March Engineering was a Formula One constructor and manufacturer of customer racing cars from the United Kingdom. Although only moderately successful in Grand Prix competition, March racing cars enjoyed much better achievement in other categories of competition, including Formula Two, Formula Three, IndyCar and IMSA GTP sportscar racing. March Engineering began operations in 1969, its four founders were Alan Rees, Graham Coaker and Robin Herd. They each had a specific area of expertise: Max Mosley looked after the commercial side, Robin Herd was the designer, Alan Rees managed the racing team and Graham Coaker oversaw production at the factory in Bicester, Oxfordshire; the history of March is dominated by the conflict between the need for constant development and testing to remain at the peak of competitiveness in F1 and the need to build simple, reliable cars for customers in order to make a profit. Herd's original F1 plan was to build a single-car team around Jochen Rindt, but Rindt became dismayed at the size of the March programme and elected to continue at Team Lotus.
March's launch was unprecedented in its impact. After building a single Formula Three car in 1969, March announced that they would be introducing customer cars for F1, F2, F3, Formula Ford and Can-Am in 1970, as well as running works F1, F2 and F3 teams; the Formula One effort looked promising, with March supplying its 701 chassis to Tyrrell for Jackie Stewart. These cars were a stopgap for Tyrrell, who no longer had the use of Matra chassis and were in the process of constructing their own car. In addition, the factory ran two team cars for Jo Siffert and Chris Amon sponsored by STP. A third STP car, entered by Andy Granatelli for Mario Andretti, appeared on several occasions. Ronnie Peterson appeared in a semi-works car for Colin Crabbe when his works Formula Two commitments allowed; the team constructed ten Formula One chassis that year, in addition to Formula Two, Formula Three, Formula Ford and Can-Am chassis. Stewart gave the March its first Formula One victory, at the 1970 Spanish Grand Prix, both Amon and Stewart took a non-championship race victory, but the works team did not win a Grand Prix.
The 701 had distinctive aerofoil-profile fuel tanks at the sides of the car designed by Peter Wright of Specialised Mouldings. The 701's tanks skirts to help generate any meaningful ground effect. Herd described the 701 as a good 1969 car and not what he would have done had he been able to run a small team for a star like Rindt - the 701 was designed and built quickly and he claims he would have built something more like the 711. For the 1971 Formula One season March Engineering came up with the remarkable 711 chassis, which had aerodynamics by Frank Costin and an ovoid front wing described as the Spitfire or "tea-tray" wing; the car took no wins, but Peterson finished second on four occasions, ending as runner-up in the World Championship. Alfa Romeo V8 powered cars were entered, to little avail; the 1972 Formula One season failed to capitalise on the promise March showed in 1970-71. Three distinct models of the car were used, beginning with the 721, a development of the 711. Peterson and Niki Lauda drove the disappointing experimental 721X factory cars.
Frank Williams ran regular 721 customer cars for Henri Pescarolo and Carlos Pace. The 721X was deemed to be a disaster and abandoned; the 721G was light and quick, the works team soon built their own chassis. The 721G set the trend for future March F1 cars, which for the rest of the 1970s were scaled-up F2 chassis. Meanwhile, March was going from strength to strength in Formula Three; the German team Eifelland entered under its own name a 721 much-modified with distinctive and eccentric bodywork by designer Luigi Colani for its driver Rolf Stommelen. This car was unsuccessful, reverted to conventional 721 form and was used by John Watson to make his F1 debut for John Goldie's Goldie Hexagon Racing team. March's only notable result was Peterson's third place in Germany. 1973 was the low-point for March in Formula One. The four extant 721Gs were re-bodied and fitted with nose-mounted radiators and the crash-absorbing deformable structures that became mandatory that season. Without significant STP money, the March factory team was struggling, running an unsponsored car for Jean-Pierre Jarier, while Hesketh bought a car for James Hunt to race.
