Victory Bridge (Florida)
The Victory Bridge carries U. S. Route 90 over the floodplain of the Apalachicola River in the Florida Panhandle below the Jim Woodruff Dam, it was built by the Masters and Mullen Construction Company out of Cleveland. The original Victory Bridge, completed in 1922 at a cost of $1 million USD, is no longer used, having been replaced in 1994-1996 by a high-level bridge upstream that carries the same name. Bridges portal Florida portal
Bridge of Lions
The Bridge of Lions is a double-leaf bascule bridge that spans the Intracoastal Waterway in St. Augustine, United States. A part of State Road A1A, it connects downtown St. Augustine to Anastasia Island across Matanzas Bay. A pair of copies of the marble Medici lions guard the bridge, begun in 1925 and completed in 1927, they were removed in February 2005 and returned in March 2011. Roads & Bridges magazine named the Bridge of Lions as fourth in the nation's top 10 bridges for 2010. Projects were evaluated based on community impact and challenges resolved; the United States Department of Transportation declared the bridge "structurally deficient and functionally obsolete" in 1999, prompting heated debates on what to do with the structure. A restoration plan was approved. Reynolds, Smith & Hills from nearby Jacksonville was awarded the engineering and design contract, estimated at $77 million, projected to require five years to complete. Prior to the Bridge of Lions in 1925, there was a wooden bridge, called "The Bridge to Anastasia Island" or "South Beach railroad bridge".
It was built in 1895, after a major renovation in 1904, the bridge could accommodate a trolley. The span contained no rise, had a movable opening for ship traffic, charged a toll for transit; the old bridge broke down, leading to calls for its replacement over the years. The man considered the "Father of the Bridge of Lions" was Henry Rodenbaugh, the vice president and bridge expert for Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway. In the early 1920s he organized the bond issue to finance the new bridge, selected engineers J. E. Greiner Company to design it—and had his young daughter Jean pour the first bucket of concrete when the work began in 1925, its construction came at the height of the extravagant Florida land boom of the 1920s, the bridge is one of its greatest landmarks. It was designed not to carry cars, but to be a work of art, it cost ten times as much as more prosaic bridges constructed nearby at the same time, it was completed after the land boom busted, the 1927 dedication ceremony had to be paired with the annual Ponce de Leon Celebration in cash-strapped St. Augustine.
The Bridge of Lions is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was included by the National Trust for Historic Preservation on its list of the "11 Most Endangered Historic Sites" in the nation for 1997. The Bridge of Lions was featured on the cover of the Trust's 1999 engagement calendar. From its earliest days, it was hailed as "The Most Beautiful Bridge in Dixie." It has long been a symbol of the nation's oldest city. It gets its name from two Carrara marble Medici lions statues that are copies of those found in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy; the statues were a gift of Dr. Andrew Anderson, the builder of the Markland House, who spent the last decade of his life putting works of art in public places in the Ancient City; the statues were his last gift, he did not live long enough to see them installed. He had them made by the Romanelli Studios in Florence, which a decade earlier had provided him with smaller versions which he displayed on the front steps at Markland; the Medici lions are known for the copies placed in the Throne Room of the Royal Palace of Madrid.
A temporary bridge was constructed adjacent to the original bridge and traffic was diverted to this structure while the original bridge was being rehabilitated and reconstructed to look like its predecessor. After nearly 80 years of service, an official closing ceremony for the original Bridge of Lions was held on May 26, 2006. Isabella Heard, one of the young girls on the lead float in the opening of the bridge in 1927, was there, in a wheelchair, to tie the ribbon for its closing 79 years later. Several components of the original bridge were either rehabilitated or returned to the rehabilitated bridge; the exterior or fascia steel girders were rehabilitated along with the bascule tower piers. Once the rehabilitation of the original bridge was completed, at a total project cost of $80 million and 4 percent over budget, the temporary bridge was removed and used as part of an artificial reef just offshore; the two lions were in safe storage for the duration of the construction. Renovation work was completed on March 2010 when it reopened for use.
