In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions. Because mesons are composed of quark subparticles, they have physical size, notably a diameter of one femtometer, about 1.2 times the size of a proton or neutron. All mesons are unstable, with the longest-lived lasting for only a few hundredths of a microsecond. Charged mesons decay to form neutrinos. Uncharged mesons may decay to photons. Both of these decays imply. Outside the nucleus, mesons appear in nature only as short-lived products of high-energy collisions between particles made of quarks, such as cosmic rays and ordinary matter. Mesons are frequently produced artificially in a cyclotron in the collisions of protons, antiprotons, or other particles. Higher energy mesons were created momentarily in the Big Bang, but are not thought to play a role in nature today. However, such heavy mesons are created in particle accelerator experiments, in order to understand the nature of the heavier types of quark that compose the heavier mesons.
Mesons are part of the hadron particle family, are defined as particles composed of an number of quarks. The other members of the hadron family are the baryons: subatomic particles composed of odd numbers of valence quarks, some experiments show evidence of exotic mesons, which do not have the conventional valence quark content of two quarks, but 4 or more; because quarks have a spin of 1⁄2, the difference in quark number between mesons and baryons results in conventional two-quark mesons being bosons, whereas baryons are fermions. Each type of meson has a corresponding antiparticle in which quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks and vice versa. For example, a positive pion is made of one up one down antiquark; because mesons are composed of quarks, they participate in both the strong interactions. Mesons with net electric charge participate in the electromagnetic interaction. Mesons are classified according to their quark content, total angular momentum and various other properties, such as C-parity and G-parity.
Although no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more stable than the more massive, hence are easier to observe and study in particle accelerators or in cosmic ray experiments. Mesons are typically less massive than baryons, meaning that they are more produced in experiments, thus exhibit certain higher-energy phenomena more than do baryons. For example, the charm quark was first seen in the J/Psi meson in 1974, the bottom quark in the upsilon meson in 1977. From theoretical considerations, in 1934 Hideki Yukawa predicted the existence and the approximate mass of the "meson" as the carrier of the nuclear force that holds atomic nuclei together. If there were no nuclear force, all nuclei with two or more protons would fly apart due to electromagnetic repulsion. Yukawa called his carrier particle the meson, from μέσος mesos, the Greek word for "intermediate", because its predicted mass was between that of the electron and that of the proton, which has about 1,836 times the mass of the electron.
Yukawa had named his particle the "mesotron", but he was corrected by the physicist Werner Heisenberg. Heisenberg pointed out that there is no "tr" in the Greek word "mesos"; the first candidate for Yukawa's meson, now known in modern terminology as the muon, was discovered in 1936 by Carl David Anderson and others in the decay products of cosmic ray interactions. The mu meson had about the right mass to be Yukawa's carrier of the strong nuclear force, but over the course of the next decade, it became evident that it was not the right particle, it was found that the "mu meson" did not participate in the strong nuclear interaction at all, but rather behaved like a heavy version of the electron, was classed as a lepton like the electron, rather than a meson. Physicists in making this choice decided that properties other than particle mass should control their classification. There were years of delays in the subatomic particle research during World War II, with most physicists working in applied projects for wartime necessities.
When the war ended in August 1945, many physicists returned to peacetime research. The first true meson to be discovered was what would be called the "pi meson"; this discovery was made in 1947, by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, Giuseppe Occhialini, who were investigating cosmic ray products at the University of Bristol in England, based on photographic films placed in the Andes mountains. Some of those mesons had about the same mass as the already-known mu "meson", yet seemed to decay into it, leading physicist Robert Marshak to hypothesize in 1947 that it was a new and different meson. Over the next few years, more experiments showed that the pion was indeed involved in strong interactions; the pion is believed to be the primary force carrier for the nuclear force in atomic nuclei. Other mesons, such as the virtual rho mesons are involved in mediating this force as well, but to a lesser extent. Following the discovery of the pion, Yukawa was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize in Physics for his predictions.
In the past, the word meson was sometimes used to mean any force carrier, such as "the Z0 meson", involved i
Droylsden Football Club is a football club in Droylsden, Greater Manchester, which plays in the Northern Premier League Division One North West, the eighth tier of English football. Droylsden were formed at the invitation of Joseph Cropper, the landlord of the Butchers Arms public house, to play behind the pub. After twenty years of friendlies and local leagues disbandment and changes of strip, the club emerged from World War I the sole survivors amongst the village teams, as members of the Manchester League; the club adopted their now traditional colours of red and white, the inspiration for the unusual nickname of The Bloods. Two games in the 1921 Manchester Junior Cup Final against Hyde United who were in the Manchester Football League attracted over 15,000 fans to see Hyde prevail. However, the Bloods had their revenge two years taking the Cup from their local rivals; the 1930s was the era of Droylsden's record goal scorer, Ernest "Gilly" Gillibrand, scorer of 275 goals in just four seasons.
Gilly's goals saw Droylsden to the Manchester League Championship in 1931 and again in 1933, in the latter season he aided Droylsden to the Third Qualifying Round in their first season in the FA Cup. In 1936, the club applied to join the Lancashire Combination and, a season became a nursery club to Manchester City, whose A team played at the Butcher's Arms. City's surplus players were available to play for Droylsden, but the link disqualified the club from appearing in the FA Cup; when other competitions were suspended in 1939 at the start of World War II, Droylsden entered the war-time regionalised Cheshire League. They remained in that competition, regarded in some quarters as being on a par with the Football League Third Division North, reaching their highest league position as runners-up in their second season in 1945–46. However, the club couldn't build on that start and, four seasons failed in their second successive bid for re-election. Worse was to come with the sale of the Butcher's Arms lease to Belle Vue FC, who renamed themselves Droylsden United.
