Port of Liverpool Building
The Port of Liverpool Building is a Grade II* listed building in Liverpool, England. It is located at the Pier Head and, along with the neighbouring Royal Liver Building and Cunard Building, is one of Liverpool's Three Graces, which line the city's waterfront, it is part of Liverpool's UNESCO-designated World Heritage Maritime Mercantile City. The building was designed by Sir Arnold Thornely and F. B. Hobbs and was developed in collaboration with Briggs and Wolstenholme, it was constructed between 1904 and 1907, with a reinforced concrete frame, clad in Portland Stone. The building was the headquarters of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board for 87 years, from 1907 to 1994, when the company relocated to new premises at Seaforth Dock. In 2001 it was sold to Downing, a Liverpool-based property developer, between 2006 and 2009 underwent a major £10m restoration that restored many original features of the building; the Port of Liverpool Building is in the Edwardian Baroque style and is noted for the large dome that sits atop it, acting as the focal point of the building.
It is rectangular in shape with canted corners that are topped with stone cupolas. At 220 feet the building is the fourteenth tallest building in Liverpool. Like the neighbouring Cunard Building, it is noted for the ornamental detail both on the inside and out, in particular for the many maritime references and expensive decorative furnishings. In 1898 the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board decided to close down and infill George's Dock, located on the site of what is the Pier Head today; the land was sold to the Liverpool Corporation in 1900, although the MDHB opted to keep the southern section so that they could build a new central headquarters for the company, having been located at various sites around the city, including the Old Custom's House. In 1900 a committee was formed by the MDHB to develop a new building for the company. Under the leadership of Robert Gladstone, a competition was launched for local architects to submit designs for the new building. Alfred Waterhouse, a renowned local architect, was brought in to help judge the competition and prizes of £300, £200 and £100 were offered for the three best designs.
In total, seven entries were submitted, with the winning design being that of the architects Sir Arnold Thornely and F. B. Hobbs, developed in collaboration with Briggs and Wolstenholme. Due to boundary changes of the land on which the building was to be built, amendments were made to the design, most notably with the central dome, only added at the last minute. In 1903, with the design now confirmed, the MDHB requested that a number of builders submit a tender document for the construction of the building to the revised design. Over 30 builders were contacted, with William Brown & Son of Manchester winning the contract to construct the new building. Work began in 1904, with the first nine months of construction focusing on laying the building's foundations, which were dug to a depth of 30–40 feet below ground level; the building's frame was built from reinforced concrete, clad in Portland Stone, a design that meant the building was more fire resistant than with other structural forms. It was completed in 1907 at a cost of £250,000, although when the cost of furniture and professional fees was taken into account, the total cost was nearer £350,000.
Staff from the MDHB headquarters moved into the building on 15 July 1907, with staff from departments located in other areas of the city moving in throughout the rest of the year. During the Second World War, Liverpool's importance as a major port saw it become a target for the Luftwaffe and during the May Blitz of 1941, a heavy bomb exploded in the basement, on the eastern side of the building; the damage from the explosion was significant with the eastern wing being damaged by fire. Nonetheless the building's structural integrity meant that much of the building could be re-occupied with only temporary repairs. In the aftermath of the war the building was restored; the building acted as the head offices of the MDHB for some 87 years. In 1994 the company moved to new headquarters at the Maritime Centre near Seaforth Dock in the north of the city, in order to be closer to what was now the centre of Liverpool's docking system. However, the company remained the owners of the building until 2001 when it was acquired by Downing, a Liverpool-based property developer.
