Mesquite, Texas

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Mesquite, Texas
City of Mesquite
Top to bottom, left to right: AMC 30 Mesquite, Stephen Decatur Lawrence Farmstead, Mesquite Memorial Stadium, Mesquite Metro Airport hangar, Mesquite High School, and Mesquite Tower
Top to bottom, left to right: AMC 30 Mesquite, Stephen Decatur Lawrence Farmstead, Mesquite Memorial Stadium, Mesquite Metro Airport hangar, Mesquite High School, and Mesquite Tower
Nickname(s): 
Rodeo Capital of Texas
Motto(s): 
Real. Texas. Flavor.
Location within and around Dallas County
Location within and around Dallas County
Mesquite is located in Texas
Mesquite
Mesquite
Location within Texas
Mesquite is located in the United States
Mesquite
Mesquite
Mesquite (the United States)
Coordinates: 32°46′58″N 96°36′36″W / 32.78278°N 96.61000°W / 32.78278; -96.61000Coordinates: 32°46′58″N 96°36′36″W / 32.78278°N 96.61000°W / 32.78278; -96.61000
CountryUnited States
StateTexas
CountiesDallas, Kaufman
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City MayorStan Pickett
 • City ManagerCliff Keheley
Area
 • Total46.2 sq mi (119.6 km2)
 • Land46.0 sq mi (119.2 km2)
 • Water0.20 sq mi (0.52 km2)
Elevation
495 ft (151 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total139,824
 • Estimate 
(2018)
142,816
 • Density3,128/sq mi (1,207.7/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
75149, 75150, 75181
Area code(s)214, 469, 972
FIPS code48-47892[1]
GNIS feature ID1341400[2]
Websitecityofmesquite.com

Mesquite is a suburban city located east of the city of Dallas, Texas, in the United States. Most of the city is located in Dallas County, though a small portion extends into Kaufman County; as of 2018 census estimates the population was 142,816, making it the twenty-second most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas.[3] Mesquite is positioned at the crossroads of four major highways (Interstates 30, 635, 20, and U.S. Route 80), making locations such as downtown Dallas, Lake Ray Hubbard, Dallas Love Field, and DFW International Airport accessible.

According to legislative action, the city is the "Rodeo Capital of Texas".[4] In 2016, Mesquite received a Playful City USA designation[5] for the fourth year in a row;[6] the city has been named a Tree City USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation for over 25 years.[7] The city of Mesquite holds the 10th longest reign in all of Texas.[8]

Unique to suburbs of Dallas and Fort Worth, the city of Mesquite is served by its own local airport, Mesquite Metro Airport.[9] Companies and institutions with a major presence in the city are the United Parcel Service, Sears, AT&T, Spectrum, Eastfield College, the Texas A&M University–Commerce Mesquite Metroplex Center, Ashley Furniture,[10] and FedEx.[11][10]

History[edit]

Pre-settlement[edit]

Centuries before American settlers moved into the area, Mesquite was an open prairie land and a key trading ground for indigenous peoples; the Ionies were a western tribe located close to present-day Fort Worth. The Tawakonies were in present-day Dallas. Finally, the Caddo were the native farmers of the Mesquite land. From 1680 to 1790, after harvest was over, these three tribes held an annual tournament and trading fair.[12]

Settlement[edit]

The city of Mesquite was founded on March 14, 1878, on land along the Texas & Pacific Railway, which ran from Dallas to Shreveport, Louisiana; the locals then named the town after Mesquite Creek. The city was officially incorporated on December 3, 1887, after electing Mayor J.E. Russell.[13]

In the city's earliest years it was known for many outlaws residing in the area. A prominent outlaw was Sam Bass, historically known for his train robberies in Texas. In 1878 he robbed a train in downtown Mesquite, escaping with $30,000;[13] the Mesquiter, established in 1882 by R.S. Kimbrough, was Dallas County's longest running newspaper.[13]

Development[edit]

Mesquite prospered through the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a farming community growing cotton, hay, corn and sugar, and using the railroad to ship raw goods; the town remained predominantly agrarian until after World War II when the suburban boom took root in Mesquite.