All of which meant that the Bloods were forced out to the nearby Moorside Trotting Stadium, affectionately referred to by fans as'Pork Park'. The town wasn't big enough for two clubs with bad feeling between them, after the local council bought the ground, a merger was negotiated. Droylsden came home in 1952 to a renovated ground whose pitch had been rotated to its present position eradicating a long-standing drainage problem. Two decades in the Lancashire Combination ended in 1968 with a return to the Cheshire League, after that League had lost seven clubs to the formation of the Northern Premier League. Droylsden never climbed above mid-table in the Cheshire League, but won the Manchester Senior Cup in 1973, 1976 and 1979 and enjoyed some FA Cup success, reaching the Fourth Qualifying Round four times in five seasons and the Cup proper twice. In 1976 Droylsden lost 5–3 in a First round replay at Grimsby Town, after a late home goal was disallowed. In 1978, Dave Taylor's goal at Rochdale sent Droylsden through to a second round tie at home to Altrincham, who ended the run with a 2–0 win.
However, when the late 1970s side broke up, Droylsden's fortunes slumped, they finished a distant bottom of the newly formed Cheshire League First Division in 1982. They were spared relegation when the Cheshire League voted to merge with the Lancashire Combination to create the North West Counties League. Droylsden were placed in Division Two of three; the unstable period ended with the appointment of Mark Fallon as player-manager. In his second season Fallon guided the club to the Second Division Championship, Droylsden's first senior honour. Droylsden have never played in North West Counties League Division 1, their Second Division Championship coincided with the formation of a First Division to the Northern Premier League and the Bloods applied to go directly into the new League. In 1990, Droylsden ended the season as First Division runners-up to Leek Town and were promoted to the Premier Division; the club struggled for six seasons, finishing no better than 13th, before being relegated in 1996 after conceding 100 goals.
They were on the wrong end of the fastest hat trick in FA Cup history, conceding three goals in 2 minutes and 28 seconds in the Preliminary Round away to Nantwich Town. Under the dual Chairmanship and management of Dave Pace, the club rebuilt itself and in 1998–99 won the First Division Championship on goals scored, regaining their Premier Division place. Droylsden enjoyed a revival of their FA Cup ambitions, reaching the Fourth Qualifying Round in successive seasons in 1998 and 1999. Droylsden were better prepared for life at Premier Division level and in 2004 were invited to join the Football Conference as founder members of the new regional North Division. After finishing third in the inaugural season of the Conference North, Droylsden were looking to go one better and reach the top tier of non-league football for the first time in their history. A fourth-place finish in the 2005–06 season gave Droylsden a second chance to reach the Conference National through the play-offs. However, they narrowly missed out on promotion in a penalty shoot-out in the final against Stafford Rangers.
On 29 March 2006 Droylsden lost 2–1 to Hyde United in the final of the Manchester Premier Cup. On 18 April 2007 they beat Flixton 3–0 in the final of the Manchester Premier Cup. Three days they beat Harrogate Town 2–0 and so won promotion to the Conference National as Conference North champions with two games in hand. However, they struggled in the Conference National, were relegated back to the Conference North on 8 Ap
Two Cow Garage is an American band from Columbus, Ohio. The group was formed in September 2001 by the singer/guitarist Micah Schnabel who began playing with the drummer Dustin Harigle in and around Columbus. Guitarist Chris Flint joined the group after seeing one of their early shows, bass guitarist Shane Sweeney joined soon after; the group released its first album in 2002 and embarked on a near-constant nationwide U. S. tour, travelling over 300,000 miles. Their second album, The Wall Against Our Back, came out in 2004 to considerable critical acclaim, the group's tour was recorded by John Boston and released as a documentary, The Long Way Around: One Badass Year With Two Cow Garage. A third album, III, was released in 2007 and followed by Speaking In Cursive in September 2008. Harigle left the band on tour in 2007; the band's fifth album, Sweet Saint Me, was released via Suburban Home Records on October 24, 2010. The Death Of The Self Preservation Society was released September 10, 2013. Production of the album was funded by fans via a campaign on Indiegogo that raised $16,840.
A subsequent Indiegogo campaign raised $9,196. In 2015, the band recruited Nashville, Tennessee-based guitarist/singer/songwriter Todd Farrell Jr. as a permanent lead guitarist for the band. In 2015, the band found its own stolen touring equipment for sale on eBay. In June 2016, it was announced that the band would be releasing their seventh album, titled "Brand New Flag", would be released via Last Chance Records in August 2016; the record was recorded and produced in Spring of 2016 in Kingston Springs, TN by guitarist Todd Farrell Jr. and mixed by Joey Kneiser. On July 22, the band announced via their Facebook page that the original August 19 release date was pushed back to October 14. In June 2017, guitarist Todd Farrell Jr. stepped away from the band in order to focus on his band, Benchmarks. Jay Gasper joined as a temporary fill-in guitarist for the remainder of their 2017 touring; that year, drummer David Murphy left the band. The band has built its following via energetic live shows and relentless touring, playing as many as 200 shows in a year.
Micah Schnabel - lead vocals, guitar Shane Sweeney - lead vocals, bass guitar Dustin Harigle - drums Chris Flint - guitar Andy Schell - keyboards Cody Smith - drums David Murphy - backing vocals, drums Todd Farrell Jr. - backing vocals, guitar Please Turn the Gas Back On The Wall Against Our Back III Speaking In Cursive Sweet Saint Me The Death Of The Self Preservation Society Brand New Flag Official website