Plans submitted in 2005 for the restoration of the building were approved by Liverpool City Council. The scheme involved major internal and external work that would restore the Grade II* listed building; the plans included opening the building to the public, by creating a new viewing floor inside the dome and a publicly accessible sunken piazza on the riverside frontage that would provide a small parade of restaurants and shops. A sixth level of the building, "dismantled" in the aftermath of the Second World War, was to be restored, providing a series of luxury apartments; the first stage of the renovation was completed in early 2008, when the restoration of the Portland stone on the river facing side of the building was completed. The £10m restoration project was completed in early 2009, when the last scaffolding was removed from the outside of the building and 20,000 sq ft of refurbished office space was completed; the Port of Liverpool Building is one of the Three Graces that line the Pier Head and the architectural features were designed to be reflective of Liverpool'
Sudley House is a historic house in Aigburth, England. Built in 1824 and much modified in the 1880s, it is now a museum and art gallery which contains the collection of George Holt, a shipping-line owner and former resident, in its original setting, it includes work by Thomas Gainsborough, Joshua Reynolds, Edwin Landseer, John Everett Millais and J. M. W. Turner; the house was bequeathed to the city of Liverpool by Holt's daughter, Emma Georgina Holt, in 1944 and is now managed by National Museums Liverpool. Sudley, as it was known, was completed in 1824 on land owned by the Tarleton family as a two-storey ashlar house for Nicholas Robinson, a corn merchant, Lord Mayor of Liverpool in 1828-1829. Robinson paid £4500 for the land. Upon the death of Robinson in 1854, the house passed to his two daughters, who died in 1883; the house and estate, comprising just under 30 acres, was put up for sale in 1880. It became the home of Victorian shipping-line owner and merchant George Holt in 1884. Pevsner says that the original design was by John Whiteside Casson and was modified by James Rhind when Holt purchased it.
However, National Museums Liverpool say that the original architect is unknown, although there are features that suggest it may have been Thomas Harrison. The structural modifications, which involved moving the main entrance from the east facade to that of the north and adding an office wing on the west, have affected the interior; the original staircase with Doric fluted columns, above, a dome and glazed oculus, became exposed and, according to Pevsner, this has left the surrounding internal features as "a bit of a mess". The new two-storey wing added two bays to the five that existed on the south side, as well as a parapeted prospect tower to its rear. George Holt was an art collector whose collection derived from purchases from dealers and at exhibitions rather than from commissions. Among his most significant purchases, which remain in the house today, were J. M. W. Turner's Rosenau, depicting Prince Albert's home in Germany, Gainborough's Viscountess Folkestone. Among the collection are paintings by Richard Parkes Bonington, Edwin Landseer, John Everett Millais, Joshua Reynolds, George Romney and the Pre-Raphaelites.
George Melly, the jazz singer and art historian, related to the Holt family, has described aspects of life at Sudley House during his various childhood visits in the 1930s, when it was owned by George Holt's only child, Emma Georgina Holt. According to him, her father, who died in 1896, had left an estate valued at over £600,000; the house and the art collection, described by ArtUK as being "the only British collection of its kind still in its original setting", were bequeathed to the city in 1944 by Emma Holt and is now managed by National Museums Liverpool. Sudley House closed for two years for a £1 million refurbishment, re-opening on 26 May 2007; this included redecorating in the Aesthetic style of George Holt's era and significantly modifying the first floor, where three new attractions were incorporated as follows: Two childhood rooms: how Victorian children learned and played. Exhibits include a huge Victorian dolls' house, educational toys, fashion dolls and pots used at mealtimes by rich and poor children.