Jarier was replaced by Tom Wheatcroft's driver Roger Williamson, who suffered a fatal accident in Zandvoort (at which race March privateer David Purley attempted to resc
Hewland is a British engineering company, founded in 1957 by Mike Hewland, which specialises in racing-car gearboxes. Hewland employ 130 people at their Maidenhead facility and have diversified into a variety of markets being successful in electric vehicle transmission supply. Hewland are supplying into Formula 1, Formula E, DTM, LMP, RallyCross, Prototype and GT Sportscar. Mike Hewland ran a small engineering business at Maidenhead in the UK with the speciality in gear cutting. In 1959, Bob Gibson-Jarvie, the Chief Mechanic of UDT Laystall racing team running Cooper F2 cars, sought help from Hewland as gearbox troubles were experienced; the result of this request came out as six successful gearboxes being designed and built in 1959, Hewland was in the gearbox business. The first transaxle product, the Hewland Mk. I of 1960, was a minor modification of the Volkswagen Beetle 4 speed transaxle used upside-down with custom made differential housing side plates for the midship engine Lola Mk. III built for the new Formula Junior rules in 1961.
Hewland Mk. II was a similar 4 speed transaxle with more modifications for Coventry Climax engined Elva Mk. VI 1.1 litre sports racer in 1961. Hewland Mk. III of 1962 became the first product for the public, which used the magnesium alloy case of the Beetle transaxle to house 5 pairs of bespoke straight-cut constant mesh spur gears with dog rings operated by custom-made brass shift forks. Gear selector shaft was located in the nose housing, unmodified as in the Beetle set up, facing rear-ward at the tail end of the box in the front-side-back position on a midship engine racing cars; the elimination of synchromesh parts provided the space for an additional pair of gears for the 5th speed. This Mk. III became popular for small displacement formula cars and racing sports cars, was the basis on which all the products were built. Mk. IV had the tail casing made by Hewland, with the selector rod located in the right side lower position, facing forward; this made the shifter linkage design easier on the part of chassis manufacturers.
Together with its high torque version Mk. V, Mk. IV became a big seller. Mk. VI of 1965 was an improved version of Mk. IV, which established Hewland as the dominant volume production transaxle manufacturer in the small displacement midship-engine racing car market, helped by the de facto standard usage in the newly born Formula Ford series. Although Formula Ford engines displaced 1.6-litre, the capacity was not a problem as the 1.5-litre rating was for higher power racing engines as opposed to the single carburetor, production cam and compression ratio regulation of the formula. The advantages of the series were: Dog-ring gear selection made it quick shifting; the structure that enabled changing of gear ratios on the 2nd through 5th speeds possible without removing the transaxle from the vehicle, or detaching it from the engine. Upside-down usage enabled the dry sump racing engines to be mounted low on the chassis; the 3rd, 4th and the 5th gears had the same thickness and drive/driven axis distance, thus were interchangeable.
Magnesium alloy Volkswagen case made it strong and light weight. Hewland was claimed to be the first company that made racing car gearboxes, however, a transaxle housed in an aluminium alloy case for racing purpose in midship-engine configuration had been designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Horch in 1933 as a part of Auto Union Type A. Valerio Colotti had been producing gearboxes for racing purposes before 1959, his transaxle for midship-engine racing cars debuted on 10 May 1959 at Monaco Grand Prix on Behra-Porsche. Colotti 5 speed T.32 transaxle, which weighed less than 35 kg, was in use by Rob Walker in 1960. Lotus Engineering made a transaxle for front-engine Lotus 12 in 1957 designed by Richard Ansdale and Harry Mundy, this gearbox/differential unit was adopted to midship-engine use for Lotus 18 which debuted on 8 April 1960. Hewland dominated the racing scenes in the 1960s, 70s, 80s and 90s, still is a leading company in racing transmissions with its focus shifted a bit toward custom engineering work for vehicle manufacturers.
