Republican People's Party (Turkey)
The Republican People's Party is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey. It is the oldest political party in the country, is the main opposition in the Grand National Assembly; the CHP describes itself as "a modern social democratic party, faithful to the founding principles and values of the Republic of Turkey". The party is cited as "the founding party of modern Turkey", its logo consists of the Six Arrows, which represent the foundational principles of Kemalism: republicanism, statism, populism and reformism. The political party was established during the Sivas Congress in 1919 as a union of resistance groups against the Greek invasion of Anatolia; the union represented Turkish people as a unified front during the Turkish War of Independence. On 9 September 1923, the "People's Party" declared itself to be a political organization and on 29 October 1923, announced the establishment of the Turkish Republic. On 10 November 1924, the People's Party renamed itself the "Republican People's Party" as Turkey moved into a one-party period.
During the one-party period, the CHP became the major political organisation of a one-party state. However, CHP faced two opposition parties during this period, both established upon the request of CHP leader and founder of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in efforts to kick-start a multi-party democracy in Turkey; the first one was the Progressive Republican Party established in 1924 by famous generals such as Kazım Karabekir and Ali Fuat Cebesoy, who both served during the Turkish War of Independence, the second was the Liberal Republican Party founded by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930. Both parties, were banned within a few months of their establishment by the state for veering too to Islamism; this experience was followed by the founding of the National Development Party by Nuri Demirağ in 1945. The current structure of the party was established within the transition to the multi-party period. After World War II, the leader of the CHP, İsmet İnönü, introduced democratic elections to Turkish society.
There was widespread dissatisfaction with the CHP in the four years after its victory at the first multi-party general election. The party lost the following elections in 1950, Celâl Bayar replaced İnönü as president. During the interim "multi-party periods" in between the military coups of 1960, 1971, 1980, the CHP was regarded as being social-democratic, civic nationalist and secularist/laicist; the CHP, along with all other political parties of the time, was suspended for a brief period by the military junta of 1980. An inheritor party which still participates in Turkish democratic life as a separate party was established in 1984 by the name of the Democratic Left Party, created by the former leader of the CHP, Bülent Ecevit; the CHP was re-established with its original name on 9 September 1992, with the participation of a majority of its members from the pre-1980 period. The Republican People's Party is a centre-left political party with traditional ties to the middle and upper-middle classes such as white-collar workers, retired generals, government bureaucrats, college students, left-leaning intellectuals and labour unions such as DİSK.
The loose relationship between CHP and some trade unions, business chambers and most non-governmental organisations has alienated many voters. The distance between the party administration and many leftist grassroots left oriented Kurdish voters, contributed to the party's shift away from the political left. Despite heavy criticism from liberal and libertarian socialist interest groups, the CHP still holds a significant position in the Socialist International and is an associate member of the Party of European Socialists; the CHP urged the Socialist International to accept the Republican Turkish Party of Northern Cyprus as an observer member. At the 2007 general election, CHP ran in alliance with the Democratic Left Party; the CHP suffered a heavy defeat. The CHP, DSP, YTP combined received 21.77% of the votes in the 2002. The party finished first only in the three provinces of Edirne, Tekirdağ, Kırklareli, as well as two provinces on the Aegean coast which were İzmir and Muğla. With these results, 112 candidates were elected to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey from the CHP electoral sheet, compared to 178 in 2002.
The CHP increased its vote share from 20.9% to 23.1% in the 2009 local elections. The party gained considerable ground by winning over Antalya, Zonguldak, Tekirdağ, Aydın, despite losing Trabzon municipality. In 20 provinces of Turkey, the party received less than 3% of the votes. At the general elections held in June 2011, the CHP was able to increase its number and percentage of voters to 11,155,972 and 25.98% respectively. At the 2014 local elections, the CHP's total votes went down to 10,835,876 yet it received 26.34% of the overall vote. CHP-backed candidate Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu was able to get only 38.44% of the votes during the presidential election five months later. In the June 2015 general elections where the ruling AKP lost its parliamentary majority for the first time, the party received 11,518,139 votes, or 24.95%. A coalition government was not formed and snap elections were held in November 2015, where the CHP received 12,111,812 votes, or 25.32%. During the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–1923, the parliament in Ankara was composed of different types of deputies.
