The Neda is a river in the western Peloponnese in Greece. It is unique in the sense that it is the river in Greece with a feminine name. The river begins on the slope of Mount Lykaion, near the village of Neda in northern Messenia. It flows to the west through a landscape of barren rock. From near Figaleia until its mouth it forms the border of Messenia, there is a well known waterfall near the village Platania. The Neda flows into the Gulf of Kyparissia, a bay of the Ionian Sea, the Neda flows along the villages Neda, Figaleia, Platania and Giannitsochori
The Ionian Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by southern Italy including Calabria and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern Albania to the north, all major islands in the sea belong to Greece. They are collectively referred to as the Ionian Islands, the ones being Corfu, Kephalonia, Ithaca. There are ferry routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa and Brindisi and Ancona, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, and from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at −5,267 m, is located in the Ionian Sea, the sea is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. The name Ionian comes from the Greek language Ἰόνιον, Ancient Greek writers, especially Aeschylus, linked it to the myth of Io. In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios was used as an epithet for the sea because Io swam across it, according to the Oxford Classical Dictionary, the name may derive from Ionians who sailed to the West.
There were narratives about other eponymic legendary figures, according to one version, Ionius was a son of Adrias, according to another, Ionius was a son of Dyrrhachus. When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, who was passing through the area, came to his aid, the corpse was cast into the sea, which thereafter was called the Ionian Sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows, On the North. A line running from the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania, to Cape Karagol in Corfu, along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali, from the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of Sicily, the East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca
Pylos, historically known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and it was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Elaiofyto, the town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287. The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2, Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called Palace of Nestor excavated nearby, named after Nestor, in Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea, increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site.
Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, the Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. It takes that name from the surrounding the place. A Greek one, shortened to Varinos or lengthened to Anavarinos by epenthesis, in the late 14th/early 15th centuries, when it was held by the Navarrese Company, it was known as Château Navarres, and called Spanochori by the local Greeks. Under Ottoman rule, the Turkish name was Anavarin, after the construction of the new Ottoman fortress in 1571/2, it became known as Neokastro among the local Greeks, while the old Frankish castle became known as Palaiokastro. The soil about Navarino is of a red colour, and is remarkable for the production of an abundance of squills, which are used in medicine. The remains of Navarino, consist of a fort, covering the summit of a hill sloping quickly to the south, the Gialova wetland is a regional blessing of nature. It is one of 10 major lagoons in Greece, and has been classified as one of the important bird areas in Europe.
It has listed as a 1500-acre archaeological site, lying between Gialova and the bay of Voidokilia. Its alternative name of Vivari is Latin, meaning fishponds and it is Gialova, which plays host to a vary rare species, nearing extinction throughout Europe, the African chameleon. Pylos has evidence of human presence dating back to the Neolithic Age. Bronze Age Pylos was excavated by Carl Blegen between 1939 and 1952 and it is located at modern Ano Englianos, about 9 km north-east of the bay 37. 028°N21. 695°E /37.028,21.695
Mount Ithome or Ithomi, previously Vourkano or Voulcano, is the northernmost of twin peaks in Messenia, Greece. Mount Ithome rises to about 800 metres, about 760 metres over Valyra, the seat of Ithomi, the other peak is Mount Eva,700 metres, connected to Mount Ithomi by a thin ridge 0.80 kilometres long. From the top the whole valley of the Pamisos river can be viewed eastward to Mount Taygetus, the site is highly defensible and yet off the main road, in this case, the Kalamata-Pylos road. Like most ancient names the etymology of Ithome is not certain and it is the name of a place in Thessaly, although Reece notes evidence that the one in Thessaly was originally called Thome. The pre-independence name Vurcano has had many variants, Voulkanos, Voucano, Dorkano and its provenience and time of assignment are not known, like those of Morea. Ties to Vulcan or Volcano do not fit the geology, Ithome is not volcanic, evidences no volcanic deposits and its springs are not hot, in fact, they are known for their refreshing clarity and coolness.
One of the earliest records of a place called Bulcano is The Domains and Fiefs of the Principality of Achaia, the Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples, Niccolo Acciajuoli, is said to possess Lo Castello de Bulcano as a fief. The monastery on top, which dates to no than the reign of the Byzantine emperor, Andronikos II Paleologus, in the 9th and 10th centuries they ruled Messenia. At the time many classical names were changed to Slavic, only to be restored after independence, the Archaeological Museum of Messenia dates the name Vourkano to the 10th century. It, like Morea, is probably Slavic, Mavromati is segmented mavr-oma-ti, place of the black eye from mavros and omma, eye, or ommation, small eye, a common name for springs. The Homeric village of Ithome was probably on the summit, which is flat, in the Bronze Age, a temple dedicated to Zeus Ithomatas existed there. It was torn down and rebuilt as a Christian church and monastery no than the early 14th century from the same stone. In the 17th century this monastery of Panagia Voulkanou, or Moni Voulkanou, was closed, except for a caretaker, the new monastery was constructed on the lower east slope of Eva.
It was a point in the Greek War of Independence. The classical town of Ithome was on the lower west flank of Mount Ithome, the location was selected as the site for the city of Messene when it was rebuilt by Epaminondas in 369 BC. Excavations there in recent decades have uncovered evidence of a settlement going back to the stone age, the mountain itself protects the east side. These defenses were probably restored, rather than constructed anew, by Epaminondas, within the lower part of this wide circuit are the ruins of the ancient city. About 300 metres up the slope is the village of Mavromati
Schiza is a Greek island off the southwestern coast of the Peloponnese. According to 2011 census, the island is uninhabited, administratively it is part of the municipality of Methoni in Messenia. It is the largest island of the Messenian Oinousses, a complex that consists of two main islands and few rocky islets. Schiza along with other Messenian Oinousses have been included in the Natura 2000 Network, official website of Municipality of Methoni
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, commerce, entertainment, international trade, culture and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.