In 1946, the Mesquite Rodeo was founded by Charlie Columbus McNally, and was one of the only rodeos that had a permanent location. By the mid-1980s, the events were being broadcast by ESPN.[14]

In 1959, Big Town Mall opened as the first air-conditioned shopping mall in the United States; the mall was demolished in the summer of 2006, and FedEx opened a logistics center on the property in 2017.[11]

By 1970, the LBJ Freeway (I-635) was constructed, connecting Mesquite to its neighbors, Garland to the north and Balch Springs to the south; also in 1971, Town East Mall was constructed. The mall was used by director Ron Howard to film portions of the movie Cotton Candy in 1978; the mall's associated traffic and shops would continue to grow the town.

In 1986, the Mesquite Arena opened its doors as the new home for the Mesquite ProRodeo. By 1998, the facility was expanded to include a convention center, exhibition hall and a Hampton Inn & Suites.

By the 1990 census, the city had grown to 101,484 people, up from 1,696 residents in 1950.

In 2011 Mesquite passed a law allowing beer and wine sales in the city; the measure had been considered several times for many years, but was always blocked by strong protest against the proposed sales. It was one of the few cities without beer and wine sales in eastern Dallas County before the law came into effect.

In June 2015, the Mesquite Arts Center added a Freedom Park exhibit, in memorial of September 11; the park displays a 15-foot (4.6 m) beam that was recovered from the remains of Ground Zero. The Mesquite Fire Department received the beam in 2011.[15]

Geography[edit]

Mesquite is located in eastern Dallas County at 32°46′58″N 96°36′36″W / 32.782878°N 96.609862°W / 32.782878; -96.609862 (32.782878, -96.609862),[16] with a portion extending east into Kaufman County. The city is bordered to the west by Dallas, to the north by Garland, to the northeast by Sunnyvale, to the south by Seagoville and Dallas, and to the southwest by Balch Springs.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.2 square miles (119.6 km2), of which 46.0 square miles (119.2 km2) are land and 0.52 square kilometres (0.2 sq mi), or 0.33%, are water.[17] Mesquite is part of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live.

Neighborhoods[edit]

  • Lawson
  • Samuell Farms
  • Meadow Creek
  • Parkview
  • Broadmoor Estates
  • Old Broadmoor Estates
  • Crooked Lane
  • Fuentes
  • Eastern Heights
  • Edgemont Park
  • Creek Crossing
  • Creek Crossing II
  • Falcon's Lair
  • Falcon's Ridge
  • Pecan Creek
  • Rollingwood Hills
  • Skyline
  • Pasadena Gardens
  • Original Town
  • Melton
  • Tealwood
  • Northridge
  • Quail Hollow
  • Wildwood
  • Valley Creek
  • Meadowview
  • Palos Verdes
  • Mesquite Park

Climate[edit]

Like most cities in the DFW area, Mesquite has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) characteristic of the Southern Plains of the United States, it is also continental, characterized by a relatively wide annual temperature range. Located at the lower end of Tornado Alley, Mesquite and the rest of Dallas-Fort Worth are prone to extreme weather.

On average, the warmest month is July; the highest recorded temperature in Mesquite was 112 °F (44 °C) in 1980. The average coolest month is January; the lowest recorded temperature was 1 °F (−17 °C) in 1989. May is the average wettest month.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890135
1900406200.7%
191068769.2%
1920674−1.9%
19307298.2%
19401,04543.3%
19501,69662.3%
196027,5261,523.0%
197055,131100.3%
198067,05321.6%
1990101,48451.3%
2000124,52322.7%
2010139,82412.3%
Est. 2018142,816[18]2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]

As of the 2010 United States Census, Mesquite had a population of 139,824.[3] In July 2018, the population was estimated at 142,816. Per the American Community Survey in 2017, the median age was 32.8.[20]

According to the 2010 census, 64.9% of Mesquite was White (31.5% non-Hispanic white), 25.0% was Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 38.9% of Hispanic or Latino origin, and 3.2% from two or more races.[3]

At the American Community Survey estimates of 2017, 0.1% of the American Indian population was Cherokee.[20] 1.1% of the city's Asian community was Indian, 0.1% Chinese, 0.6% Filipino, 0.0% Japanese, 0.0% Korean, 0.6% Vietnamese, and 0.3% of other Asian origin.[20] 56 residents were estimated to be Guamanian or Chamorro.[20] The multiracial population of Mesquite was majority White and Black or African American (1.1%), followed by White and American Indian or Alaska Native (0.5%), White and Asian (0.3%), and Black or African American and American Indian and Alaska Native (0.2%).[20] Among the Hispanic or Latino demographic 33.9% were Mexican, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 4.0% from other Hispanic or Latin American origins.[20]

There were 51,578 households at the 2010 census, out of which out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were headed by married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.8% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.4% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.88, and the average family size was 3.38.[20][21] From 2013-2017 it was estimated there were 46,876 households with an estimated 3.06 persons per household.[3] 57.7% of residents owned houses in Mesquite. The median gross rent was $1,018.