Following the removal of the temporary bridge, landscaping, the restored Lion statues were returned after a 6-year absence, early in the morning of March 15, 2011, principally completing the bridge renovation project. The current bridge's west entrance features manicured gazebos, landscaped palmtrees and a new publicly accessible dock extending into the bay; the bridge opens when requested by a vessel only on the hour and half hour between 7:00am and 6:00pm, but not at 8:00am, 12:00pm, 5:00pm except on Saturday and federal holidays. Florida, DK Eyewitness Travel Guides, 2004, pg. 197 staugustine.com - FDOT, Bridge of Lions Rehab Project - http://www.fdotbridgeoflions.com/
Merritt Island, Florida
Merritt Island is a census-designated place in Brevard County, United States, located on the eastern Floridian coast, along the Atlantic Ocean. The population was 34,743 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The name "Merritt Island" refers to the extent of the peninsula, misnamed an "island."Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center are located on the northern part of Merritt Island; the southern area is residential, with centralized light commercial and light industrial areas. The central part of Merritt Island known as Merritt City, is home to the majority of the population and includes the local high school and shopping district. Merritt Island owes its name to the king of Spain; the entire island was part of a land grant given by the king to a nobleman named Merritt. Archaeological excavations have uncovered the fossils of extinct animals such as mastodons, giant land tortoise, glyptodont, mammoth, giant armadillo and tapir, which lived in the area up to 11,000 years ago.
Their extinction was part of a larger North American die-off in which native horses and other camelids died out. Possibilities for extinction include global climate change and hunting pressure from the arrival of the Clovis people, who were prolific hunters with distinct fluted stone tools which allowed for a spear to be attached to the stone tool; this megafaunal extinction coincided with the appearance of the big game hunting Clovis culture, biochemical analyses have shown that Clovis tools were used in butchering camels. By at least 800 to 900 AD, Native Americans inhabited the area, their mounds populated the lagoon margin. In 1605, Spanish explorer Alvaro Mexia visited while on a diplomatic mission to the local tribes living in the Indian River area, he called the local tribe of part of the native province of Ulumay. Merritt Island is the prominent island on a color map he drew of the area, a copy of, in the archives at the Library of Congress and the archives in Seville, Spain. Within a few years all but a handful of these natives were dead from illnesses unwittingly imported by the Europeans.
In the 1760s, the Elliott Plantation milled it. Remains of the plantation can be found in the Wildlife Refuge. In April 1788, French botanist André Michaux traveled near Cape Canaveral, he spent five days looking for plants. He wrote a letter on April 1788 from St Augustine, he reported discovering Asimina obovata. In 1837, Fort Ann was constructed on the east coast of Merritt Island near the present day Haulover Canal, to protect the area against the Seminoles. Merritt Island's recent history dates back to the mid-19th century and centers on the growth of citrus, stressing the cultivation of pineapples and oranges; the Indian River oranges and grapefruit come from this sandy area. Freezes destroyed the local pineapple industry in the late 1890s. Freed slaves constructed small towns in the area after the Civil War, including Haulover and Shiloh; the island's population grew in the 1950s and 1960s as the Space Race began and nearby NASA expanded. Construction of a barge canal to the Intracoastal Waterway from the Atlantic Ocean cut off the northern half of the island for many years.
To this day, the northern portion of the island remains less developed, with a few areas remaining as cattle pasture or citrus land. The small towns on the island vanished with the coming of the Space Age, now only live on in the names of streets and historic churches. In 1988, citizens defeated a proposed incorporation into 77 % opposed to 23 % in favor. Sea Ray operated a factory on Merritt Island from 1978 to 2012. At one time it employed 1200 people, it closed the plant in 2013. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 47.2 square miles, of which 17.5 square miles is land and 29.7 square miles, or 62.88%, is water. Merritt Island has always been a peninsula, it connects to the Florida mainland. To the west and south it is separated by the Indian River Lagoon and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; the east side of Merritt Island is divided by Sykes Creek and Newfound Harbor. They, in turn, are separated by the Banana River Lagoon from Florida. To the west, the island is connected by causeways to mainland Brevard County near Titusville and Cocoa on its northern end, in Melbourne on its southern end.
