A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
IHOP is an American multinational pancake house restaurant chain that specializes in breakfast foods. It is owned by Dine Brands Global—a company formed after IHOP's purchase of Applebee's, with 99% of the restaurants run by independent franchisees. While IHOP's focus is on breakfast foods, it offers a menu of lunch and dinner items; the company has 1,650 locations in North America, Latin America, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Oceania. While many of its locations are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, the chain's minimum operating hours are Sunday through Thursday from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. and Fridays and Saturdays from 7 a.m. to 12 midnight. Jerry Lapin, Al Lapin, Albert Kallis founded International House of Pancakes in 1958 with the help of Sherwood Rosenberg and William Kaye; the first restaurant opened at 4301 Riverside Drive in Burbank, California. The breakfast food menu expanded to include standard lunch and dinner items found in similar restaurant chains such as Sambo's and Denny's.
From 1959 to 1975, it was the flagship division of International Industries, a holding company which owned the Orange Julius refreshment stands. In 1973, the chain's name was shortened to "IHOP" for marketing purposes, using a cartoon kangaroo in its commercials at the time, since the full name and acronym have been interchangeable. From 1976 onward, the company favored the acronym. On July 16, 2007, IHOP Corporation announced a plan to acquire the bar-and-grill chain Applebee's in an all-cash transaction, valued at US$2.1 billion. Under the deal, IHOP would pay $25.50 per share for Applebee's. IHOP stated. Applebee's had 1,943 restaurants worldwide including those operated by franchisees. Applebee's shareholders approved the acquisition with a 70% vote, which closed on November 29, 2007. A number of executives from Applebee's voted against the offer; the chain's largest individual shareholder, Applebee's director Burton "Skip" Sack, called the IHOP offer unfair to its shareholders and stated he planned to take IHOP to court to demand a higher price be paid to him.
As part of the purchase, a brand remarketing scheme and revitalization of the Applebee's image was intended. The buyout closed on November 29, 2007, the corporate entity IHOP changed its name to DineEquity on June 2, 2008. In June 2017, Dine Brands announced that a local franchisee would open a hybrid Applebee's/IHOP restaurant in downtown Detroit in 2018, with both a quick-service "IHOP Express" area and a seated section featuring a selection of menu items from both chains; the IHOP Express portion opened with the seated section opened in late-June. While IHOP's focus is on breakfast, serving pancakes, French toast, omelettes, it offers a menu of lunch and dinner items such as sandwiches and salads; the company has 1,814 locations in North America, Latin America, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Oceania. Franchising agreements with M. H. Alshaya, an international restaurant-franchising firm, resulted in an agreement for Alshaya to open as many as forty IHOP locations in the Middle East, beginning in 2012.
By the end of 2013, IHOP restaurants operated in four Middle Eastern countries: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon. IHOP Express locations first opened in 2009; the first standalone public location of the concept opened in downtown San Diego in 2011. In June 2015, IHOP introduced an updated logo, removing its decorative elements and adding a curved line under the "O" and "P" letters to resemble a smiley face; the company argued that the previous, curved "Restaurant" element of the previous logo looked too much like a frown, that the new branding would " the essence of the IHOP experience, which delivers our guests not only craveable food, but great memories shared with family and friends."In June 2018, IHOP performed a publicity stunt in which it announced that it would "flip" its name to "IHOb". The stunt was a teaser for a new marketing campaign centering on its hamburgers, in an effort to address perceptions that IHOP was still oriented towards breakfast food. In early September 2010, IHOP filed a lawsuit in U.
