in February 2000. 20th Century Classics feature full-page front cover art, with a light blue-green/eau de nil rear cover and spine.
Penguin Enriched Classics, such as Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Prejudice, The Scarlet Letter, A Tale of Two Cities Penguin Popular Classics, issued in 1994, are paperback editions of texts under the Classics imprints. They were a response to Wordsworth Classics, a series of cheap reprints which imitated Penguin in using black as its signature colour. Penguin Designer Classics, issued in 2007, is a set of five limited-edition books, with covers created by fashion designers to commemorate the series' 60th Anniversary Penguin Mini Modern Classics, issued in 2011, is an assortment of fifty pocket-sized books from fifty different authors such as Franz Kafka, Italo Calvino, E. M. Forster, Virginia Woolf and Stefan Zweig, it has been released to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Penguin Modern Classics. It is out of print. Penguin Little Black Classics, issued in 2015 a series of pocket-sized classics introduced to celebrate the 80th anniversary of Penguin Books. Pocket Penguins, issued in 2016.
The series echoes the style of the original Penguin Books, with smaller A-format size, tri-band design. The first 20 books were released in May 2016, described by publishing director Simon Winder as "a mix of the famous and the unjustly overlooked". No definitive bibliography of Penguin Classics has yet been published, although several partial bibliographies have been issued; the earliest come from the Penguin Catalogues, published annually covering in-print editions. The 1963 catalogue, for example, lists 97 titles, although by the series overall had produced 118 volumes. In the 1980s Penguin began publishing discrete catalogues of its Classics and Twentieth Century Classics series, listing all the titles available in the UK; the Penguin Collectors' Society have published two bibliographies of the early, pre-ISBN editions: firstly in 1994, with an update in 2008. In 2008, Penguin Books USA published a complete annotated listing of all Penguin Classics titles in a single paperback volume in the style of its Penguin Classics books.