Campbell River, British Columbia
Campbell River or Wiwek̓a̱m is a coastal city in British Columbia on the east coast of Vancouver Island at the south end of Discovery Passage, which lies along the important Inside Passage shipping route. Campbell River has a population of 35,138 and has long been touted as "the Salmon Capital of the World". Campbell River and Region is in close proximity to the neighboring communities of Quadra and the Discovery Islands, Oyster River, Gold River and Zeballos; the first settlers known in the area were members of the Island Comox and related Coast Salish peoples. During the 18th century a migration of Kwakwaka'wakw people of the Wakashan cultural and linguistic group migrated south from the area of Fort Rupert and established themselves in the Campbell River area, at first enslaving and absorbing the Comox, became infamous as raiders of the Coast Salish peoples farther south, known to history as the Euclataws, spelled Yucultas and is a variant on their name for themselves, the Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok or Legwildok.
Of this group known as the Southern Kwakiutl, there are two subdivisions, the Wekayi or Weiwaikai of the Cape Mudge Indian Band on Quadra Island and the Weiwaikum of the Campbell River Band located in and around the city of Campbell River. Captain George Vancouver reached Campbell River in 1792 aboard the ships HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham; the channel between Quadra Island and Campbell River is named Discovery Passage after HMS Discovery. The captain and his botanist, Mr Archibald Menzies, discovered a small tribe of 350 natives who spoke the Salish language. A Lekwiltok war party armed with European rifles, paddled south from Johnstone Strait in the middle of the 19th century and were in control of the area when HMS Plumper came through on a cartography mission under Captain George Henry Richards around 1859. Dr Samuel Campbell was the ship surgeon, historians believe his name was given to the river by Richards; the community took the name of "Campbell River" when its post office was constructed in 1907.
The name of HMS Discovery's First Lieutenant Zachary Mudge is preserved in the nearby Cape Mudge. Sports fishermen travelled to the area as early as the 1880s after the tales from anglers such as Sir Richard Musgrave and Sir John Rogers; the formation of the Campbell River Tyee Club in 1924, over concern regarding over-fishing of the salmon stocks, served to popularize the area among fishermen. E. P. Painter, for instance, moved to Campbell River the following year and opened his Painter's Lodge in 1929. Painter's Lodge attracted clientele from Hollywood and regular patrons included Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. Commercial fishing was a large industry for many years; the town's magistrate Roderick Haig-Brown purchased a fishing cabin on Campbell River and wrote a number of books on fly fishing for both sport fishermen and conservationists. Industrial logging took off in the 1920s with Merrill Ring and Company, Bloedel and Welch and Comox Logging. A large forest fire started near Buttle Lake and burned much of the valley in 1938.
Rock Bay, Menzies Bay, Englewood all were big logging camps. After 1912, Campbell River became a supply point for northern Vancouver Island, Quadra Island and Cortes Island; the E and N Railway was surveyed to Campbell River, yet it only reached Courtenay, forty miles south. After the Second World War, Campbell River became a boom town and industrial centre with the building of the John Hart Dam, Elk Falls pulp mill, nearby mills in Tahsis and Gold River. Logging and mining in the area prospered. There is a lead zinc mine nearby, coal mines, while a large copper mine operated to the north. In recent years Campbell River, about half-way up Vancouver Island, has continued to mark the boundary between the more developed south and the wild and natural areas in the northern part of the island. Local fish hatcheries help to maintain salmon stocks for the fishing industry. Campbell River has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate Csb; the most precipitation is measured at 231 millimeters on average. January tends to see 152 millimeters on average.
In the winter months occasional Arctic bursts from the interior of British Columbia can make their way onto the coast bringing temperatures below freezing. If a Pacific low reaches the coast a large snowfall can occur. Snowfalls in excess of 45 centimetres have been recorded in a 24-hour period and the greatest snowfall was 53.3 centimetres in 1978. Campbell River has a variety of growing industries and small businesses suitable to an oceanside community; as of 2012 the focus of business is directed towards aquaculture, clean energy development, creative industries, fishing, health care, international education, mining and tourism. While logging continues to be a source of employment in the area, since Elk Falls Mill, one of the largest employers in the area, shut down in 2009. There have been many cases of former mill employees moving away to other places with higher demands for a similar labour force Fort McMurray, Alberta. Public schools are administered by School District 72 Campbell River.