S. District Court in Los Angeles against International House of Prayer and six other defendants alleging trademark dilution and infringement; the lawsuit was dropped on December 2010, with the dispute resolved out of court. Denny's Golden Nugget Pancake House List of pancake houses The Original Pancake House Pancake house Waffle House Walker Bros. Official website
The Passionists are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Saint Paul of the Cross with a special emphasis on the Passion of Jesus Christ. Professed members use the initials C. P. after their names. A known symbol of the congregation is the labeled emblem of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, surmounted by a cross and is sewn into the clothing attire of its congregants. St. Paul of the Cross wrote the rules of the Congregation in December 1720, in 1725 Pope Benedict XIII granted Paul the permission to form his congregation. Paul and his brother, John Baptist, were ordained by the pope on the same occasion; the full canonical title of the congregation, following the revision of their Constitutions approved by the Holy See in 1984, is The Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ. After serving for a time in the hospital of St. Gallicano they left Rome with permission of the Pope and went to Mount Argentario, where they established the first house of the institute, they took up their abode in a small hermitage near the summit of the mount, to, attached a chapel dedicated to St. Anthony.
They were soon joined by three companions, one of whom was a priest, the observance of community life according to the rules began there and is continued there to the present day. In 1769, Clement XIV granted full rights to the Passionists as enjoyed by the other religious institutes, making them not an order but a congregation; the congregation has had two primary goals: missionary work and contemplative life, with an attempt to blend the two. Its founder had attempted to combine aspects of the contemplative orders, such as the Trappist monks, together with the dynamic orders, such as the Jesuits. "We seek the unity of our lives and our apostolate in the Passion of Jesus." The Passionists express their participation in the Passion by a special vow, by which they bind themselves to keep alive the memory of the Passion of Christ. They strive to foster awareness of its meaning and value for each person and for the life of the world, they seek to incorporate this vow into our daily lives by living the evangelical counsels.
"Our mission aims at evangelizing others by means of the Word of the Cross." Traditionally, their main apostolate has been preaching retreats. According to Saint Paul of the Cross, they were founded in order to "teach people how to pray", which they do through activities such as retreats and missions, spiritual direction, prayer groups. Today they also assist local churches in pastoral works, including saying masses, hearing confessions, visiting the sick. Due to the continuing shortage of priests in the United States, the Passionists today are sometimes designated as pastors and assistant pastors of various parishes; the Passionists staff many retreat centers around the world. Unlike the La Sallians or the Gabrielites, Passionists do not open schools and universities, except seminaries for their own students wishing to become brothers and priests. There are some schools sponsored and run by the Passionists, like the St. Gemma Galgani School, in Santiago, but these are more the exception than the rule.
The Passionists are involved in social welfare projects and education in the various mission territories assigned to them. Though Passionists are not required to work in non-Christian areas as missionaries, their Rule allows its members to be posted to missionary work, such as mainland China and Japan, in many other nations in Africa, Latin America and elsewhere as dictated by the pope or at the invitation of a local Bishop. There are 2,179 Passionists in 61 countries on the five continents, led by a superior general, elected every six years, he is assisted by six consultors in governing the congregation. The present superior general is Father Joachim Rego, born in Burma and with his family moved to Australia at an early age; the congregation is divided into vice-provinces and missions. The Congregation is divided into groups of provinces, vice-provinces and missions called configurations; the presidents of the six configurations constitute the Extended General Council which meets with the Superior General and his consultors annually.
There are six configurations in the world: CEB: The Configuration of Eugene Bossilkov which includes Italy and Portugal and related mission territories. Since the I Chapter of 2015, this area is now the Province of Mary presented to the Temple; the official name of the institute is "The Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ". The superior general resides in Rome; the founder is buried in a chapel attached to the Basi
Jordan Creek Town Center
Jordan Creek Town Center is a super-regional shopping mall and lifestyle center in the city of West Des Moines, Iowa. It is the largest shopping complex in the state of Iowa with a total gross leasable area of 1,340,000 square feet, it is the fourth largest shopping complex in the Midwest, the 23rd largest shopping complex in the United States. The center is named after Jordan Creek, a tributary of the Raccoon River, named after James Cunningham Jordan, the first person to settle in what is now West Des Moines. Around 1995, the family of local businessman Art Wittern proposed the "Village at Oakbrook" to the city of West Des Moines on the 200-acre site that the Witterns owned at 74th Street and E. P. True Parkway; the village would have contained a mixture of commercial and office development, intended to attract upscale retailers similar to those at Country Club Plaza in Kansas City. In 1999, following the success of Coral Ridge Mall in eastern Iowa, General Growth Properties chose the Wittern site for its proposed "town center" concept.