In addition to the traditional manual transmission products covering all the racing and rallying classes, Hewland now offers a complete semi-automatic transmission components including shift actuators, throttle actuators, shift position sensors and steering wheel paddle systems. The following is the list of the smaller product range housed in Volkswagen case except for LD200. Transmission capacity is measured by the maximum output torque, the product of the input torque times overall reduction ratio. However, as the output torque is proportional to the input torque with typical gear and differential reduction ratios, as the input torque is proportional to the engine displacement, Hewland used to indicate the maximum allowable engine size, the maximum input torque measured in Lbs/ft. as the transaxle selection guide. The following is the list of larger product range up to 1981. After an approach from Richard Noble, Hewland was persuaded to design and build the AE75, a 75 bhp aero-engine for Noble ARV Super2, a 2-seater light aircraft.
This engine, an inverted three-cylinder water-cooled two-stroke unit with dual ignition and a 2.7:1 reduction gearbox, was developed from Hewland's existing two-cylinder microlight engine. The AE75 was light at 49 kg, thereby contributing to the overall lightness of the aircraft, so that the ARV Super2 weighed 40% less than its competitor, the Cessna 152. Hewland has been involved with various track day cars. Most
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
1977 Brazilian Grand Prix
The 1977 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Interlagos on January 23, 1977. James Hunt took pole again with Carlos Reutemann second and Mario Andretti third on the grid. Home hero Carlos Pace took the lead at the start, with Hunt dropping behind Reutemann as well but soon Hunt was back behind Pace and attacking. There was contact, Hunt took the lead whereas Pace had to pit for repairs. Hunt led Reutemann until he was passed by Reutemann. Hunt pitted for new tyres, rejoined fourth and soon passed Niki Lauda in the Ferrari and John Watson to reclaim second. Reutemann marched on to victory, Hunt was second and Lauda third after Watson crashed out. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
BMW in motorsport
Throughout its history, BMW cars and motorcycles have been successful in a range of motorsport activities. Apart from the factory efforts, many privateer teams enter BMW road cars in Touring car racing. BMW entered cars or provided engines in Formula One, Formula Two and sportscar racing. BMW is active in ALMS, the World Touring Car Championship, the Isle of Man TT, the North West 200, the Superbike World Championship and the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters. An outstanding role has been played by the 1,500 cc BMW M10 engine block; the four-cylinder started with modest 75 hp in 1961, became successful in touring cars, developed over 300 hp in 1970s Formula Two, at the ripe age of a quarter century, produced twentyfold its original power in the 1986 turbocharged BMW M12/13/1, producing an outstanding 1400 hp. This engine became wideley regarded as one of the most powerful, if not the most, powerful engine in the history of Formula 1 as well as being the most powerful engine built by BMW; as the base of the BMW S14 engine of the original BMW M3, it collected many more wins.
Other impressive displays of engineering involve the production of the BMW S70/2 engine, implemented in the McLaren F1, which set the world record for "world's fastest production car" on March 31, 1998. As well as achieving a Guinness Book of World Records record for longest continuous Drift BMW enjoyed a dominant period in motorcycle racing prior to the Second World War with notable achievements such as Georg Meier's victory in the Senior Race at the 1939 Isle of Man TT. Post war BMW success revolved around Sidecar racing, the marque becoming the premier machinery on the Snaefell Mountain Course, the smaller Clypse Course and from 1949 until the mid 1970s the Sidecar World Championship. BMW-powered sidecars have won numerous World Championships, notable competitors being Rolf Steinhausen, Klaus Enders and Max Deubel; the pre-war dominance enjoyed in motorcycle road racing faded post-war, the main road racing campaign centered on Production Bike Racing with Helmut Dähne campaigning the marque with BMW's best post-war finish until the second decade of the 21st Century being a 3rd-placed position in the 1974 Production 1000cc TT.