Costume room: changing displays of historic clothing. One such exhibition showed a small part of the vast collection of Emily Tinne and her children, held by National Museums Liverpool. A gallery for temporary exhibitionsPevsner says that those modifications create an architectural "tension" between showing the house as a house and as a museum; the ground floor library now includes a display about the Holt family. This includes an introductory film, family portraits and a model of the steamer Verdi, which belonged to the Lamport and Holt shipping company that George Holt had co-founded in 1845. Vanessa Kidson, Alex. Earlier British Paintings in the Walker Art Gallery and Sudley House. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-84631-816-0. Official website
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
1 Princes Dock
1 Princes Dock is a 22-storey residential complex located alongside Prince's Dock, in Liverpool, England. It was completed in 2006 and at 73 metres is the city's joint-tenth-tallest building; the building is home to 99 parking spaces. 1 Princes Dock was first proposed in 2003 and was approved with construction commencing in the next year, the building was designed by AFL Architects and developed by City Lofts Group PLC. The main contractor was Carillion Construction
World Museum is a large museum in Liverpool, England which has extensive collections covering archaeology and the natural and physical sciences. Special attractions include a planetarium. Entry to the museum is free; the museum is part of National Museums Liverpool. The museum was started as the Derby Museum as it comprised the 13th Earl of Derby's natural history collection; the museum opened in 1851, sharing two rooms on Duke Street with a library. However, the museum proved popular and a new, purpose-built building was required. Land for the new building on a street known as Shaw's Brow opposite St. George's Hall was donated by local MP and Merchant William Brown, as was much of the funding for the building which would be known as the William Brown Library and Museum. Around 400,000 people attended the opening of the new building in 1860. In the late 19th century, the museum's collection was beginning to outgrow its building so a competition was launched to design a combined extension to the museum and college of technology.
The competition was won by William Mountford and the College of Technology and Museum Extension opened in 1901. Liverpool, being one of the UK's major ports, was damaged by German bombing during the blitz. While much of the Museum's collection was moved to less vulnerable locations during the war, the museum building itself was struck by German firebombs and suffered heavy damage. Parts of the museum only began to reopen fifteen years later; the museum underwent an £35 million refurbishment in 2005 in order to double the size of the display spaces and make more of the collections accessible for visitors. A central entrance hall and six-storey atrium were created as part of the work. Major new galleries included the Bug House and the Weston Discovery Centre. On reopening after this refurbishment and extension the museum's name changed from its previous title of Liverpool Museum, which it had held since its establishment at its current William Brown Street site in 1860; the physical sciences collection of World Museum was built after the devastation caused by the incendiary fire of 1941.
The collection has expanded, in part, due to transfers from the Decorative Arts Department, Regional History Department, Walker Art Gallery and the Prescot Museum. The collection contains several significant collections from the Liverpool Royal Institution, Bidston Observatory the Proudman Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, the Physics Department of the University of Liverpool. Collections such as these are made up of items of a singular type designed for a particular experiment such as DELPHI or LEP at CERN - the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or the Equatorium, a post-Copernican planetary calculator made to special order in the early 17th century; as a consequence the collection contains a number of significant items. World Museum is home to a planetarium; the planetarium has 62 seats. It attracts about 90,000 people per year. Shows cover various aspects of space science, including the Solar System, space exploration and has special children's shows; the Egyptology collection contains 15,000 objects from Egypt and Sudan and is the most important single component of the Antiquities department's collections.
The chronological range of the collection spans from the Prehistoric to the Islamic Period with the largest archaeological site collections being Abydos, Beni Hasan and Meroe. Over 5000 Egyptian antiquities were donated to the museum in 1867 by Joseph Mayer, a local goldsmith and antiquarian. Mayer purchased collections from Joseph Sams of Darlington, Lord Valentia, Bram Hertz and the Reverend Henry Stobart. Mayer had displayed his collection in his own ‘Egyptian Museum’ in Liverpool with a purpose of giving citizens who were unable to visit the British Museum in London some idea of the achievements of the Egyptian civilization. On the strength of this substantial donation other people began to donate Egyptian material to the museum, by the years of the 19th century the museum had a substantial collection that Amelia Edwards described as being the most important collection of Egyptian antiquities in England next to the contents of the British Museum; the quality of the Mayer donation is high and there are some outstanding items, but with a few exceptions the entire collection is unprovenanced.