General Growth unveiled plans for Jordan Creek Town Center in May 2000. Two of the Des Moines metropolitan area's existing malls, Merle Hay Mall and Valley West Mall, promptly sued the city of West Des Moines, claiming that it was illegal to use public money from tax increment financing to make improvements around the mall; the Iowa Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit on February 27, 2002, allowing construction of the $200 million complex to begin that year. Jordan Creek Town Center opened on August 4, 2004, attracting nearly 17 million shoppers in its first year. Jordan Creek led to short-term sales declines at the three existing regional malls in the Des Moines area while accounting for nearly 37 percent of taxable sales at the four malls during the last three months of 2004. Jordan Creek affected sales tax revenues in Dallas County, which jumped from $16.7 million in fiscal 2004 to $33.7 million in fiscal 2006. It has spawned other new commercial developments in West Des Moines such as the West Glen Town Center near Interstate 35 and a new Wells Fargo office complex south of the mall.
In May 2007, Iowa State University economists David Swenson and Liesl Eathington released a study showing that retail sales in the Dallas County portion of West Des Moines had increased by over $310 million, or 503.7 percent, during Jordan Creek's first two years of operation. At the same time, sales in the city of Des Moines decreased by nearly $194 million while sales in the Polk County portion of West Des Moines decreased by $22 million. Smaller Dallas County cities like Adel and Perry experienced declines in retail sales during this period. In February 2018, Iowa-based department store Von Maur announced it would construct a new location at the mall, with a planned opening in 2022. In April 2018, the parent company to the mall's Younkers department store announced it would cease operations and close all stores; the Jordan Creek store closed on August 29th, 2018. The town center has 142 stores and 25 restaurants and is composed of three districts: The Shopping District - a two-level enclosed shopping mall anchored by Dillard's, a 20-screen Century Theatres cinema.
The Lake District - an outdoor plaza surrounding a man-made lake, featuring a Residence Inn by Marriott hotel, an amphitheater, several casual dining restaurants. The Village District - a power center anchored by Costco, Dick's Sporting Goods, Nordstrom Rack, Lowe's. List of largest shopping malls in the United States Jordan Creek Town Center Jordan Creek Town Center photo gallery from AbsoluteDSM.com
William McGuire Bryson is an American-British author of books on travel, the English language and other non-fiction topics. Born in the United States, he has been a resident of Britain for most of his adult life, returning to the United States between 1995 and 2003, holds dual American and British citizenship, he served as the chancellor of Durham University from 2005 to 2011. Bryson came to prominence in the United Kingdom with the publication of Notes from a Small Island, an exploration of Britain, its accompanying television series, he received widespread recognition again with the publication of A Short History of Nearly Everything, a book acclaimed for its accessible communication of science. Bryson was born and raised in Des Moines, the son of Agnes Mary and sports journalist Bill Bryson Sr, his mother was of Irish descent. He had an older brother, a sister, Mary Jane Elizabeth. In 2006 Bryson published The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid, a humorous account of his childhood years in Des Moines.
Bryson attended Drake University for two years before dropping out in 1972, deciding instead to backpack around Europe for four months. He returned to Europe the following year with Matt Angerer. Bryson wrote about some of his experiences from this trip in his book Neither Here nor There: Travels in Europe. Bryson first visited Britain in 1973 during his tour of Europe and decided to stay after landing a job working in a psychiatric hospital—the now-defunct Holloway Sanatorium in Virginia Water, Surrey, he met a nurse there named Cynthia Billen, whom he married in 1975. They moved to Bryson's hometown of Des Moines, Iowa in 1975 so that Bryson could complete his college degree at Drake University. In 1977 they settled in Britain, he worked as a journalist, firstly for the Bournemouth Evening Echo becoming chief copy editor of the business section of The Times and deputy national news editor of the business section of The Independent. He left journalism in three years after the birth of his third child.