Mesquite is a center for Indian Christians of Kerala origin,[22] their settlement, one of the earliest of the Indian Americans in the DFW area, was influenced by proximity to Dallas-based hospitals such as Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas and Parkland Hospital as well as having initial low income and difficulties moving to mostly-white northern suburbs.[23]

In 2000 the median income for a household was $30,424, and the median income for a family was $36,357. Male full-time workers had a median income of $37,756 versus $29,905 for females. In 2017 the estimated median household income was $52,167.[3]

29.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.1% were 18 to 24 years old, 27.9% were 25 to 44, 23.7% were 45 to 64, and 8.6% were 65 years of age or older in 2010. The median age was 32.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males.[21]

According to information gathered by Sperling's BestPlaces 62.7% claim religious affiliation.[24] Christianity is the most prevalent religion in Mesquite; the largest Christian body in the city is the Catholic Church, served by the Diocese of Dallas (19.6%), followed by Baptists (13.2%), Methodists (4.8%), Pentecostals (3.1%), Presbyterians (1.6%), Episcopalians (1.0%), Latter-Day Saints (1.0%), Lutherans (0.7%), and 12.4% from another Christian faith including the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern-rite Catholic churches. The second largest religion in Mesquite is Islam (3.6%) followed by Judaism (0.7%) and eastern faiths including Hinduism and Buddhism (0.9%).[24]

Economy[edit]

Much of Mesquite's economy is tied to the city of Dallas with the exception of local businesses; the largest national corporations operating in Mesquite are United Parcel Service, Sears, AT&T, Spectrum, Ashley Furniture, FedEx, OfficeMax, and GameStop among others. As of Mesquite's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[25] the largest employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees % of Total City Employment
1 United Parcel Service Inc. 3,000 4.22%
2 Dallas Regional Medical Center 1,150 1.62%
3 City of Mesquite 1,054 1.48%
4 Sears 450 0.63%
5 Texas Dept of Transportation - Dallas District 425 0.60%
6 Baker Drywall LTD 400 0.56%
7 Dallas County Community College 400 0.56%
8 Christian Care Center 400 0.56%
9 Integra Color 383 0.54%
10 Pepsi-Cola Metro Bottling Co Inc 325 0.46%

Arts and culture[edit]

In 2016, the Mesquite Public Library System was presented with a 2016 Achievement of Library Excellence Award by the Texas Municipal Library Directors Association. Of the 548 public library systems in Texas, the Mesquite Public Library was one of only 43 libraries to earn this prestigious honor;[26] the Mesquite Public Library System consists of two branches to serve the community. Both branches offer traditional and non-traditional programs.[27]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Mesquite Golf Club

The city houses 76 parks and 4 recreation centers; the city has been designated a Playful City USA four years running and opened its Heritage Trail system in 2015.[28] The hike and bike trail system consists of 4.25 miles of concrete trails and sidewalks, three trailheads and other improvements that connect residents from their homes to the Mesquite Golf Club, schools, recreation centers, sports fields, shopping and more.[29]

Mesquite Golf Club[edit]

Mesquite Golf Club is a 154-acre (62 ha), 18-hole golf course for both novice and expert golfers. Operated by the City of Mesquite, the course is open seven days a week and features a pro shop and driving range.[30]

Mesquite Arts Center[edit]

The 36,700-square-foot (3,410 m2) municipal arts facility houses a 494-seat music performance hall, black box theater, rehearsal hall, galleries and support space;[31] the facility serves as the cultural center for the community and is home to the Mesquite Community Theatre, Mesquite Community Band and the Mesquite Symphony Orchestra.[32]

Government[edit]

The city council of Mesquite consists of a mayor and six council members,[33] with Stan Pickett serving as mayor and Cliff Keheley as city manager; the council members of Mesquite's city council are Robert Miklos, Jeff Casper, Deputy Mayor Pro Tem, Bruce Archer, Mayor Pro Tem, Dan Aleman, Greg Noschese, Tandy Boroughs, and Cliff Keheley.