North Island College has a campus in Campbell River. Campbell River has developed a new international program accepting students from Germany and various other countries across Europe, South America and Asia. Along with School District 72, there is a private K
Port Hardy is a district municipality in British Columbia, Canada located on the northeastern end of Vancouver Island. Port Hardy has a population of 4,132 at last census, it is the gateway to Cape Scott Provincial Park, the North Coast Trail and the BC Marine Trail, located on the northernmost tip of Vancouver Island. The community has access to spectacular wilderness adventures, such as kayaking, world-class scuba diving, nature viewing, unique saltwater rapids and camping. Port Hardy's twin city is Japan. Port Hardy was named after Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy who served as the captain of H. M. S. Victory. Once a year, Port Hardy holds a celebration in Rotary Park to acknowledge its natural resource based economy; the three syllables, fi, lo and mi, stand for "fishing and mining". The celebration includes festivities in the park such as activities for children, fundraising concessions, beer gardens, bake sales, craft sales, fireworks. A dance for each age group and a parade are held on Filomi Days weekend- the third weekend in July.
Port Hardy's economy relies on tourism. Ferries to Prince Rupert, another popular tourist destination in British Columbia, depart every other day during peak season. Tourist traffic in the summer is immense, hotels and restaurants find themselves with no room to accommodate all travellers. Deer, black bears, bald eagles, seals and many other species of birds and mammals are spotted along the Quatse Loop Nature Trail or at Storey's Beach, a short drive from town. Humpback whales can been seen surfacing in the bay. Port Hardy has fishing charters and places to camp during tourist season. Port Hardy has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the Pacific moderating influence; as a result summers are cool for the latitude, whereas winters instead are mild. Although there is a strong drying trend in summer, its summer rainfall is still higher than those of the southerly mediterranean climates. Winter rainfall is high and in general Port Hardy is far wetter than Canada's interior. CFNI - 1240 Coast AM Port Hardy is served by Port Hardy Airport and the Bear Cove Ferry Terminal.
There are a public transport bus. Tlatlasikwala Nation Da'naxda'xw Awaetlatla Nation Kwakiutl First Nation Hardy Island Marine Provincial Park Penrose Island Marine Provincial Park
Jordan River, British Columbia
Jordan River, founded as and still gazetted as River Jordan, is a small settlement on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, located 70 km west of Victoria. Established as a logging camp in the late 19th century, Jordan River has Vancouver Island's second hydroelectric power plant, it is popular amongst winter surfers. The eastern terminus of the Juan de Fuca Trail is at 3 km west of Jordan River. In 1790, the Spanish navigator and explorer Lieutenant Francisco de Eliza rebuilt a Spanish fort at Nootka Sound and subsequently explored the area between Nootka Sound and present day Victoria, BC. Named Rio Hermoso by his Sub-Lieutenant Manuel Quimper on June 14, 1790, the name was changed that year to Rio Jordan when the Carta Reducida was made by Gonzalo López de Haro; the name change from Rio Hermoso to Rio Jordan is attributed to Francisco de Eliza's chaplain, Alejandro Jordan. Subsequent charting by British explorers anglicized the name to Jordan River. Logging of the Jordan River watershed dates back to the 1880s.
Timber harvesting intensified in 1907 with the construction of 6 km of railway tracks. Western Forest Products took over the tree farming operation in 1934 and still manages the area forests today; the railroad has been long replaced by log hauling trucks. Development of the Jordan River watershed and construction of the hydroelectric plant began in 1911 and finished a few years later. During the construction of the hydroelectric plant Jordan River was home to 1000 workers; until 1912 Jordan River was only accessible by sea. That year the Old Otter Point Road was extended to River Jordan, connecting the town by land to Sooke and Victoria. During World War II Jordan River became strategically important to the Royal Canadian Air Force, housing the X-1 Detachment's Low-Flying Early Warning Radar System, called'Microwave Early Warning/Ground Control Intercept', in anticipation of a Japanese attack on the west coast. Jordan River has a commanding and unobstructed view of the Strait of Juan De Fuca, from Cape Flattery to Port Angeles and thus was ideal for the deployment of the early warning radar system.
