Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects; the earliest Christian writings gave several titles to Jesus, such as Son of Man, Son of God and Kyrios, which were all derived from the Hebrew scriptures. These terms centered around two themes, namely "Jesus as a preexistent figure who becomes human and returns to God," and "Jesus as a creature elected and'adopted' by God."From the second to the fifth century, the relation of the human and divine nature of Christ was a major focus of debates in the early church and at the first seven ecumenical councils. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 issued a formulation of the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, one human and one divine, "united with neither confusion nor division". Most of the major branches of Western Christianity and Eastern Orthodoxy subscribe to this formulation, while many branches of Oriental Orthodox Churches reject it, subscribing to miaphysitism.
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects. "Ontological Christology" analyzes the being of Jesus Christ. "Functional Christology" analyzes the works of Jesus Christ, while "soteriological Christology" analyzes the "salvific" standpoints of Christology. Several approaches can be distinguished within Christology; the term "Christology from above" or "high Christology" refers to approaches that include aspects of divinity, such as Lord and Son of God, the idea of the pre-existence of Christ as the Logos, as expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John. These approaches interpret the works of Christ in terms of his divinity. According to Pannenberg, Christology from above "was far more common in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch and the second century Apologists." The term "Christology from below" or "low Christology" refers to approaches that begin with the human aspects and the ministry of Jesus and move towards his divinity and the mystery of incarnation.
A basic Christological teaching is that the person of Jesus Christ is both divine. The human and divine natures of Jesus Christ form a duality, as they coexist within one person. There are no direct discussions in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human, since the early days of Christianity, theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures, at times resulting in ecumenical councils, schisms. Historical christological doctrines which gained broader support are Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Monarchianism. Influential Christologies which were broadly condemned as heretical are Docetism and Nestorianism. In Christian theology, atonement is the method by which human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death. Atonement is the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the suffering and resurrection of Jesus, enabling the reconciliation between God and his creation.
Due to the influence of Gustaf Aulèn's Christus Victor, the various theories or paradigma's of atonement are grouped as "classical paradigm," "objective paradigm," and the "subjective paradigm": Classical paradigm:Ransom theory of atonement, which teaches that the death of Christ was a ransom sacrifice said to have been paid to Satan or to death itself, in some views paid to God the Father, in satisfaction for the bondage and debt on the souls of humanity as a result of inherited sin. Gustaf Aulén reinterpreted the ransom thory, calling it the Christus Victor doctrine, arguing that Christ's death was not a payment to the Devil, but defeated the powers of evil, which had held humankind in their dominion.. Theosis is a "corollary" of the recapitualtion. Objective paradigm: Satisfaction theory of atonement, developed by Anselm of Canterbury, which teaches that Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion as a substitute for human sin, satisfying God's just wrath against humankind's transgression due to Christ's infinite merit.
Penal substitution called "forensic theory" and "vicarious punishment,", a development by the Reformers of Anselm's satisfaction theory. Instead of considering sin as an affront to God's honour, it sees sin as the breaking of God's moral law. Penal substitution sees sinful man as being subject to God's wrath, with the essence of Jesus' saving work being his substitution in the sinner's place, bearing the curse in the place of man. Moral government theory, "which views God as both the loving creator and moral Governor of the universe." Subjective paradigm: Moral influence theory of atonement, developed, or most notably propagated, by Abelard, who argued that "Jesus died as the demonstration of God's love," a demonstration which can change the hearts and minds of the sinners, turning back to God. Moral example theory, developed by Faustus Socinus in his work De Jesu Christo servatore, who rejected the idea of "vicarious satisfaction." According to
Judea (Roman province)
The Roman province of Judea, sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea and Idumea, extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory; the name "Judea" was derived from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE. According to the historian Josephus following the deposition of Herod Archelaus, Judea was turned into a Roman province, during which time the Roman procurator was given authority to punish by execution; the general population began to be taxed by Rome. The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius, the Crucifixion of Jesus circa 30-33 CE, several wars, known as the Jewish–Roman wars, were fought in its history; the Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE as part of the First Jewish–Roman War, resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.
The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey sacked Jerusalem and established Hasmonean prince Hyrcanus II as Ethnarch and High Priest, but he was denied the title of King. A appointment by Julius Caesar was Antipater the Idumaean known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE but he did not gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated, the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built, he died in 4 BCE, his kingdom was divided among three of his sons, two of whom becoming tetrarchs, one of whom becoming an ethnarch who ruled over half of his father's kingdom. One of these principalities was Judea, corresponding to the territory of the historic Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea. Herod's son Archelaus ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population.
Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being dismissed by Caligula. Herod's son, Philip the Tetrarch, ruled over the northeastern part of his father's kingdom. In 6 CE Archelaus' tetrachy came under direct Roman administration; the Judean province did not include Galilee, nor Peraea or the Decapolis. Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket of Egypt and was a buffer against the Parthian Empire; the capital was at Caesarea Maritima, not Jerusalem. Quirinius became Legate of Syria and conducted the first Roman tax census of Syria and Judea, opposed by the Zealots. Judea was not a senatorial province, nor an imperial province, but instead was a "satellite of Syria" governed by a prefect, a knight of the equestrian order, not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank. Still, Jews living in the province maintained some form of independence and could judge offenders by their own laws, including capital offenses, until c. 28 CE.
The Province of Judea during the late Hellenistic period and early Roman period was divided into five conclaves, or administrative districts: Jerusalem, Amathus and Sepphoris. The'Crisis under Caligula' has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews. Between 41 and 44 CE, Judea regained its nominal autonomy, when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius, thus in a sense restoring the Herodian dynasty, although there is no indication Judea ceased to be a Roman province because it no longer had a prefect. Claudius had decided to allow, across the empire, personal agents to the Emperor serving as provincial tax and finance ministers, to be elevated to governing magistrates with full state authority to keep the peace, he elevated Judea's procurator whom he trusted to imperial governing status because the imperial legate of Syria was not sympathetic to the Judeans. Following Agrippa's death in 44 CE, the province returned to direct Roman control, incorporating Agrippa's personal territories of Galilee and Peraea, under a row of procurators.
Agrippa's son, Agrippa II was designated King of the Jews in 48. He was the last of the Herodians. From 70 CE until 135 CE, Judea's rebelliousness required a governing Roman legate capable of commanding legions; because Agrippa II maintained loyalty to the Empire, the Kingdom was retained until he died, either in 93/94 or 100, when the area returned to complete, undivided Roman Empire control. Judaea was the stage of two three, major Jewish–Roman wars: 66–70 CE – First Jewish–Roman War, resulting in the siege of Jerusalem the destruction of Herod's Temple and ending with the siege of Masada in 73–74.. Before the war Judaea was a Roman province of the third category, that is, under the administration of a procurator of equestrian rank and under the overall control of the govern
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia known as Cyrus the Great, called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, his regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from "King of Anshan", a city, to "King of Persia". Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called ‘King of Anshan’, but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is ‘King of Persia’.
The coup therefore took place between these two events."The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted c. 30 years. Cyrus built his empire by first conquering the Median Empire the Lydian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, he led an expedition into Central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception". Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, was alleged to have died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC, he was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt and Cyrenaica during his short rule. Cyrus the Great respected the religions of the lands he conquered; this became a successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus. What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion.
According to the Jewish Bible, God anointed Cyrus for this task referring to him as messiah and he is the only non-Jewish figure in the Bible to be called so. Cyrus the Great is well recognized for his achievements in human rights and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Having originated from Persis corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus has played a crucial role in defining the national identity of modern Iran; the Achaemenid influence in the ancient world would extend as far as Athens, where upper-class Athenians adopted aspects of the culture of the ruling class of Achaemenid Persian as their own. In the 1970s, the last Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi identified his famous proclamation inscribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder as the oldest known declaration of human rights, the Cylinder has since been popularized as such; this view has been criticized by some historians as a misunderstanding of the Cylinder's generic nature as a traditional statement that new monarchs make at the beginning of their reign.
The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek Κῦρος, Kỹros, itself from the Old Persian Kūruš. The name and its meaning has been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages; the ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept, interpreted as meaning "like the Sun" by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness. This may point to a relationship to the mythological "first king" of Persia, whose name incorporates the element "sun". Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European-root "to humiliate" and accordingly "Cyrus" means "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest". In the Persian language and in Iran, Cyrus's name is spelled as کوروش. In the Bible, he is known as Koresh; the Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian plateau started by an extension of the Achaemenid dynasty, who expanded their earlier domination from the 9th century BC onward.