To have harmony among his followers, Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues formed Müdafaa-ı Hukuk grubu. The opposition to Mustafa Kemal or to the commis
Anatolia College in Merzifon
The Anatolia College in Merzifon or American College of Mersovan was a 4-year college, high school, theological seminary and hospital located in the town of Merzifon in the Rûm Province of the Ottoman Empire. Classes were offered to both male and female students. Established by American missionaries, the college existed from 1886 to 1924; the college was destroyed by the Armenian Genocide in 1915, followed by World War I. Closed until 1919, it was subsequently relocated to Thessaloniki and still operates as Anatolia College; the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions established the school in 1864 as a theological seminary after the American college in Bebek, İstanbul, the Robert College, abandoned its theological training and concentrated in only general education due to growing number of young people interested in English language. The school in Merzifon served in the beginning to educate the children of the Greek and Armenian community in Anatolia, who wanted to become pastors or preachers.
In 1886, as more and more young people wanted a general education, the program at the theological seminary in Merzifon was expanded to include a four-year liberal arts college. The institution was named Anatolia College, Charles Tracy became the first president, serving until 1912. By 1911 six languages were taught and used in the college, that year 282 students attended from 16 provinces of Turkey, as well as Greece, Cyprus and Russia; the faculty, in which Americans formed a minority, exercised substantial direction over the academic program. The college's motto was "The Morning Cometh" referring to the ancient Greek word for dawn, as well as the region "Anatolia"; the college seal showed the sun rising over lofty Akdağ at the eastern end of the Merzifon Plain. Students, principally Greek and Armenian, came most from outside of Merzifon and boarded at the school; the faculty was Greek and American. The half-German J. J. Manissadijan was Professor of Botany and founded a college museum. During 1911 - 15 multiple new buildings were added, including North College in 1912.
A deep well and water system, including a Turkish bath used by hundreds every week, a large flour mill and granaries, along with residential units, were in place by 1915. Foundations were built for the Union Hall and George Hills White Hall, but never finished due to the war; the library grew to include 40 periodicals. During the year 1913-14, the faculty listed 32 names, including 11 Armenians, 10 Americans, 9 Greeks, 1 Russian and 1 Swiss; that year there were 425 students, of whom 300 were boarders, including 200 Greeks, 160 Armenians, 40 Russians, 25 Turks. The evolving curriculum intended to prepare graduates for further instruction, preferably at the Marsovan Seminary, was progressively redesigned to meet student demand for occupational training, emphasizing three areas: languages, the major arts and sciences taught in American colleges, subjects relating to business and public administration as practiced in Turkey; the Anatolia Girls School evolved as a self-contained institution with its own premises covering over four-and-a-half acres on the southern section of the mission compound, including classrooms, gymnasium, teachers' quarters, athletic courts, surrounding gardens.
The Girls School aspired to develop self-respect and strong character among its charges, while providing education restricted to males. Over half the students came from Marsovan as day students, accounting for the high proportion of Armenians to Greeks; when Armenian activists posted broadsides in 1893, Ottoman troops jailed many Armenians and damaged some college buildings. The damage was rebuilt with compensation paid by the Ottoman Government. In 1915 the Armenian Genocide came to Merzifon; that spring and summer rights were restricted property was seized, hundreds of Armenians and Christians were seized and removed from the town. On August 10, 1915 forces of the Ottoman Empire broke into the Anatolia College campus and seized Armenian faculty and students. Many were murdered on the spot; those "deported" were never heard from again. This atrocity became known to the west when George E. White, President of the college at the time, returned to the United States and described the scene to a New York Times reporter in 1917.