This same geographical ocean location makes the town a surfing destination today. The Old Otter Point Road became part of the newly created Highway 14 in 1953, extending west from Colwood, a suburb of Victoria, to Jordan River. By 1975 Highway 14 was extended all the way west to the remote community of Port Renfrew and paving was completed in the late 1980s. Jordan River is the location of Vancouver Island's second hydroelectric generating station; the Vancouver Island Power Company completed construction of the Jordan River hydroelectric system in 1911. Water collects at Diversion Dam, runs 8.8 km down a wooden sluice to an equalizing basin and flows through a steel penstock for the last 330 vertical meters. From 1912 to 1930 continual improvements and additional generators pushed the capacity of the power plant to 26 megawatts. In 1971 the flume was replaced by a tunnel, connected to a penstock flowing down to a new power house, presently located across the river from the original location.
A Japanese built generator replaced the old equipment, boosting power output from 26 megawatts to 175 megawatts. Most of the land around Jordan River is managed under a tree farm licence. Western Forest Products has been in charge of the tree farm licence since 1934, encompassing 32,490 hectares between Sooke and Port Renfrew. At the centre of Jordan River, between the bridge and the hydroelectric power house is the raw log sorting facility. Logs are sorted and arranged into rafts at the river's mouth towed via sea to Vancouver and Washington State facilities; the majority of tree farm land has been logged twice in the last 100 years and is growing its second generation of replanted trees. Western Forest Products has installed signs along Hwy 14 indicating the growth phases of the forests, such as when a particular tract of land has been logged and thinned. Jordan River along with Long beach are the original surf locations on Vancouver Island; the surfing at Jordan River is competitive and challenging for new surfers.
Jordan River, along with the other beaches near by, would be better for more experienced surfers. While it is a beautiful area and west coast community, the surfing culture can discourage new surfers from trying out the area. Nearby communities Port Renfrew Sooke VictoriaNearby Rivers River Jordan Loss Creek Sombrio River China Beach Sombrio Beach Surf Forecast "River Jordan". BC Geographical Names
North Saanich is located on the Saanich Peninsula 25 km north of Victoria, British Columbia on southern Vancouver Island. It is one of the 13 Greater Victoria municipalities; the District is surrounded on three sides by 20 km of ocean shoreline, consists of rural/residential areas and a large agricultural base and is home to the Victoria International Airport and the Swartz Bay Ferry Terminal. In July 1905, North Saanich including the townsite of Sidney, was incorporated with the original Municipal Hall located in Sidney. Lacking population and a firm tax base, the municipality was dissolved in 1911. In 1940, the site of the present Victoria International Airport was selected as a military forces base and the area boomed with the influx of 10,000 military personnel, leading to incorporation for the Village of Sidney in 1952. Four years the residents of the North Saanich unorganized area, numbering 2,865, requested that letters patent be issued to form the "North Saanich Fire Prevention District" with power to own property, to tax and to borrow.
In 1965, after a favourable public vote, the letters patent were withdrawn and the North Saanich Municipal District was established with offices at the present location on Mills Road. The largest animal to be found in North Saanich is the cougar. Other native mammals include the black-tailed deer, otter and deer mouse. Of introduced mammal species, the cottontail rabbit and gray squirrel are seen. Common native birds include the northwestern crow, common raven, bald eagle, turkey vulture, American robin, varied thrush, Steller's jay, several species of gull. Introduced birds are represented by the declining skylark; the most common native tree in North Saanich is Douglas-fir. The other common large conifers are western red cedar. Western hemlock is found. Pacific yew is a frequent understory tree; the arbutus is a large broadleaf evergreen species. Large deciduous trees are black cottonwood, bigleaf maple, red alder, Garry oak. Small deciduous species include bitter cherry, Pacific crab apple, Pacific dogwood, quaking aspen, Douglas maple, common hawthorn and willow.