To the north, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, along with a narrow barrier island that make up Canaveral National Seashore, offer an unpopulated protected buffer area for rocket launches at Kennedy Space Center. There are about 356 species of birds on one of most diverse in the country. Migratory birds join the more resident wildlife, including alligators, dolphins, sea turtles, bald eagles, ospreys and the elusive Florida panther. A number of bald eagle nests are monitored atop power line poles along SR 3 within Kennedy Space Center. There are about 12,000 feral pigs in North Merritt Island. Licensed trappers catch about 2,000 annually; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service would like to reduce the population. Merritt Island has or had 23 named communities, all unincorporated, including: As of the census of 2000, there were 36,090 people, 14,955 households, 10,049 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,044.6 people per square mile. There were 15,813 housing units at an average density of 8
Gandy Bridge is the southernmost bridge spanning Old Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, Florida; the original 1924 span was dismantled in 1975. The second bridge, constructed in 1956 was used for vehicular traffic until 1997, when it was converted to recreational use by non-motorized traffic, it became known as the Friendship Trail Bridge and was demolished in 2016, after closing in 2008 due to hazardous conditions and several failed efforts to preserve the span. The third and fourth spans of the Gandy Bridge are being used for vehicle traffic. Three miles long, the Gandy Bridge is one of three bridges connecting the mainland of Hillsborough County and Pinellas County. In 1910, H. Walter Fuller was a director of three companies owned by F. A. Davis. George S. Gandy, Sr was the president of all three companies. Fuller prepared a map including a proposed bridge that would cross upper Tampa Bay following the route of Ninth Street North in St. Petersburg. Gandy partnered with Fuller, incorporating three companies towards design and construction of the bridge.
Survey crews decided to change the route from Ninth Street to Fourth Street. In 1918, World War I required that all projects exceeding $250,000 required a certificate of necessity from the War Industries Board headed by Bernard Baruch; the project was not approved and financing was canceled. Gandy continued alone. In 1922, Gandy hired promoter Eugene M. Elliott to attract new investment. Gandy sold enough stock to finance the bridge, which cost $1,932,000. Construction began in September 1922 and the bridge was completed for a formal opening on November 20, 1924; the steel and concrete bridge spanned a distance of two and a half miles, making it the longest automobile toll bridge in the world at that time. Its double steel bascule drawbridge operated electrically; the original toll to cross the bridge was $.75 for an automobile and driver and $.10 for additional passengers. The bridge stopped collecting tolls on April 27, 1944 after it was seized by the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. On December 23, 1945, a federal jury awarded The Gandy Company $2,383,642 in compensation for the property, plus $100,000 in interest.
The bridge reduced the distance between St. Petersburg from 43 to 19 miles, its location enabled travel by auto along the route of the world's first scheduled airline flight, which operated between Tampa and Saint Petersburg for six months in 1914. The Gandy Bridge opened on November 20, 1924 Sixteen visiting state governors and several foreign dignitaries attended the opening ceremony. During George Gandy's speech, he stated. Efforts to preserve the bridge for recreational purposes were not supported by the Pinellas County Commission, which felt the idea was too expensive, too dangerous, unnecessary. By 1947, state Sen. Raymond Sheldon described the bridge as "outmoded, too narrow and a traffic bottleneck." In 1956 a second higher, fixed span was added to the Gandy Bridge to serve westbound traffic. The first span would serve eastbound traffic until 1975; the second bridge remained in use until February 1997. Years before, the Florida Department of Transportation deemed the bridge structurally deficient to vehicular traffic unless costly repairs were made.
FDOT planned to demolish the middle section of the bridge and leave the remaining fishing pier segments intact. The demolished segments would have been used for an artificial reef; when residents and community groups in both Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties lobbied together against FDOT and the governments of the two counties to save the 1956 bridge, FDOT dropped its demolition plan. After two years of hearings and funding issues, the 1956 bridge reopened to pedestrian and bicycle traffic on December 11, 1999 as the Friendship Trail Bridge. On November 6, 2008, the Friendship Trail was shut down "indefinitely" after a state inspection determined that there were significant structural problems with the bridge's superstructure; the bridge had been decaying for years forcing the closure of the span to vehicular traffic. However, the inspection yielded that the corrosion of the superstructure had worsened and that the overall condition of the bridge was no longer suitable to keep it open due to safety issues.