In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil.
In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat common
The Pamisos is the largest river of the Messenia regional unit of the southern Peloponnese in Greece. Its source is on the slopes of the Taygetus mountains. It runs through the units of Arfara, Androusa, Messini, Thouria. It flows into the Messenian Gulf east of Messini and west of Kalamata
The Taygetus, Taygetos, or Taÿgetus, is a mountain range in the Peloponnese peninsula in Southern Greece. The highest mountain of the range is Mount Taygetus, known as the Profitis Ilias, the name is one of the oldest recorded in Europe, appearing in the Odyssey. In classical mythology, it was associated with the nymph Taygete, during Byzantine times and up until the 19th century, the mountain was known as Pentadaktylos. The Taygetus Massif is about 100 km long, extending from the center of the Peloponnese to Cape Matapan and it contains the tallest mountain in the Peloponnese, the Profitis Ilias summit, reaching 2,404 m, this is probably the classical Mount Taléton mentioned by Pausanias. The summit is a prominent peak. It is prominent above the Isthmus of Corinth, which separating the Peloponnese from mainland Greece, numerous creeks wash down from the mountains and the Evrotas river has some of its headwaters in the northern part of the range. The western side of the houses the headwaters of the Viros gorge.
Taygetus overlooks the cities of Sparta and Kalamata, whose skyline it dominates, the mountain range lies within the prefectures of Arcadia and Messenia. Taygetus is crossed by Greek National Road 82, which links Kalamata to Sparta, the Rindomo Gorge separates the Central Range from Southern Taygetos. The section of Taygetus that forms the backbone of the Mani Peninsula is known as Saggias, where the northern edge of the African Plate is being subducted in an irregular line a second orogeny occurs that is not entirely understood. The mountains of Italy and Greece are a combination of Folded Mountains, the Hellenic Subduction carries the leading edge of the African Plate under the Aegean Sea Plate at the Hellenic Trench. It follows an arc around the edge of the Peloponnese. The subduction on the west is to the northeast, on the east to the northwest, the average direction is N 21° E. In the islands and southern Greece a fault-block mountain orogeny prevails due to a set of crustal movements. On the one hand the Aegean Sea Plate is being raised by the subduction, Mount Taygetus is a limestone horst bordering the Eurotas Rift Valley.
Below its eastern face is the Sparta fault, a normal fault striking perpendicular to the direction of extension, footwall scarps are visible on the eastern side of Taygetus at the base of its spurs. They result from sudden slippages of the wall in the direction of the dip. Single earthquakes result in 1–12 m of scarp, the Sparta fault is zig-zag in strike, varying between N 170° E and N 140° E
Kalamata is the second most populous city of the Peloponnese peninsula, after Patras, in southern Greece and the largest city of the homonymous administrative region. The capital and chief port of the Messenia regional unit, it lies along the Nedon River at the head of the Messenian Gulf, the 2011 census recorded 69,849 inhabitants for the wider Kalamata Municipality, of which 62,409 in the municipal unit of Kalamata proper. Kalamata is renowned as the land of the Kalamatianos dance and Kalamata olives, the modern name Kalamáta is a corruption of the older name Καλάμαι, Kalámai, reeds. The phonetic similarity of Kalamáta with the phrase kalá mátia has led to folk etymologies.313 km2. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Kalamata and West Mani, the history of Kalamata begins with Homer, who mentions Pharai, an ancient city built more or less where the Kalamata Castle stands today. Pharai was rather unimportant in antiquity, and the site continued in obscurity until middle Byzantine times, Kalamata is first mentioned in the 10th-century Life of St.
Prince William II of Villehardouin was born and died there, in the event, the town was recovered by the Franks through the intercession of a local Greek, a certain Sgouromalles. In 1298, the formed the dowry of Princess Matilda of Hainaut upon her marriage to Guy II de la Roche. Matilda retained Kalamata as her fief until 1322, when she was dispossessed, in 1358, Prince Robert gifted the châtellenie of Kalamata to his wife, Marie de Bourbon, who kept it until her death in 1377. Kalamata remained in Frankish hands until near the end of the Principality of Achaea, Kalamata was occupied by the Ottomans from 1481 to 1685, like the rest of Greece. He was soon forced to return to Crete, but the Venetians returned in the Morean War. The Venetian Republic ruled Kalamata from 1685 as part of the Kingdom of the Morea, during the Venetian occupation the city was fortified and thrived economically. However, the Ottomans reoccupied Kalamata in the war of 1715, Kalamata was the first city to be liberated as the Greeks rose in the Greek War of Independence.
On 23 March 1821, it was taken over by the Greek revolutionary forces under the command of generals Theodoros Kolokotronis, Petros Mavromichalis, however, in 1825, the invading Ibrahim Pasha destroyed the city. In independent Greece, Kalamata was rebuilt and became one of the most important ports in the Mediterranean sea and it is not surprising that the second-oldest Chamber of Commerce in the Mediterranean, after that of Marseille, exists in Kalamata. After World War II, and due to issues, Kalamata. That was a brake on the local economy, resulting in the decline of the port. During the 1970s and 1980s, development and growth in Kalamata were unknown, Kalamata was again in the news on 13 September 1986, with an earthquake that measured 6.2 on the surface wave magnitude scale