The collection was systematically enhanced through subscription to excavations in Egypt. Altogether the museum subscribed to 25 excavations carried out by the Egypt Exploration Fund, the British School of Archaeology in Egypt, the Egyptian Research Account between 1884 and 1914, it was further developed through links with the Institute of Archaeology at Liverpool University and important collections came to the museum from the excavations of John Garstang, honorary reader in Egyptian archaeology at Liverpool University 1902–07, Professor of Methods and Practice of Archaeology 1907–41. The museum has always had a close relationship with the university. In May 1941, at the height of the Liverpool Blitz, a bomb fell on the museum, burnt to a shell. Large parts of the collection had been removed at the outbreak of the war, but much remained on display or in store and many artefacts were destroyed. What remained was quite inaccessible and it was not until 1976 that a permanent Egypt gallery was
National Museums Liverpool
National Museums Liverpool National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, comprises several museums and art galleries in and around Liverpool, England. All the museums and galleries in the group have free admission; the museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport and an exempt charity under English law. National Museums Liverpool's origins go back to the founding of what is now World Museum. In the 1980s, local politics in Liverpool was under the control of the Militant group of the Labour Party. In 1986, Liverpool's Militant councillors discussed closing down the city's museums and selling off their contents, in particular their art collections. To prevent this from happening the Conservative government nationalised all of Liverpool's museums under the Merseyside Museums and Galleries Order 1986 which created a new national trustee body National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, it changed its name to National Museums Liverpool in 2003. It holds in trust multi-disciplinary collections of worldwide origin made up of more than one million objects and works of art.
The organisation holds courses, lectures and events and provides educational workshops and activities for school children, young people and adults. Its venues are open to the public seven days a week 361 days a year and all exhibitions are free. National Museums Liverpool has charitable status and is England’s only national museums group based outside London, it comprises eight different venues, one of, outside Liverpool itself — the Lady Lever Art Gallery, located in Port Sunlight. 20 Forthlin Road 59 Rodney Street 251 Menlove Avenue The Beatles Story Bluecoat Chambers Croxteth Hall Foundation for Art and Creative Technology The Oratory Speke Hall St. George's Hall Tate Liverpool Victoria Building Western Approaches - Liverpool War Museum William Brown Library and Museum Williamson Tunnels RAF Speke Museum ROC Post Speke National Museums Liverpool website National Museums Liverpool blog
Museum of Liverpool
The Museum of Liverpool in Liverpool, England, is the newest addition to the National Museums Liverpool group having opened in 2011 replacing the former Museum of Liverpool Life. National Museums Liverpool intention is for the new venue to tell the story of Liverpool and its people, reflect the city’s global significance; the museum is housed in a new purpose-built building on the Mann Island site at the Pier Head. The museum, designed by architects 3XN and engineers Buro Happold and built by Galliford Try at cost of £72 million, provides 8,000 square metres of exhibition space, housing more than 6,000 objects, it has flexible spaces that change to enable National Museums Liverpool to show more of their collections. It was opened to the public on 19 June 2011; the museum was closed for two months for essential works in January & February 2017. Exhibits from the entirety of National Museums Liverpool's collections are used for the Museum of Liverpool's displays, they tell the story of the city through items from collections of costume and decorative art and botanical collections and objects representing social and urban history, as well as oral testimonies, archaeological material and photographic archives.
On 27 February 2007, steam locomotive Lion, star of the film The Titfield Thunderbolt, was moved by road from Manchester to Liverpool after being on loan to Manchester while the new museum was under construction. Some conservation work took place prior to it taking pride of place in the new museum. From September to November 2012 the museum staged the Liverpool Love exhibition, in which well known personalities such as Yoko Ono, Sir Peter Blake and Noel Fielding celebrated the city of Liverpool; the Museum displays are divided into four main themes: The Great Port, Global City, People’s Republic, Wondrous Place, located in four large gallery spaces. On the ground floor, displays look at the city's urban and technological evolution, both local and national, including the Industrial Revolution and the changes in the British Empire, how these changes have impacted the city's economic development; the upper floor looks at Liverpool's particular and strong identity through examining the social history of the city, from settlement in the area from Neolithic times to the present day and the various communities and cultures which contribute to the city's diversity.
The Museum features: Little Liverpool, a gallery for children under six. It has a gallery called "City Soldiers" which tells the story of the King's Regiment. Museum of Liverpool National Museums Liverpool