BMW resumed road racing in 2009, entering the World Superbike Championship with its BMW S1000RR. This resumption saw its official re-introduction at the Isle of Man the 2014 Isle of Man TT seeing Michael Dunlop campaigning BMW machinery in the Superbike and Senior TTs. Dunlop took victory in the three main solo races, securing BMW's first win in the Senior TT since that of Georg Meier in 1939. Dunlop again took victory in the 2016 Superbike TT during the process of which he set a new outright lap record for the Snaefell Mountain Course at 130.306 mph. BMW have won 25 Isle of an additional 8 victories in the solo classes. In total BMW have recorded 72 rostrum places at the Isle of Man TT, having notched up a total of 382 finishes. BMW motorcycles have won the Dakar Rally six times. In 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1999, 2000. In 2009, BMW returned to the Superbike World Championship with their all new superbike, the BMW S1000RR. In the 1930s, BMW pilots were successful with the BMW 328 two-litre sports car, winning many races including the prestigious Mille Miglia – a class win in 1938 and an outright win in 1940 with Huschke von Hanstein.
A Frazer Nash BMW 328 driven by A. F. P. Fane and came in fifth overall in the 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans. In fact, the BMW 328 proved unbeatable in international sports car races in the two-liter class. Since the pre-war BMW 328 model, BMW had a reputation for sporty production cars; the expensive V8-powered BMW 503 and BMW 507 of the 1950s could not add much to this reputation, unlike the small motorcycle-engine powered BMW 700 which e.g. was driven by Hans Stuck to German championships in hillclimbing. Since the 1962 introduction of the BMW New Class in 1961, BMW has become one of the most successful marques in touring car racing; the original 1500 cc 4-cylinder BMW M10 engine block was modified to a four-valve design which won championships in Formula 2. Equipped with a turbocharger, the version BMW M12/13 won the 1983 Formula One championship. In the 1970s, BMW M GmbH was formed to support the racing efforts; this led to the development of the BMW M1 and in the 1980s to the BMW M3. Having won more road races than any other model in history, the E30 M3 is the world's most successful road race car.
Its success was emulated during the Supertouring era in the 1990s, when the 318i and 320i won several touring car national championships, including the BTCC, French Supertouring Championship, Super Tourenwagen Cup, Italian Superturismo and Australian Super Touring Championship. British Touring Car Championship: BMW won the drivers' championship in 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and manufacturers' championship in 1991 and 1993; the DRM was won by Harald Ertl in a BMW 320i Turbo in 1978. In the DTM, the following BMW drivers have won the DTM drivers' championship: 1987: Eric van der Poele, BMW M3 1989: Roberto Ravaglia, BMW M3 2012: Bruno Spengler, BMW M3 DTM 2014 and 2016 Marco Wittmann, BMW M4 DTMEuropean Touring Car Championship: Since 1968, BMW won 24 drivers' championships along with several manufacturers' and teams' titles. Japanese Touring Car Championship: BMW flew from Europe to Japan to compete in the JTCC and won the championship in 1995. SCCA Pro Racing World Challenge Touring Car Series: BMW won the manufacturer's championship in 2001 and Bill Auberlen, driving a Turner Motorsport BMW 325i, wo
Frank Williams Racing Cars
Frank Williams Racing Cars was a British Formula One team and constructor. Frank Williams had been a motor-racing enthusiast since a young age, after a career in saloon cars and Formula Three, backed by Williams's shrewd instincts as a dealer in racing cars and spares, he realised he'd reached his peak as a driver and started entering other drivers, in particular his friend and sometime flatmate Piers Courage. After Williams backed Courage in a successful 1968 Formula Two season, he purchased a Brabham Formula One car for Courage in 1969; this angered Jack Brabham, as the car had been sold to Williams with the expectation that it would be used in the Tasman Series and converted to Formula 5000. Courage in fact had a great year, taking second place at both the US Grands Prix, their efforts attracted the interest of Italian sports car manufacturer De Tomaso, who built a Formula One chassis for the 1970 season. However, the car was uncompetitive, failing to finish the first four races of the year.