The 2018 - 2022 council is: Mayor Geoff Orr Councillor Patricia Pearson Councillor Heather Gartshore Councillor Jack McClintock Councillor Brett Smyth Councillor Celia Stock Councillor Murray WeisenbergerThe next election is scheduled for October 15, 2022 following provincial law. All municipalities in British Columbia will hold elections on this date. Voters will vote for school board trustees and the mayor on the same ballot. Public schools serving North Saanich residents are operated by School District 63 Saanich; these include Deep Cove Elementary Schools, North Saanich Middle School. North Saanich can be accessed by highway on Highway 17 from Sidney or Vancouver. Victoria International Airport is located in the municipality, which offers daily service to Calgary, SeaTac, San Francisco, Toronto Pearson and hourly service to Vancouver from Air Canada Express; the airport offers seasonal services to Mexico and Hawaii, with talk about expansion to Europe or Asia. North Saanich has a float plane aerodrome near the Institute of Ocean Sciences in Pat Bay near the Airport.
This is Pat Bay Air's hub, which offers flights around Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands and Metro Vancouver. Public transit is provided by the Victoria Regional Transit System. North Saanich has 7 marinas; the highest concentration of marinas is on the southern coast, between Curteis Point and McDonald Park Road, near Parkland Secondary School. Ardmore: population 1,050 the entire neighbourhood is evenly dense. Ardmore contains the nine hole Ardmore Golf Course, it borders the Institute of Ocean Sciences to Pauquachin First Nation to the south. Cloake and Horth Hills: population 1,200 the densest area is uphill on Cloake Hill. Horth Hill Regional Park, managed by the CRD is located near the center; the park offers the second highest in North Saanich after Mount Newton. There are no commercial establishments in all of this neighbourhood, it is purely residential and forested, like much of the municipality; the north shore, the end of the Saanich Peninsula offers several beach accesses with views of the Satellite Channel, Mount Tuam on Saltspring Island and other surrounding islands.
Dean Park: population 3,200 is the most populous and dense neighbourhood in the municipality. It is located on the sloped eastern flank of Mount Newton, directly below John Dean Provincial Park. Below the hill with a high concentration of streets is where Kelset Elementary, the Panorama Recreation center and the McTavish Junction are located. Dean Park borders Central Saanich. Deep Cove: population 2,000 with the Coal Point and marina area most densely populated area. Along West Saanich Road between Clayton and Wain roads is; this area contains a firehall, gas station, the Deep Cove Market, a church and Deep Cove Elementary School. Central North Saanich: the population of this area is not well defined; the area is regarded as having several neighbourhoods within and is little known as a whole, associated neighbourhoods include Pat Bay, Sandown and the Eagle Ridge Estates. Central North Saanich contains the Airport, the Dunsmuir Lodge, the Institute of Ocean Sciences and the former
Comox, British Columbia
Comox is a town of about 15,000 people on the southern coast of the Comox Peninsula in the Georgia Strait on the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The warm dry summers, mild winters, fertile soil and abundant sea life attracted First Nations thousands of years ago, who called the area kw'umuxws; when the area was opened for settlement in the mid-19th century, it attracted farmers, a lumber industry and a fishing industry. For over fifty years, the village remained isolated from the outside world other than by ship until roads and a railway were built into the area during the First World War; the installation of an air force base near the village during the Second World War brought new prosperity to the area, in recent years, Comox has become a popular tourist attraction due to its good fishing, local wildlife, year-round golf and proximity to the Mount Washington ski area, the Forbidden Plateau, Strathcona Provincial Park. The town is home to a Royal Canadian Air Force base CFB Comox, an airport for military and commercial airline use and the Sea Cadet training facility HMCS Quadra.