The eponymous founder of this dynasty was Achaemenes. Achaemenids are "descendants of Achaemenes" as Darius the Great, the ninth king of the dynasty, traces his genealogy to him and declares "for this reason we are called Achaemenids". Achaemenes built the state Parsumash in the southwest of Iran and was succeeded by Teispes, who took the title "King of Anshan" after seizing Anshan city and enlarging his kingdom further to include Pars proper. Ancient documents mention that Teispes had a son called Cyrus I, who succeeded his father as "king of Anshan". Cyrus I had a full brother. In 600 BC, Cyrus I was succeeded by his son, Cambyses I, who reigned until 559 BC. Cyrus II "the Great" was a son of Cambyses I, who had named his son after his father, Cyrus I. There are several inscriptions of Cyrus the Great and kings that refer to Cambyses I as the "great king" and "king of Anshan". Among these are some passages in the Cyrus cylinder where Cyrus calls himself "son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan".
Another inscription mentio
Chabad messianism, or Lubavitch messianism refers to the passion among adherents of the Chabad movement regarding the coming of the Messiah and their goal to raise awareness that his arrival is imminent. In addition, the term refers more to the belief that Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is the Messiah. A few years before the seventh Rebbe's passing, members of the Chabad movement expressed their belief that the Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is the Jewish Messiah; these beliefs have been termed "Chabad messianism", those subscribing to the beliefs have been termed Meshichists. A number of Jewish leaders have publicly voiced their concerns and/or opposition towards certain aspects of Chabad messianism. A chant recited by a number of Chabad messianists proclaiming Schneerson as the messiah is the "Yechi". Customs vary among messianists as to. Messianic beliefs concerning Schneerson vary a great deal. Controversy exists over whether he died and will be resurrected as the messiah, or whether he is "in hiding" until his final advent.
To date, no study reports the number of Chabad Chasidim. The concept that the Messiah can come at any given moment is a basic tenet of Judaism; the idea that the leader of a Hasidic group could be the Messiah is a nuanced and complex idea that traces itself back to the times of the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism. During Rabbi Schneerson's life many Jews hoped; this idea gained great vocal attention during the last years of Schneerson life. During those years, there were strong forces within the Chabad–Lubavitch movement, led by the two executors of Schneerson's will. Since the Rebbe's death, there are those who have persisted in the belief that Schneerson is still the Messiah, sometimes vocally. Chabad messianists either believe Schneerson will be resurrected, or refuse to admit that Schneerson died, instead proclaiming that he is still alive; the Chabad–Lubavitch umbrella organization, Agudas Chasidei Chabad, the governing body of Chabad–Lubavitch rabbis, Vaad Rabonei Lubavitch, have both denounced the messianic behavior.
The issue received much negative attention. To this day it remains controversial. During Menachem M. Schneerson's life some of his supporters thought that he could be revealed as the Messiah. There were many Chabad Hasidim who proclaimed this passionately; this concept, that a righteous Jewish leader may be revealed as the Messiah, was believed by many rabbis and scholars regarding their own leaders throughout Jewish history. This idea finds its earliest roots in an early 4th century discussion in the Talmud: After schools of various prominent rabbis each cite proof-texts that the name of the Messiah is indeed that of their own teacher, Rabbi Nachman says, "If he is among the living, he is someone like me." The Talmud cites the sage Rav: "If the Messiah is among the living he is someone like our holy Rabbi. If he is from among the dead, he is someone like Daniel."Maimonides ruled the following as the definitive criteria for identifying the mashiach: If we see a Jewish leader who toils in the study of Torah and is meticulous about the observance of the mitzvot, influences the Jews to follow the ways of the Torah and wages the "battles of God"—such a person is the "presumed mashiach".
If the person succeeded in all these endeavors, rebuilds the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and facilitates the in-gathering of the Jews to the Land of Israel—then we are certain that he is the "actual mashiach". According to Maimonides there are two forms of the Messiah; the presumed messiah, known as the "Chezkat Mashiach" and the actual messiah, known as the "Mashiach Vadai". In addition, a number of Talmudic texts, subsequent writings of Halachic authorities, speak of this that in every generations there is always one person, worthy and has the potential of being the Messiah, will redeem the Jewish people, should they be deserving; this third form of the messiah is referred to in halachic writings as the Mashiach shebador, meaning the messiah of the generation. According to the Chatam Sofer: "In every generation there is one righteous man who merits to be the Messiah... and when the time comes, God will reveal Himself to him and send him." According to Rabbi Chaim Hezekiah Medini, not only is there such a figure in each generation, but this figure was sometimes explicitly identified as such.