On September 30, 1917, the newspaper published the resulting article captioned, "Armenians Killed with Axes by Turks - Members of the Faculty at Anatolia College Among More than 1200 Slain at Marsovan." In the wake of the Armenian Genocide the college took in and cared for hundreds of orphaned children of murdered Armenian parents. The college was for the most part closed until after World War I. After the end of the WWI, the facilities of the college at the campus consisted of a kindergarten, a school for the Deaf, a college-level program, one of the largest hospitals in Asia Minor, an orphanage for 2,000 orphans in addition to the theological seminary and high schools for boys and girls, all housed in more than 40 buildings of New England style; the activities of the American missionaries came de facto to an end with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. In 1921 the Turkish nationalists under Mustafa Kemal hanged in Amaseia three teachers and several students of the college; the latter were charged with plotting armed rebellion.
After the Greco-Turkish War and su
Keşkek known as Kashkak and Kashkek, is a sort of ceremonial meat or chicken and wheat or barley stew found in Turkish and Greek cuisines. In 2011, Keşkek was confirmed to be an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Turkey by UNESCO, it is documented in Iran and Greater Syria as early as the 15th century and it is still consumed by many Iranians around the world. The origins of this dish allude to Kashk, which, in 16th- to 18th-century Iran had sheep's milk added to wheat or barley flour and meat, mixed in equal parts. Keşkek is traditional for wedding breakfasts in Turkey. Under the name of κεσκέκ, κεσκέκι and κισκέκ, it is a festival dish in Lesbos and Samos as well as among the Pontian Greeks and in EpirusIn Lesbos, keskek is prepared on summer nights when a ceremonial bull is being slaughtered, cooked overnight and eaten next day with wheat. Keşkek is called "haşıl" in Middle Anatolia regions in Turkey. In both Turkey and Iran, it is a common dish and consumed during religious festivals, weddings or funerals.
Keşkek is similar to the Armenian dish called harissa. The Slavic word kasha may have been borrowed from the Persian kishk or both may be cognate with the Sanskrit word kashaya'medicinal drink'. Kibbeh Haleem Harissa Françoise Aubaile-Sallenave, "Al-Kishk: the past and present of a complex culinary practice", in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East and New York, 1994 and 2000, ISBN 1-86064-603-4. Excerpts Cooking keskek in Lesbos Cooking keskek for the Bull's Festival in Ayia Paraskevi, Lesbos in 1996 A plate of Turkish chickpea keşkek in Merzifon on the Black Sea coast
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in the Indian subcontinent, South Caucasian, Middle Eastern and Central Asian cuisines. In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef, lamb, or pork—mixed with spices and/or onions. In the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East, koftas are made from lamb, mutton or chicken, whereas Greek and Balkan versions may use pork, lamb, or mixture of the three. In Greece and Cyprus there are vegetarian versions known as hortoketftedes eaten during fasting periods such as Lent. A vegetarian version is made in Turkey, called Çiğ köfte, in India, vegetarian varieties include koftas made from potato, paneer, or banana. In Europe, kofta is served in a fast-food sandwich in kebab shops. Koftas in India are served cooked in a spicy curry/gravy and are eaten with boiled rice or a variety of Indian breads. In Iran and Azerbaijan, koftas are served with a spiced gravy, as dry variations are considered to be kebabs. Shrimp and fish koftas are found in South India, West Bengal, some parts of the Persian Gulf.