The mild climate has attracted many retirees to the area in the 21st century, resulting in a high rate of growth and a sharp increase in the median age of residents. Comox town is in the Comox Valley, along with several other communities, including Courtenay and the unincorporated hamlets of Royston, Union Bay, Fanny Bay, Black Creek and Merville; the nearby Comox Glacier is visible from many parts of the town and is the area's signature landmark. Archaeological evidence suggests there was an active Coast Salish fishing settlement at Comox for at least 4,000 years. Due to its gentle climate, fertile soil and abundant sea life, the Lekwiltok conquerors of the area, of the K'omox people, called the area kw'umuxws, anglicized to Komoux and to Comox. At the time of first contact with Europeans, the Pentlatch Nation, who spoke the Island Comox dialect of the Comox Coast Salish language, occupied the shores of present-day Comox Bay. Another Island Comox speaking Nation, the K'ómoks, occupied settlements further north along the east coast of Vancouver Island, in the area of present-day Campbell River, including Quadra Island and several other Gulf islands.
At the fishing village located at present-day Comox, the Pentlatch set out elaborate fishing weirs—nets on tidal flats tied to wooden stakes that would be covered at high tide but uncovered at low tide, allowing trapped fish to be removed. These wooden stakes can still be seen at low tide—local archaeologist Nancy Greene has estimated that up to 200,000 wooden stakes remain in the mud flats. Several of these wooden stakes were carbon dated, revealing the oldest to be made from a hemlock tree c.750 CE, while the youngest dated from around 1830. Some scientists estimate that the weirs could have supported a population of several thousand people; the Pentlatch harvested the abundant shellfish in Comox Bay. Centuries of discarded shells resulted in a deep strata of shell fragments along the shoreline of present-day Comox now known as the Great Comox Midden. By the 19th century, the K'ómoks had been driven out of their lands by a fierce group of Kwakwaka'wakw, the Lekwiltok, who raided other villages to capture slaves.
The K'ómoks migrated south to present-day Comox, where they allied with the resident Pentlatch against their common enemy. In 1862, a smallpox epidemic swept across Vancouver Island, killing an estimated 30% of First Nations people. A census of First Nations in the Comox Valley taken in 1876 revealed that the local First Nations population had dwindled to only 88 K'ómoks and 21 Pentlatch. In 1579, Francis Drake, on his circumnavigation of the globe in the Golden Hind, found a good port somewhere along the northwest coast of North America and stayed for several months while restocking supplies and trading with the inhabitants of the area, he named the region Nova Albion—Latin for "New Britain". Drake's detailed logs—and the exact location of Nova Albion— were lost in a 17th-century fire, but some historians believe Drake made a landing at Comox. In 1791, a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores produced a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia and visited Comox.
Captain George Vancouver arrived the following year, tasked by the British government with charting the northwest coast of North America. Vancouver, in concert with the Spanish expedition, entered the Courtenay River estuary between the present-day locations of Courtenay and Comox and charted the shoreline of Comox. By the middle of the 19th century and American settlements had sprung up in the Vancouver area and on southern Vancouver Island. In 1837, the Hudson Bay Company steamship Beaver began to search the south and east coasts of Vancouver Island for suitable locations for new trading posts, subsequently set up a post in the area, calling it "Komoux". HMS Constance, commanded by Captain Courtenay, was a frequent visitor to the area, was one of the first ships to use Augusta Bay and a long sandy hook-shaped spit for gunnery practice. In 1848, the river flowing through the Koumax valley was informally named the Courtenay River by British sailors after their captain. In 1857, Captain George Richards of HMS Plumper was tasked with undertaking a complete survey of the coastline of Vancouver Island, was given authority to name local landmarks.
When he arrived in the area, he confirmed the name as the Courtenay River. In 1853 Sir James Douglas, governor of Vancouver Island, took a journey up the coast of Vancouver Island aboard SS Beaver, recognized the a
Errington, British Columbia
Errington is a small community on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, located on Errington Road, off Highway 4, just south of Parksville and Qualicum Beach. The town, with a population of 3500, is a farming and residential community, with small businesses emerging in the downtown area; the Errington War Memorial Hall and adjacent park host such events as the seasonal farmers' market and craft sales, in which local individuals and businesses take part. Englishman River Falls Provincial Park is adjacent to the community. Towns in British Columbia Travel in British Columbia Official regional tourism website "Errington". BC Geographical Names
Langford, British Columbia
Langford is a city on southern Vancouver Island in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Langford is one of the 13 component municipalities of Greater Victoria and is within the Capital Regional District. Langford has a population of over 35,000 people, its municipal neighbours are Colwood to the southeast, Highlands to the north, Metchosin to the southwest, View Royal to the northeast. The City of Langford was incorporated on December 8, 1992. Langford's history of European settlement dates back to 1851, when Captain Edward Langford established one of the four Hudson's Bay Company farms in the Victoria area. In the early 1860s, the region of Langford experienced a short-lived gold rush in what is now Goldstream Provincial Park; the area was once a favourite recreation destination for thousands of Victorians in the late 1800s: day-trippers travelled via railway to the popular country resort Goldstream House Hotel. The region has become the fastest growing little city on Vancouver Island, with big retail stores and new residential developments, the expanding suburban town of Langford became a city in 2003.