Bryson started writing independently and in 1990 their fourth child, was born. He has moved around the UK and lived in Virginia Water, Burton, Kirkby Malham, the Old Rectory in Wramplingham, Norfolk, he lives in rural Hampshire and maintains a small flat in South Kensington, London. From 1995 to 2003 he lived in New Hampshire. Although able to apply for British citizenship, Bryson said in 2010 that he had declined a citizenship test, declaring himself "too cowardly" to take it. However, in 2014, he said that he was preparing to take it and in the prologue to his 2015 book The Road to Little Dribbling: More Notes From a Small Island he describes doing so, in Eastleigh, his citizenship ceremony took place in Winchester and he now holds dual citizenship. While living in the US in the 1990s Bryson wrote a column for a British newspaper for several years, reflecting on humorous aspects of his repatriation in the United States; these columns were selected and adapted to become his book I'm a Stranger Here Myself, alternatively titled Notes from a Big Country in Britain and Australia.
During his time in the United States, Bryson decided to walk the Appalachian Trail with his friend Stephen Katz, about which he wrote the book A Walk in the Woods. In the 2015 film adaptation of A Walk in the Woods, Bryson is portrayed by Academy Award winner Robert Redford and Katz is portrayed by Nick Nolte. In 2003, in conjunction with World Book Day, British voters chose Bryson's book Notes from a Small Island as that which best sums up British identity and the state of the nation. In the same year, he was appointed a Commissioner for English Heritage, his popular science book, A Short History of Nearly Everything is 500 pages long and explores not only the histories and current statuses of the sciences, but reveals their humble and humorous beginnings. Although one "top scientist" is alleged to have jokingly described the book as "annoyingly free of mistakes", Bryson himself makes no such claim and a list of some reported errors in the book is available online. In November 2006, Bryson interviewed the British prime minister, Tony Blair, on the state of science and education.
Bryson has written two popular works on the history of the English language — The Mother Tongue and Made in America — and, more an update of his guide to usage, Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words. In 2012 Bryson sued his agent, Jed Mattes Inc. in New York County Supreme Court, claiming it had "failed to perform some of the most fundamental duties of an agent". The case was settled out with part of the settlement being that Bryson not discuss it. In 2005 Bryson was appointed chancellor of Durham University, succeeding the late Sir Peter Ustinov, became more active with student activities than is common for holders of that post appearing in a Durham student film and promoting litter picks in the city, he had praised Durham as "a perfect little city" in Notes from a Small Island. In October 2010, it was announced that Bryson would step down at the end of 2011. In May 2007, he became the president of the Campaign to Protect Rural England, his first area of focus in this role was the establishment of an anti-littering campaign across England.
He discussed the future of the countryside with Richard Mabey, Sue Clifford, Nicholas Crane and Richard Girling at CPRE's Volunteer Conference in November 2007. Br
Walgreen Company or Walgreens is an American company that operates as the second-largest pharmacy store chain in the United States behind CVS Health. It specializes in filling prescriptions and wellness products, health information, photo services; as of August 31, 2018, the company operated 9,560 stores in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the US territories of Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands, it was founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1901. The Walgreens headquarters office is in the Chicago suburb of Illinois. In 2014 the company agreed to purchase the remaining 55% of Switzerland-based Alliance Boots that it did not own to form a global business. Under the terms of the purchase, the two companies merged to form a new holding company, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc. on December 31, 2014. Walgreens became a subsidiary of the new company, which retains its Deerfield headquarters and trades on the Nasdaq under the symbol WBA. Walgreens began in 1901, with a small food front store on the corner of Bowen and Cottage Grove Avenues in Chicago, owned by Galesburg native Charles R. Walgreen By 1913, Walgreens had grown to four stores on Chicago's South Side.
