Franz Carl Mertens
Franz Carl Mertens was a German botanist, a native of Bielefeld. He specialized in the field of phycology. Mertens studied theology and languages at the University of Halle, after graduation taught classes at Bremen Polytechnic College. In his spare time he studied botany, through a mutual friend met German botanist Albrecht Wilhelm Roth. With Roth, he took scientific expeditions including Scandinavia. From these trips, Mertens described a number of species of algae, he performed illustrative work on Volume 3 of Roth's Catalecta botanica. With Erlangen professor Wilhelm Daniel Joseph Koch, he published the third edition of Johann Christoph Röhling's Deutschlands flora, a five volume treatise on German flora; the plant genus Mertensia from the family Boraginaceae is named after him, while the ctenophore genus Mertensia is named after his son Karl Heinrich Mertens. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
The River Mert. The ancient town of Lycastus in Pontus was located on the river. A local politician claims the river suffers from domestic and industrial pollution, fish die off in 2014 is being investigated by local officials. In 2012 flooding killed 5 people
Aeromedical evacuation refers to the use of military transport aircraft to carry wounded personnel. The first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in the Sinai peninsula some 30 miles south of El Arish when a Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2c flew out a soldier in the Imperial Camel Corps, shot in the ankle during the raid on Bir el Hassana. The flight took 45 minutes. In the 1920s several aeromedical services, both official and unofficial, started up in various parts of the world. Aircraft were still primitive at the time, with limited capabilities, the efforts received mixed reviews. Development of the idea continued. France and the United Kingdom used organized aeromedical evacuation services during the African and Middle Eastern colonial wars of the 1920s. In 1920, the British, while suppressing the "Mad Mullah" in Somaliland, used an Airco DH.9A fitted out as an air ambulance. It carried a single stretcher under a fairing behind the pilot; the French evacuated over 7,000 casualties during that period.
By 1936, an organized military air ambulance service evacuated wounded from the Spanish Civil War for medical treatment in Nazi Germany. The first use of medevac with helicopters was the evacuation of three British pilot combat casualties by a US Army Sikorsky in Burma during WW2, the first dedicated use of helicopters by U. S. forces occurred during the Korean War, between 1950 and 1953. The first crude attempts at evacuating patients by air were made on biplanes in 1918. Shortly thereafter, JN-4s and DH-4 bombers were modified by the Army Air Service for carrying litters. In 1921 the Curtiss Eagle was developed, the first aircraft designed for the transport of patients, it was followed in 1925 by the XA-1, which could carry 2 litter patients and flight surgeon in a compartment behind the cockpit. Douglas C-1 transports were modified to carry up to 9 litter patients and were used on an opportune basis in the US and Panama; this led to a directive that all future military transports be equipped with brackets for carrying litters.
During World War II an extensive network of aeromedical evacuation was established in both theaters using C-46 and C-47 aircraft for shorter flights and C-54 transports for longer flights to large medical facilities in Hawaii and mainland US. The Army Air Corps established Medical Air Evacuation Squadrons staffed by nurses and medics who were trained to provide care to patients on air evac missions; the School of Air Evacuation was transferred to be part of the School of Aviation Medicine in 1944, now called the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Aeromedical evacuation personnel continue to be trained at USAFSAM at present; the US Navy joined the mission in 1944 by using various seaplanes and PB4Y aircraft to fly patients from remote Pacific islands to larger bases and on to stateside hospitals. By the war's end more than 1.3 million patients had been transported worldwide, with fewer than 60 inflight deaths. In the postwar era a system of intratheater evacuation was established in the US and Europe, with the establishment of the US Air Force in 1947 came the formation of the Military Air Transport Service and a designation as the prime responsibility for the air evac mission.
During the Korean War the Army began using helicopters for transporting casualties from the battlefield to rear area hospitals and MASH units, Air Force C-47s were used to fly patients to large airfields where they were transported on to Japan and the US by C-54 and newer C-97, C-121 and C-124 which could carry up to 127 litters or a combination of up to 200 litter and ambulatory patients. By July 1953 310,000 patients had been transported both from the Korean peninsula. In 1954 the Air Force received its first dedicated AE platform the C-131 Samaritan which could carry 27 litter patients and had a range of 1500 miles, it was supplemented with the MC-118 and in 1968 by the C-9 Nightingale, a modified version of the DC-9 commercial airliner. A expanding system of regular air evacuation flights throughout the world was established and tactical evacuation from battlefield areas was improved by the addition of new transport aircraft such as the C-123 Provider and C-130 Hercules; the first Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard AE units were established in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Air Force entered the jet age in 1961 with the addition of the C-135 transport, a military version of the 707 airliner.
Air Evac assets were used for humanitarian missions out of Hungary during the 1950s. The US entry into Vietnam began a slow buildup of AE assets in the Pacific and Southeast Asia, at the height of the war intratheater missions were flown using helicopters and older C-47 and C-54 aircraft, retrograde missions to Japan, The Philippines were flown using the newer C-141 transport which could carry up to 80 litters or a mix of 125 litter and ambulatory on non-stop routes to Alaska and the east coast. During the Vietnam War more than half a million patients were transported. An extensive peacetime network of air evacuation was established using C-9 aircraft based at Scott AFB, Rhein-Main AB, Germany and Clark AB, PI augmented by older prop transports and more the C-141 on long distance routes to and from the mainland US. During Operation Desert Storm thousands of wounded and injured were transported from Southwest Asia