The motto of Langford is "Golden in setting, determined in Spirit" containing a reference to the natural beauty of the City of Langford Goldstream Provincial Park, a comment on the community's drive to enhance Langford's special character and future. Langford is the fastest growing community in British Columbia attracting new residents from all over Greater Victoria, the Lower Mainland, Alberta due to new housing developments. Although the pace of development and some planning decisions have attracted criticism - some would argue the city is expanding too at the expense of natural surroundings and existing infrastructure, city council is too pro-development - the community continues to grow and attract residents, it is the largest municipality in the Western Communities, third-largest in the Capital Regional District after Saanich and Victoria. Activities in Langford include shopping at the many retail stores at Millstream Village and Westshore Town Centre with its 55 stores and services including major department and retail chain stores as well as a seven-screen Cineplex movie theatre.
Many city parks are attractions in Langford including City Centre Park, with a family-friendly entertainment zone including a Family Fun Park, Veterans Memorial Park located in the heart of downtown, at the center a cenotaph commemorating the men and women of the Canadian Forces who have given their lives in the line of duty and where Langford holds its yearly Remembrance Day ceremony. Community events include many parades, seasonal Goldstream farmer's market, the Summer Festival, Luxton Fair. Rugby Canada has its headquarters in Langford practicing at Westhills Stadium. A new $30 million YMCA/YWCA Aquatic Centre opened in May 2016, acclaimed by the mayor to be the "biggest project in the history of Langford", features multiple pools, recreation facilities and a new library. Visitors can participate in go-karting and mini-golfing, watch stock-car racing and demolition derby at Western Speedway. Langford is home to world-class golf courses including Bear Mountain Resort on Skirt Mountain; the large community resort offers a system of mountain bike trails as the training centre for the Canadian National Mountain Bike Team and is planning the development of clay tennis courts for the national team and a professional disc golf course.
There are many lakes in the area for fishing and non-motorized boating including Langford and Florence Lake. Langford is known for the many nature parks and network of trails popular with hikers and walkers alike including Mill Hill Park, Mount Wells, Thetis Lake Regional Park and the challenging high-elevation Mount Finlayson. Cyclists enjoy the picturesque multi-use Galloping Goose Trail a railway line, that moves through urban and rural parts of Langford and is used as a commuter trail to downtown Victoria taking only 45 minutes on bicycle starting at Goldstream Village using the Wale Road connector. Goldstream Provincial Park is a large 477 ha nature reserve home to old-growth trees, estuaries and an education visitor centre Nature House offering many visitor activities such as camping, picnicking and wildlife watching like eagle viewing during the annual salmon run. Events and news of the region are reported by West Shore Voice News. Langford is the urban core of the five suburban municipalities comprising the region of West Shore for a combined population of about 75,000.
Notable physical features of Langford include the three prominent lakes and the Humpback Reservoir, several peaks such as Mount Finlayson and Mount Wells, the notable Goldstream Provincial Park. The Malahat drive, part of the Trans-Canada Highway, begins in Langford, the Galloping Goose Regional Trail and the E and N Railway go through the city. Langford enjoys a temperate climate with distinct dry and rainy seasons. Most built-up areas in Langford are on basalt bedrock, while lower-lying regions of the Langford Plain from Langford Lake to Royal Bay are glacial till, Happy Valley and Goldstream River valley