"They assumed who it may be... Rabbi Judah the prince... in his generation they said and knew that it was he, worthy... and based on this the disciples of the Arizal wrote that in his time it was him. All this is simple and straightforward." Anticipation for the coming of the Mashiach, belief in the imminent arrival, has been on the hearts and minds of Jews through the past two millennia. Maimonides ruled that all Jews must believe with perfect faith, each day, that the Mashiach will come and the resurrection of the dead will take place, he rules that anyone who does not believe this, denies the entire Torah. The Chafetz Chaim, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, wrote "our days are the days of Messiah’s coming. Hear my brothers and friends, it is clear that our days are the days of Messiah’s coming," and Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, wrote that "we are obligated to anticipate the arrival of the Messiah on any given day as a near certainty." Hasidim in general, focused much on the Mashiach and future redemption.
In a vision in which Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism, encountere
Simon bar Kokhba
Simon bar Kokhba, born Simon ben Kosevah, was the leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi. His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following half-year war. Documents discovered in the 20th century in the Cave of Letters give his original name, with variations: Simeon bar Kosevah, Bar Koseva or Ben Koseva, it is probable. The name may indicate that his father or his place of origin was named Koseva, but might as well be a general family name; the Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva indulged the possibility that Simon could be the Jewish messiah, gave him the surname "Bar Kokhba" meaning "Son of the Star" in Aramaic, from the Star Prophecy verse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob". The name Bar Kokhba does not appear in ecclesiastical sources. Rabbinical writers subsequent to Rabbi Akiva did not share Rabbi Akiva's estimation of ben Kosiva. Akiva's disciple, Yose ben Halaphta, in the Seder'Olam called him "bar Koziba", meaning, "son of the lie".
The judgment of Bar Koseba, implied by this change of name was carried on by rabbinic scholarship at least to the time of the codification of the Talmud, where the name is always rendered "Simon bar Koziba" or Bar Kozevah. Despite the devastation wrought by the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War, which left the population and countryside in ruins, a series of laws passed by Roman Emperors provided the incentive for the second rebellion. Based on the delineation of years in Eusebius' Chronicon, it was only in the 16th year of Hadrian's reign, or what was equivalent to the 4th year of the 227th Olympiad, that the Jewish revolt began, under the Roman governor Tineius Rufus, whereas Hadrian sent an army to crush the resistance. Bar Kokhba, the leader of this resistance at the time, punished any Jew who refused to join his ranks. Two and a half years the war had ended; the Roman Emperor Hadrian at this time barred Jews from entering Jerusalem. The second Jewish rebellion took place 60 years after the first and established an independent state lasting three years.
For many Jews of the time, this turn of events was heralded as the long hoped for Messianic Age. The excitement was short-lived and after a brief span of glory, the revolt was crushed by the Roman legions; the Romans fared poorly during the initial revolt facing a unified Jewish force, in contrast to First Jewish-Roman War, where Flavius Josephus records three separate Jewish armies fighting each other for control of the Temple Mount during the three weeks after the Romans had breached Jerusalem's walls and were fighting their way to the center. Being outnumbered and taking heavy casualties, the Romans adopted a scorched earth policy which reduced and demoralized the Judean populace grinding away at the will of the Judeans to sustain the war. Bar Kokhba took up refuge in the fortress of Betar; the Romans captured it after laying siege to the city for three and a half years, they killed all the defenders except for one Jewish youth whose life was spared, viz. Simeon ben Gamliel. Rabbi Yohanan has related the following account of the massacre: “The brains of three-hundred children were found upon one stone, along with three-hundred baskets of what remained of phylacteries were found in Betar and every one of which had the capacity to hold three measures.
If you should come to take into account, you would find that they amounted to three-hundred measures.” Rabban Gamliel said: “Five-hundred schools were in Betar, while the smallest of them wasn't less than three-hundred children. They used to say, ‘If the enemy should come upon us, with these metal pointers we'll go forth and stab them.’ But since iniquities had caused, the enemy came in and wrapped up each and every child in his own book and burnt them together, no one remained except me.” According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed in overall war operations across the country, some 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed to the ground, while those who perished by famine and fire was past finding out. So costly was the Roman victory that the Emperor Hadrian, when reporting to the Roman Senate, did not see fit to begin with the customary greeting “If you and your children are healthy, it is well. Over the past few decades, new information about the revolt has come to light, from the discovery of several collections of letters, some by Bar Kokhba himself, in the Cave of Letters overlooking the Dead Sea.