Only a couple months before, the Sunshine Skyway Bridge's fishing piers were deemed to the same fate. There was a repair plan in place for the bridge that would have repaired the pylons at a cost of $4.2 million. That project was cancelled due to the new developments. December 17 brought further gloom for the trail when preliminary estimates to retrofit the bridge added up to about $30 million. Furthermore, the projected costs would only provide a temporary solution to the structure that would only last about ten years. With the state and the nation in recession, county governments saw no way to meet the staggering costs, leaving the trail closed for good. December 20, 2008 a report done by Kisinger Campo & Associates and SDR Engineering Consultants showed that the bridge could collapse due to the amount of decay on the structure. After the report was released and Pinellas County officials decided to close the entire bridge permanently; the report suggested the following: $4.1 million to retrofit both ends of the bridge only $13 million to demolish the bridge only $30 million to retro
Cocoa Beach, Florida
Cocoa Beach is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 11,231 at the 2010 United States Census, it is part of the Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The first non-native settlement in the area was by a family of freed slaves following the American Civil War. In 1888, a group of men from Cocoa bought the entire tract of land, which went undeveloped until it was bought out in 1923 by a member of the group—Gus Edwards, Cocoa's city attorney. At that time, Edwards' total holdings included 600 acres, he had stopped practicing law to devote all his efforts to developing the area. Prior to incorporation, the area was known as Oceanus; the Town of Cocoa Beach was established on June 5, 1925. Cocoa Beach's first official meeting was held at the Cocoa Beach Casino on July 27, 1925, adopted the City Seal. Gus C. Edwards was elected as mayor and served as a commissioner along with J. A. Haisten, R. Z. Grabel. A little less than a month plans for a pier became official.
In 1935, the FDOT opened up. In 1938, a Deputy Marshal was appointed "to act in emergencies at night or at other times" for $.25/hour. By 1939, the town had 49 residents. In 1940, the town requested that State Road 140 be routed on Orlando Avenue instead of Atlantic Avenue. In 1942, the town prepared to receive men assigned to the newly opened Naval Air Station Banana River. Establishing regular garbage collection was discussed when the town discovered that the Air Station was having theirs collected. On May 1, 1942, the German submarine U-109 torpedoed the La Paz off the shore of Cocoa Beach; the crew was able to beach it with the help of tugs. It was returned to shipping. On May 3, the same U-boat sank the SS Laertes near the same spot. Local boys were recruited for salvaging efforts and to rid the beach of subsequent debris. Shortly thereafter, the federal government realized the danger of back-lighting from the coast making easy targets of passing ships and ordered a blackout for the remainder of the war.
During World War II, Cocoa Beach experienced money shortages for employees, money to fix roads. In 1944, the town fought a bill introduced in the Florida legislature which would have dissolved the city government. In 1947 a single police officer was hired for $1/hour; the same year, the city constructed works for the distribution of potable water. In 1950, a volunteer fire department was created. In 1950, a proposal to prevent people from driving on the beach was defeated. In 1951, the city sought to place a stoplight, the city's first, at the intersection of what is now A1A and Minutemen Causeway. In 1953, the city decided to mark the names of all streets. In 1953, the city planned to pave A1A south from 520 down Orlando Avenue; the city intended to bear 1/3 of the costs, the adjacent property owners, 2/3. In 1954, the Women's Club opened a library in the building used by the Fire Department. In 1955, the speed limit in most of the town was raised to 35 miles per hour. In 1955, the city prepared to house the people who were going to be launching missiles from what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
In 1956, the city attorney warned the council. If they did, he recommended clearing the beach of all persons, both black; the 1954 decision, Brown v. Board of Education, had, in theory at least, integrated all general public facilities. Actual integration came later; the city proposed selling the town dump to the school board for a junior high school, in order to keep students from being bused to Merritt Island. On June 29, 1957, the town of Cocoa Beach incorporated into a city, it sold its water system to Cocoa and contracted with them to furnish water. In September 1959, the city voted to add more sidewalks, improve the streets in residential areas as well as the main streets, to pave more roads. In 1965, Cocoa Beach High School requested that Cocoa Avenue, the street that the school was located on, be renamed Minutemen Boulevard, in honor of the school's mascot, the Minuteman. Cocoa Beach started its major growth during the 1960s. There was a 1000% population increase from 1950 to 1960 as a result of the U.