In the fifth, the Dutch Grand Prix, the De Tomaso 505/38 caught fire, killing Courage. The death of his friend upset Williams; the team soldiered on, first with Brian Redman with Tim Schenken. With no results, the partnership with De Tomaso was dissolved. For 1971, Williams purchased a year-old March 701, ran Frenchman Henri Pescarolo; the team upgraded to a new March 711, but results were difficult to come by. The old car was entered for Max Jean at the French Grand Prix. After the success of 1969, Williams was now low on funds, living a hand-to-mouth existence from race to race. Pescarolo did, keep the outfit ticking over with fourth place at the British Grand Prix and sixth in Austria. French oil company Motul came on board for the 1972 season, enabling Williams to buy a new March 721 for Pescarolo, while backing from Italian toy manufacturer Politoys provided money to build an in-house chassis. From the Brazilian Grand Prix, Carlos Pace was entered in the previous year's March 711 taking fifth at the Belgian Grand Prix.
The Len Bailey-designed Politoys FX3 was a conventional Cosworth-engined car with a Hewland FG400 gearbox. It debuted in the hands of Pescarolo at the British Grand Prix, but the steering failed and the car was damaged. Pescarolo switched back to his March 721. In its last appearance as the Politoys FX3, Chris Amon drove the car for the team in the end of season non-Championship 1972 World Championship Victory Race at Brands Hatch, but qualified only 20th and retired with engine failure. Motul and Politoys both withdrew their backing at the end of 1972, but Williams managed to attract backing from cigarette giant Marlboro and Italian sports car manufacturer Iso Autoveicoli S.p. A. for the 1973 season. The Politoys FX3 was reworked as the Iso–Marlboro FX3B and a second car was built. Two new drivers were signed, New Zealand's Howden Ganley and Italy's Nanni Galli. At the first race in Argentina, Galli qualified 16th with Ganley last on the grid. Galli's engine failed on the first lap, but Ganley finished the race, although he was not classified due to being 17 laps adrift of the winner.
The team fared better in Brazil with Ganley finishing Galli ninth. Galli was injured testing a sports car and replaced for the following race in South Africa by local driver Jackie Pretorius. Pretorius retired his FX3B at half-distance with overheating problems, but Ganley managed tenth, albeit six laps down; the FX3B had become obsolete by this time due to new deformable structure regulations and was replaced by the new Iso–Marlboro IR. However, the FX3B was raced in two non-Championship races at this time; the New Zealander retired at the FX3B's last race, the 1973 BRDC International Trophy, this time with low oil pressure. Introduced at the 1973 Spanish Grand Prix, the Iso–Marlboro IR was driven by eight different drivers during the rest of the 1973 season. Ganley was the only regular driver and he scored a point with the car at the Canadian Grand Prix towards the end of the season. Of the other drivers. Both Iso Rivolta and Marlboro left before the 1974 season; the two IR chassis were retained, now re-designated the FW after Frank Williams, but only a single car was entered for Arturo Merzario, who had replaced Ganley as the team's number one driver.
There was an early-season boost as Merzario placed sixth in the third race of the season in South Africa, but when the second car was reintroduced, the string of paydrivers employed to drive it produced little in the way of results. After three non-qualifications, Jacques Laffite was brought in to partner Merzario and performances improved, culminating in a fourth-place finish for Merzario in Italy; this gave the team a total of four points, another tenth-place finish in the Constructors' Championship. Three Iso–Marlboro FW chassis were used during 1974, including a newly built car, these were renamed Williams FW01, FW02 and FW03 for 1975. Merzario and Laffite stayed on for the start of the 1975 season as the team continued to use the FW02 and FW03; the new Williams FW04 replaced the FW02 at the Spanish Grand Prix, promising British youngster Tony Brise substitute