These letters can now be seen at the Israel Museum. According to Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin, Bar Kokhba tried to revive Hebrew and make Hebrew the official language of the Jews as part of his messianic ideology. In A Roadmap to the Heavens: An Anthropological Study of Hegemony among Priests and Laymen by Sigalit Ben-Zion, Yadin remarked: "it seems that this change came as a result of the order, given by Bar Kokhba, who wanted to revive the Hebrew language and make it the official language of the state." Simon bar Kokhba is por
Land of Israel
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, Palestine; the definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba", three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt”; these biblical limits for the land differ from the borders of established historical Israelite and Jewish kingdoms. Jewish religious belief defines the land as where Jewish religious law prevailed and excludes territory where it was not applied, it holds that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people based on the Torah the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as on the Prophets. According to the Book of Genesis, the land was first promised by God to the descendants of Abram.
Abram's name was changed to Abraham, with the promise refined to pass through his son Isaac and to the Israelites, descendants of Jacob, Abraham's grandson. This belief is not shared by most adherents of replacement theology, who hold the view that the Old Testament prophecies were superseded by the coming of Jesus, a view repudiated by Christian Zionists as a theological error. Evangelical Zionists variously claim that Israel has title to the land by divine right, or by a theological and moral grounding of attachment to the land unique to Jews; the idea that ancient religious texts can be warrant or divine right for a modern claim has been challenged, Israeli courts have rejected land claims based on religious motivations. During the League of Nations mandatory period the term "Eretz Yisrael" or the "Land of Israel" was part of the official Hebrew name of Mandatory Palestine. Official Hebrew documents used the Hebrew transliteration of the word “Palestine” פלשתינה followed always by the two initial letters of "Eretz Yisrael", א״י Aleph-Yod.
The Land of Israel concept has been evoked by the founders of the State of Israel. It surfaces in political debates on the status of the West Bank, referred to in official Israeli discourse as the Judea and Samaria Area, from the names of the two historical Jewish kingdoms; the term "Land of Israel" is a direct translation of the Hebrew phrase ארץ ישראל, which occurs in the Bible, is first mentioned in the Tanakh in 1 Samuel 13:19, following the Exodus, when the Israelite tribes were in the Land of Canaan. The words are used sparsely in the Bible: King David is ordered to gather'strangers to the land of Israel' for building purposes, the same phrasing is used in reference to King Solomon's census of all of the'strangers in the Land of Israel'. Ezekiel, though preferring the phrase'soil of Israel', employs eretz israel twice at Ezekiel 40:2 and Ezekiel 47:18. According to Martin Noth, the term is not an "authentic and original name for this land", but instead serves as "a somewhat flexible description of the area which the Israelite tribes had their settlements".
According to Anita Shapira, the term "Eretz Yisrael" was a holy term, vague as far as the exact boundaries of the territories are concerned but defining ownership. The sanctity of the land developed rich associations in rabbinical thought, where it assumes a symbolic and mythological status infused with promise, though always connected to a geographical location. Nur Masalha argues that the biblical boundaries are "entirely fictitious", bore religious connotations in Diaspora Judaism, with the term only coming into ascendency with the rise of Zionism; the Hebrew Bible provides three specific sets of borders for the "Promised Land", each with a different purpose. Neither of the terms "Promised Land" or "Land of Israel" are used in these passages: Genesis 15:13–21, Genesis 17:8 and Ezekiel 47:13–20 use the term "the land", as does Deuteronomy 1:8 in which it is promised explicitly to "Abraham and Jacob... and to their descendants after them," whilst Numbers 34:1–15 describes the "Land of Canaan", allocated to nine and half of the twelve Israelite tribes after the Exodus.
The expression "Land of Israel" is first used in a book, 1 Samuel 13:19. It is defined in detail in the exilic Book of Ezekiel as a land where both the twelve tribes and the "strangers in midst", can claim inheritance; the name "Israel" first appears in the Hebrew Bible as the name given by God to the patriarch Jacob. Deriving from the name "Israel", other designations that came to be associated with the Jewish people have included the "Children of Israel" or "Israelite"; the term'Land of Israel' occurs in one episode in the New Testament, according to Shlomo Sand, it bears the unusual sense of'the area surrounding Jerusalem'. The section in which it appears was written as a parallel to the e