It opened its fifth in 1915, four more in 1916. By 1919, there were 20 stores in the chain; as a result of alcohol prohibition, the 1920s were a successful time for Walgreens. Although alcohol was illegal, prescription whiskey was available and sold by Walgreens. In 1922, the company introduced a malted milkshake, which led to its establishing ice cream manufacturing plants; the next year, Walgreen began opening stores away from residential areas. In the mid-1920s, there were 44 stores with annual sales of $1,200,000 combined. Walgreens had expanded by into Minnesota and Wisconsin. By 1930, it had 397 stores with annual sales of US$4,000,000; this expansion was attributed to selling prescribed alcohol whiskey, which Walgreen stocked under the counter, as accounted in Daniel Okrent's Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. The stock market crash in October 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression did not affect the company. By 1934, Walgreens was operating in 30 states with 601 stores. After Charles Walgreen, Sr. died in 1939, his son Charles R. Walgreen, Jr. took over the chain until his retirement.
The Charles R. Walgreen's years were prosperous, but lacked the massive expansion seen in the early part of the century. Charles "Cork" R. Walgreen III took over after Walgreen Jr.'s retirement in the early 1950s and modernized the company by switching to barcode scanning. The Walgreen family was not involved in senior management of the company for a short time following Walgreen III's retirement. In 1986, it acquired the MediMart chain from Shop. In 1995, Kevin P. Walgreen was made a vice-president and promoted to Senior Vice President - Store Operations in 2006. On July 12, 2006, David Bernauer stepped down as CEO of Walgreens, replaced by company president Jeff Rein. Holding degrees in accounting and pharmacy from the University of Arizona, Rein was a pharmacist, store manager, district manager, treasurer prior to being named Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board. Greg Wasson, former President of Walgreens Health Services, was named President and Chief Operations Officer. On October 10, 2008, Rein abruptly quit as CEO, replaced by Alan G. McNally as Chairman and Acting CEO.
On January 26, 2009, Gregory Wasson was named CEO, effective February 1, 2009. 2006: Walgreens acquired the Happy Harry's chain in Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. October 2007: Walgreens opened its 6,000th store, in New Orleans, Louisiana. January 2008: Walgreens purchased 20 stores in Puerto Rico from Farmacias El Amal. July 2009: Walgreens operates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. February 17, 2010: Walgreens announced plans to acquire New York City-area chain Duane Reade for $1.075 billion, including debt. Walgreens continues to operate in the New York City metropolitan area as Duane Reade. March 24, 2011: Walgreens acquired Drugstore.com for $409 million. Drugstore.com, in turn, owned Beauty.com. In 2013 Beauty.com was named by Internet Retailer Magazine in its Top 100 online retail sites list. April 30, 2011: Walgreens operated 8,169 stores. August 18, 2011: Walgreens introduced its "Nice!" Store brand of food and household products. Rolled out in 2012, the Nice! Brand replaced a variety of existing Walgreens store brands such as Deerfield Farms, Cafe W, others.
June 19, 2012: Walgreens paid $6.7bn for a 45% interest in Alliance Boots. July 5, 2012: Walgreens entered into an agreement to acquire Mid-South drug store chain operating under the USA Drug, Super D Drug, May's Drug, Med-X, Drug Warehouse banners; the deal was expected to be finalized by September 1, 2012. September 10, 2013: Walgreens announced it acquired Kerr Drug. September 14, 2013: Walgreens opens its first store in the U. S. Virgin Islands. August 6, 2014: Walgreens exercised its option to purchase the remaining 55% of Alliance Boots; the combined company is headquartered in Chicago. On October 27, 2015, Walgreens announced that it would acquire its rival Rite Aid for $9 per share, a deal valued at $9.4 billion, pending regulatory and shareholder approval. The deal will result in a merger of two of the United States' three largest pharmacy chains. In response to being able to receive approval, Walgreens said that it would be willing to divest up to 1,000 stores to win regulatory approval for its Rite Aid purchase.
Walgreens and Rite Aid, own 200 million square feet of retail space in addition to 21 million square feet of office and warehouse s