A parroquia is a population entity or parish found in Galicia and Asturias in north-west Spain. The term may have its origins in Roman Catholic Church usage, similar to the British term parish; the concept forms a settled part of the popular consciousness, but it has never become an official political division. In Galicia there are each comprising between three and fifteen or more villages, they developed over time as de facto entities, although the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1981 recognises them as territorial entities below the concello and above villages. In Asturias there are 857 parishes integrating the 78 concejos or conceyos in the region, they coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions. Parroquia
A masia is a type of rural construction common to all the old Crown of Aragon: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Aragon and Provence. The estate in which the masia is located is called a mas, they are large but isolated structures, nearly always associated with a family farming or livestock operation. Through the ages, the materials used to construct masies varied determined by their location. In mountainous areas, rough stone was used, except for doorways and arches, where stone was worked. During the Middle Ages, mud was used as mortar, though on it was replaced by quicklime or cement. In places where stone was hard to come by, adobe was more common as a construction material. For the most part, masies are oriented to the south. Constructions older than 16th century have an arched main entrance while those built after the 18th century have lintel entrances. Masies were constructed with wooden beams placed perpendicular to the facade and covered by tiles. In the Pyrenees and other mountainous areas, the roofing would be made of slate.
They tended to be at least two-story buildings, with the ground floor reserved for farming tasks and housing livestock, with the upper floor reserved for the family's living quarters. If there was a floor above that, it would be used as a granary, or to house pigeons. Masies include an annexed private chapel. In modern times, many masies have been converted into residential villas, restaurants and breakfasts, or centers for rural tourism; some house have been restored and adapted for cultural uses. Some early works of the Catalan painter Joan Miró depict his family's own masia as well as Catalan peasants; the FC Barcelona youth academy is called La Masia, so named because it was located in an authentic 18th-century masia, called the'Masia de Can Planes'. The masia is located adjacent to the Camp Nou, was used to house young footballers from 1979 to 2011. Various authors. Enciclopèdia catalana, Barcelona, ISBN 84-85194-81-0 Soldevila, Ferran et alt.
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Durangaldea is a comarca of Biscay located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is one of the seven regions that compose the province of Biscay; the capital city of Durangaldea is Durango. Durangaldea is located at the southeast of the province of Biscay, limiting with the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Álava, it spans the border with the province of Álava in the south. Its total extension is 240,13 km². Most of the towns that compose the comarca are located on a great valley formed by the Ibaizabal river, that crosses it from east to west. Otxandio is the only town, not part of the valley. Durangaldea was during the Middle Ages a district apart from Biscay and a dependency of Navarre, but was conquered by Castile in 1200, it remained separate from Biscay until 1630, it held its own compilation of laws, with its regional council joining in Gerediaga, Abadiño. Its lords founded four chartered towns, namely Ermua, Elorrio and Otxandio. Durangaldea is divided into twelve municipalities, being Durango the capital city.
The municipalities that compose the comarca are the same ones that made the merindad of Durango, the previous administrative division. Ermua and Mallabia belong to the province of Biscay, but are not part of Durangaldea, being part of other comarca, part of Gipuzkoa; the economy of Durangaldea is industrial, although the primary sector is important. It is the second most important sector of the economy in the region after the industry; the animal husbandry is specially important, as well as the wood production. The minery is an important section of the economy being produced limestone and marble. Mines of iron and copper have been exploited; the siderurgy has been one of the most developed type of industries in Durangaldea. Besides it, other industries like paper producers or tool producers exist. Durangaldea is connected to the three Basque provinces by roads, Álava in the south by the BI-623 and Bilbao and Donostia by the road N-634; the Cantabric Highway crosses the comarca, can be accessed from Durango and connects the city with Bilbao and the French border.
EuskoTren operates in the region, offering commuter rail services. The train line connects with Bilbao and other comarcas of the province and with Gipuzkoa. EuskoTren has train stations in Abadiño, Amorebieta-Etxano, Berriz and Zaldibar; the bus company BizkaiBus operates in the region, connecting all the municipalities with others on different comarcas. Lord of Biscay Durango, Biscay Comarcas of Spain
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
In present-day Spain a mancomunidad is a free association or commonwealth of municipalities. A mancomunidad is a legal personality, can exist either for a particular period to achieve a concrete goal or can exist indefinitely. A Spanish mancomunidad constitutes a local entity within the national legal framework, to which those municipalities delegate some of their functions and powers, it is similar to a comarca, with the difference that comarca has somewhat different meanings in the various autonomous communities of Spain and mancomunidad is defined identically throughout the country. The municipalities in a single mancomunidad need not be coterminous, they are required to set a clear goal, create management bodies distinct from those of the individual municipalities, provide the mancomunidad with its own budget. In Spain there are a number of natural or historical regions that, despite of the strong identity and common goals of their inhabitants, are divided by provincial or ancient kingdom borders.
Examples of such regions are Tierra de Campos and Ilercavonia. Such regions or comarcas have not been able to achieve the necessary legal recognition for their administrative development within the existing provincial or autonomous frameworks. Therefore, their municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in a mancomunidad. Other groups of municipalities that don't face the problem of borders cutting across their natural region of comarca may form a mancomunidad for economical purposes, to improve local services or in order alleviate some form of historical administrative neglect owing to distance from and lack of communication with current administrative centers; the term mancomunidad and its cognates are used to translate the English word "commonwealth". Mancomunidades in Spain, interactive map. Mancomunidad Tierra de Caballeros Web Mancomunidad Terra de Celanova