Education[edit]

Mesquite High School
North Mesquite High School
Public High Schools
Name Year founded Size Mascot Principal
Mesquite High School 1901 6A Stormy the Skeeter Kevin Samples
North Mesquite High School 1969 6A Stallion Doug Barber
West Mesquite High School 1976 (as middle school initially) 5A Wrangler Alesia Austin
Poteet High School 1986 5A Pirate Taylor Morris
John Horn High School 2000 6A Jaguar Bruce Perkins

Mesquite Independent School District provides primary and secondary (K-12) education to most areas of Mesquite. A small portion of Mesquite is served by Dallas Independent School District. While another small area in Kaufman County is within the Forney Independent School District, the section has no residents. Mesquite also serves an area of Balch Springs.

In addition to 33 public elementary schools and nine public middle schools, Mesquite is served by five high schools: Mesquite High School, North Mesquite High School, West Mesquite High School, Poteet High School, and John Horn High School; the private Dallas Christian School, is located in the city limits.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Higher education is provided by three institutions. Eastfield College provides undergraduate degrees and continuing education credits as part of the Dallas County Community College District; the Texas A&M University–Commerce Mesquite Metroplex Center provides graduate-level courses and degrees in a variety of fields. Columbia College-Mesquite Campus is located on the Eastfield College campus, it is a private, nonprofit institution that was founded in Columbia, Missouri, in 1851. It provides bachelor's and master's degree programs.

Media[edit]

Mesquite shares the same television and radio market with Dallas; the Mesquite Independent School District operates KEOM, a high school sports and classic-hits radio station. The city's newspaper community primarily subscribes to The Dallas Morning News, Al Dia, and other Dallas-based newspapers. The Dallas Morning News has a section dedicated to local news in Mesquite.[34] Star Local News distributes the Mesquite News newspaper.

Transportation[edit]

Inside a hangar at the Mesquite Metro Airport

Mesquite is served by a publicly owned and operated airport, Mesquite Metro Airport; the airport includes a 6,000-foot (1,800 m) lighted runway with ILS. General aviation comprises approximately 75% of daily operations, while commercial aviation comprises the rest.[35] Mesquite Metro Airport is popular among transient aircraft due to its location near Dallas and favorable fuel prices.[36]

Two other nearby airports, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and Dallas Love Field, provide regular commercial passenger service to the region. Dallas Love Field is approximately 15 miles (24 km) from Mesquite; DFW Airport is approximately 30 miles (48 km) from Mesquite.

Mesquite is not a member of Dallas Area Rapid Transit, but on April 12, 2011, the DART Board changed its policy to permit DART to contract with non-member cities for services, such as passenger rail and express service; the city and DART staffs have developed a coordinated plan to have a weekday commuter service in operation between the Hanby Stadium visitor parking lot and the DART's Green Line Lawnview Station. This route opened March 12, 2012; the city also operates its own paratransit service for elderly and disabled residents.[37]

Union Pacific Railroad operates an intermodal facility for its freight rail service as part of the Skyline Industrial Park; the recent expansion of this intermodal facility won a Silver award in the Industrial Paving Category by the American Concrete Pavement Association.[38]

Highways[edit]