S. space program. NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center is located 15 miles north of town. Many people moved to Cocoa Beach due to jobs connected to the space program and in search of new opportunities. After manned space flights, the town held parades in honor of the astronauts. After NASA's Apollo program came to an end, before the Space Shuttle program was in full swing, the town's economy reflected the resulting layoffs. At one point, in 1975, unemployment was 14.3%. Many families lost their jobs or moved away; the housing market plummeted and some people unable to sell their homes abandoned them. Cocoa Beach was the setting for the 1960s sitcom I Dream of Jeannie, although no episodes were filmed there, star Barbara Eden only made two visits during the show's production — both in 1969, for publicity. Cocoa Beach High School was used as the school in the 2002 movie Race to Space. In 2002, 69% of the voters capped building height to 45 feet. Prior construction and variances, resulted in about 80 buildings between 45 to 70 feet high, as of 2018.
The 2010 Nebula Awards were held in the city. In 2016, the largest mansion in the city was destroyed by fire, it had been built on the beach by Al Neuharth in 1975. It contained 10,000 square feet of living 11 bedrooms and 12 bathrooms, it was valued at several million dollars. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.0 square miles. 4.9 square miles
Port Orange Causeway
The Port Orange Causeway called the Port Orange Bridge or the Dunlawton Bridge, spans the Halifax River and Intracoastal Waterway in Port Orange, Volusia County, Florida. The bridge carries 29,000 vehicles per day across four lanes of State Road A1A and Dunlawton Avenue; the first bridge at this location was built by the Port Orange Bridge Company in 1906, made of sable palm pilings and pine bridge timbers. In 1918, Gove offered to sell the bridge to Volusia County; the bridge was damage by a hurricane in 1932, was torn down. Port Orange was without a bridge for many years after the disaster. A bascule bridge was built here as a replacement in 1951; the two-lane drawbridge was paid for with tolls. The bridge connected the two ends of Dunlawton Avenue, from the mainland to the beach peninsula. In May 1987, the U. S. federal government agreed to provide $8.16 million of the estimated $12 million cost of building a Port Orange, Florida bridge planned to be similar to the Granada Bridge. After the drawbridge had aged and was expensive to maintain, it was replaced in 1990 by a new four-lane high bridge, which carries State Road A1A over the river.
The Florida State Legislature designated the new bridge as the Congressman William V. Chappel Jr. Memorial Bridge. List of crossings of the Halifax River History of Port Orange Port Orange Images
Bayside Bridge (Pinellas County, Florida)
The Bayside Bridge is a girder bridge in Pinellas County which crosses over the northwestern-most end of Tampa Bay, connecting Clearwater and Largo, Florida. Construction began in the early 1990s and was completed in the summer of 1993 opening for traffic on June 2 of that year. Conceived in the 1970s as the 49th Street Bridge, a toll-levied part of the 12-mile Pinellas Parkway, the current six-lane twin-span bridge provides direct, unmitigated access from eastern Clearwater to St. Petersburg/Clearwater International Airport by connecting McMullen Booth Road to 49th Street North and serves as a bypass for congested US 19; the speed limit is 55 mph until McMullen Booth. Due to cambering differences, cars experience bouncing; this occurs for the first half of the northbound span. It features a SPUI interchange at State Road 60 and a diamond interchange on the south end of the bridge. Along with the bridge, a $12 million interchange was built at the intersection of 49th Street and Roosevelt Boulevard.
The bridge was completed before McMullen Booth Road was widened, dumping up to 36,000 cars a day onto the two-lane road. On streets such as Marlo Road, drivers could wait as long as 15 minutes before being able to make a left turn. In 1991, Pinellas County administrator Fred Marquis argued that the cost of the bridge could be funded by a 10-year extension of gasoline taxes; the plan went through as the "Penny for Pinellas" tax. This eliminated the need for a planned $2.5 million, 16-lane toll booth that would have been built on sensitive marshlands at the south end of the bridge. The cost of construction of the bridge is estimated at $71 million; the plan is for the Bayside Bridge to connect to nearby Interstate 275 via the Gateway Express, to start construction sometime in early 2017. County Road 296 Connection Project at Tampa Bay Interstates site