The word kofta comes from Classical Persian kōfta, meaning "rissole", from the verb kōftan, "to pound" or "to grind", reflecting the ground meat used for the meatballs. The languages of the region have adopted the word with minor phonetic variation; the meat is mixed with other ingredients, such as rice, vegetables, or eggs to form a smooth paste. They can be grilled, steamed, baked, or marinated, may be served with a rich spicy sauce. Koftas are sometimes made from fish or vegetables rather than red meat in India, they can be shaped into meat balls or cigar like shapes. Early recipes concern seasoned lamb rolled into orange-sized balls, glazed with egg yolk and sometimes saffron; this method was taken to the West and is referred to as "gilding" or "endoring". Many regional variations exist, notable among them include the unusually large Azerbaijani Tabriz köftesi, having an average diameter of 20 cm. In Albania, specialized shops called qofteri offer qofte, they are considered to be a specialty of Korçë.
Qofte are served on a metal plate and topped with fresh raw onions with bread. Beer is the most popular beverage accompaniment. In Central Asia, kofta is cooked with liberal amounts of tail fat. In the former Yugoslav republics, present day Bosnia, Montenegro and Slovenia, they are called ćufte or ćufteta, they are made of any single meat including fish, or mixture of meats, mixed with finely chopped onions, breadcrumbs and seasonings. They are most made by first being browned and simmered in a roux made with paprika called crvena zaprška "red roux", or in a tomato sauce similar to Italo-American meatballs. In Bulgaria, kofta is made from pork, beef, or veal, or a mixture of the three, they are served as a meze with tarator. In Greece and Cyprus, kofta are known as keftedes and are cooked by being fried and eaten with tzatziki or yogurt; the name is given to fried vegetarian fritters, such as kolokytho-keftedes, horto-keftedes. Sushrutha Samhita was termed pishtha. Koftas in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent are cooked in a spiced gravy, or curry, sometimes simmered with hard-boiled eggs.
Vegetarian koftas are eaten by a large population in India. The British dish Scotch egg may have been inspired by the Indian dish Nargisi kofta, where hard-boiled eggs are encased in a layer of spicy kofta meat. In Bengal, a region of eastern India, koftas are made from prawns, green bananas, cabbage or meat, such as minced goat meat. There are many variations of kofta dish; the new fruity flavour variation is Kathal Ke Koftas of jackfruit. It is a vegetarian dish and popular in India; this dish includes ingredients like boiled jackfruit, mashed potatoes, green chilli, red chilli powder, garam masala etc. This kofte served with garnish with fresh cream and coriander leaves. In Israel, meat kofta is part of the Mizrahi Jewish cuisine, is made of minced meat and spices, cooked with tomato sauce, date syrup, pomegranate syrup, or tamarind syrup with vegetables or beans. A fish variety is prepared with minced fish, dried peppers, black pepper, salt, is cooked in a tomato stew with chickpeas or white beans.
The word kufta in Modern Hebrew, however, is used to describe a broad variety of dough dumplings, was coined after the mention in the Jerusalem Talmud, written circa 200 CE. In Jordan, they are made of beef, lamb, or a mixture of chicken and beef with allspice, mint, black pepper, salt and are fried in olive oil or cooked in tomato or pomegranate stews. Kofta in the Palestinian Community is similar to the Jordanian kofta, as they are considered by many to be the same ethnic group, it pronounced as kafta, is made of minced meat beef or veal, or a mixture of beef with lamb. It contains herbs, finely chopped onions and spices, it is either flattened on a tray and called suneyet kofta, or made into patties. Another common variety of Palestinian ko
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
The Ilkhanate spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey; the Ilkhanate was based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, western Afghanistan, the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke; the term ilkhan here means " khan of the tribe, khan of the'ulus'" and this inferior "khanship" refers to the initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire.
The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219; the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iran was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Subedei, who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana came under Mongol control after the invasion; the undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family. Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Korguz, in that region. Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire declared their allegiance to Jalal, he repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia.
However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute. To the west and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan; the Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei proceeded to populate Herat; the Mongol military governors made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir.
After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols. Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244. In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder, Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251, he ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Pushang, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Farah, Kabul and Afghanistan; the founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished.
Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian rule, he established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria. He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza conquering Ayyubid Syria; the death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai. He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt. Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.
Hulagu's descendants r