  • I-20 (TX).svg Interstate 20 is a major east-west interstate serving the south side of Mesquite passing through rural and residential areas including the Lawson area. I-20 connects with Balch Springs to the west and Terrell to the east.
  • I-635 (TX).svg Interstate 635 (Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway) is an auxiliary interstate serving as a partial loop around Dallas and it's suburbs. I-635 bisects the city of Mesquite and serves as the main freeway through the city as most of the local businesses and attractions (including Town East Mall and Mesquite Championship Rodeo) are built near or around I-635; the interstate connects with Garland to the north and Balch Springs to the south. I-635 also connects Mesquite with Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.
  • US 80.svg U.S. Highway 80 is an east-west freeway passing through north Mesquite. US 80 connects with Sunnyvale, Forney, and Terrell to the east. To the west of Mesquite the highway merges onto I-30.
  • Texas 352.svg Texas Highway 352 (Military Parkway/Scyene Road) is an east-west highway passing through both west Mesquite and downtown Mesquite. In the downtown area it is known locally as Main Street on the westbound section and Davis Street on the eastbound section.
  • Belt Line Road also passes through Mesquite and serves as a major road. Belt Line road serves as an outer loop around the Dallas suburbs.
  • Planning stages and environmental studies are being conducted to expand President George Bush Turnpike to connect from it's current terminus at I-30 in Garland to I-20. The new segment of the toll road would pass through Sunnyvale and Mesquite in route to I-20 and would complete the loop around Dallas County. [39]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ a b c d e "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Mesquite city, Texas; UNITED STATES". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Mesquite Championship Rodeo | The Rodeo Capital of Texas". Mesquitechampionshiprodeo.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  5. ^ "Playful City USA Communities - KaBOOM!". Kaboom.org. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Playful City USA | Mesquite, TX - Official Website". Cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  7. ^ "Tree City USA - The Arbor Day Foundation". Arborday.org. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  8. ^ "Mesquite Recognized As A Tree City USA". Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  9. ^ "Mesquite Metro Airport | Mesquite, TX - Official Website". www.cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  10. ^ a b "2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for Fiscal Year". www.cityofmesquite.com. February 23, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "FedEx warehouse on former Mesquite mall site is symbolic of where retail is going". Dallas News. 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  12. ^ A Stake in the Prairie: Mesquite, Texas (Mesquite Historical Committee, 1984). Mesquite, Tx: Mesquite Historical Committee. 1984. pp. 7–10.
  13. ^ a b c Susanne Starling: Mesquite from the Handbook of Texas Online (June 15, 2010). Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  14. ^ "History of The Mesquite ProRodeo | Mesquite Championship Rodeo". Mesquitechampionshiprodeo.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  15. ^ "Mesquite will host Freedom Park, 9/11 memorial | Garland | Dallas News". Dallas News. 2015-06-10. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  16. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  17. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Mesquite city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  18. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  19. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  21. ^ a b "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Mesquite city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  22. ^ Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.64.
  23. ^ Brettell, Caroline B. '"Big D" Incorporating New Immigrants in a Sunbelt Suburban Metropolis' (Chapter 3). In: Singer, Audrey, Susan Wiley Hardwick, and Caroline Brettell. Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America (James A. Johnson metro series). Brookings Institution Press, 2009. ISBN 0815779283, 9780815779285. Start p. 53. CITED: p.65.
  24. ^ a b "Mesquite, Texas Religion". https://www.bestplaces.net. Retrieved 2019-02-24. External link in |website= (help)
  25. ^ "2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for Fiscal Year". www.cityofmesquite.com.
  26. ^ report, staff. "Mesquite Public Library earns 2016 Achievement of Library Excellence Award". Star Local. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  27. ^ "MESQUITE PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM - Mesquite, TX - Official Website". Cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  28. ^ "Trails - Mesquite, TX - Official Website". Cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  29. ^ "Mesquite will host Freedom Park, 9/11 memorial | Garland | Dallas News". Dallas News. 2015-06-10. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  30. ^ "Mesquite Golf Club". Mesquitegc.com. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  31. ^ "Mesquite Arts Center - Mesquite, TX - Official Website". Cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  32. ^ "Mesquite Arts Center | Mesquite, TX - Official Website". Cityofmesquite.com. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  33. ^ City of Mesquite AFR Archived 2010-11-21 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2009-08-17
  34. ^ "News | Mesquite". Dallas News. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2006-09-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) City of Mesquite web site. Accessed 9 September 2006
  36. ^ [1]AirNav: Mesquite Metro Airport. Accessed 8 September 2006
  37. ^ [2]City of Mesquite web site. Accessed 9 September 2006
  38. ^ "TranSystems - Mesquite Intermodal Facility Expansion Receives Recognition". Transystems.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  39. ^ "State Highway 190 East Branch Progress Report" (PDF). North Texas Tollway Authority. December 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  40. ^ Biography for John Carmack on IMDb
  41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Cedar Creek Pilot article
  42. ^ "Hairspray - Scholastic.com". 2.scholastic.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.

External links[edit]