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Meta-ethics

Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements and judgments. Meta-ethics is one of the three branches of ethics studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics. While normative ethics addresses such questions as "What should I do?", evaluating specific practices and principles of action, meta-ethics addresses questions such as "What is goodness?" and "How can we tell what is good from what is bad?", seeking to understand the nature of ethical properties and evaluations. Some theorists argue that a metaphysical account of morality is necessary for the proper evaluation of actual moral theories and for making practical moral decisions. According to Richard Garner and Bernard Rosen, there are three kinds of meta-ethical problems, or three general questions: What is the meaning of moral terms or judgments? What is the nature of moral judgments? How may moral judgments be supported or defended? A question of the first type might be, "What do the words'good','bad','right' and'wrong' mean?".

The second category includes questions of whether moral judgments are universal or relative, of one kind or many kinds, etc. Questions of the third kind ask, for example, how we can know if something is right or wrong, if at all. Garner and Rosen say that answers to the three basic questions "are not unrelated, sometimes an answer to one will suggest, or even entail, an answer to another."A meta-ethical theory, unlike a normative ethical theory, does not attempt to evaluate specific choices as being better, good, bad, or evil. An answer to any of the three example questions above would not itself be a normative ethical statement; these theories focus on the first of the three questions above, "What is the meaning of moral terms or judgments?" They may however imply or entail answers to the other two questions as well. Cognitivist theories hold that evaluative moral sentences express propositions, as opposed to non-cognitivism. Most forms of cognitivism hold that some such propositions are true, as opposed to error theory, which asserts that all are erroneous.

Moral realism holds that such propositions are about robust or mind-independent facts, that is, not facts about any person or group's subjective opinion, but about objective features of the world. Meta-ethical theories are categorized as either a form of realism or as one of three forms of "anti-realism" regarding moral facts: ethical subjectivism, error theory, or non-cognitivism. Realism comes in two main varieties: Ethical naturalism holds that there are objective moral properties and that these properties are reducible or stand in some metaphysical relation to non-ethical properties. Most ethical naturalists hold. Ethical naturalism was implicitly assumed by many modern ethical theorists utilitarians. Ethical non-naturalism, as put forward by G. E. Moore, holds that there are objective and irreducible moral properties, that we sometimes have intuitive or otherwise a priori awareness of moral properties or of moral truths. Moore's open question argument against what he considered the naturalistic fallacy was responsible for the birth of meta-ethical research in contemporary analytic philosophy.

Ethical subjectivism is one form of moral anti-realism. It holds that moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of people, either those of each society, those of each individual, or those of some particular individual. Most forms of ethical subjectivism are relativist, but there are notable forms that are universalist: Ideal observer theory holds that what is right is determined by the attitudes that a hypothetical ideal observer would have. An ideal observer is characterized as a being, rational and informed, among other things. Though a subjectivist theory due to its reference to a particular subject, Ideal Observer Theory still purports to provide universal answers to moral questions. Divine command theory holds that for a thing to be right is for a unique being, God, to approve of it, that what is right for non-God beings is obedience to the divine will; this view retains some modern defenders. Like ideal observer theory, divine command theory purports to be universalist despite its subjectivism.

Error theory, another form of moral anti-realism, holds that although ethical claims do express propositions, all such propositions are false. Thus, both the statement "Murder is morally wrong" and the statement "Murder is morally permissible" are false, according to error theory. J. L. Mackie is the best-known proponent of this view. Since error theory denies that there are moral truths, error theory entails moral nihilism and, moral skepticism. Non-cognitivist theories hold that ethical sentences are neither true nor false because they do not express genuine propositions. Non-cognitivism is another form of moral anti-realism. Most forms of non-cognitivism are forms of exp

Absolutely (Eurogliders album)

Is the third studio album by Australian Indie pop, rock band Eurogliders, released in October 1985. It peaked at #7 on the Australian Kent Music Report albums chart and remained in the charts for 47 weeks. Two further singles, "Absolutely" and "So Tough" appeared in 1986. At the height of the band's success, Eurogliders Grace Knight and Bernie Lynch reconciled their relationship and were married in 1985, although the union was short-lived. Despite their marital separation, they stayed together in the band for another four years. All tracks are written by Bernie Lynch. Eurogliders members Crispin Akerman — guitar John Bennetts — drums, drum programming Ron Françoisbass synthesiser, bass guitar Grace Knight — vocals Bernie Lynch — vocals, keyboards, arranged horns Amanda Vincent — keyboards, arranged hornsAdditional musicians Jason Brewer — saxophone Mark Dennison — flute, saxophone Kevin Dubber — trumpet on "We Will Together" James Greening — trombone Martin Hill — saxophone Shauna Jensen — backing vocals Gary Kettelpercussion Maggie McKinley — backing vocals Greg Thorne — trumpet, arranged horns Mark Williams — backing vocals on "We Will Together"

Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach was a Polish mathematician, considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians. He was the founder of modern functional analysis, an original member of the Lwów School of Mathematics, his major work was the 1932 book, Théorie des opérations linéaires, the first monograph on the general theory of functional analysis. Born in Kraków, Banach attended IV Gymnasium, a secondary school, worked on mathematics problems with his friend Witold Wilkosz. After graduating in 1910, Banach moved to Lwów. However, during World War I Banach returned to Kraków. After Banach solved some mathematics problems which Steinhaus considered difficult, they published their first joint work. In 1919, with several other mathematicians, Banach formed a mathematical society. In 1920 he received an assistantship at the Lwów Polytechnic, he soon became a professor at the Polytechnic, a member of the Polish Academy of Learning. He organized the "Lwów School of Mathematics". Around 1929 he began writing his Théorie des opérations linéaires.

After the outbreak of World War II, in September 1939, Lwów was taken over by the Soviet Union. Banach became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and was dean of Lwów University's Department of Mathematics and Physics. In 1941, when the Germans took over Lwów, all institutions of higher education were closed to Poles; as a result, Banach was forced to earn a living as a feeder of lice at Rudolf Weigl's Institute for Study of Typhus and Virology. While the job carried the risk of infection with typhus, it protected him from being sent to slave labor in Germany and from other forms of repression; when the Soviets recaptured Lwów in 1944, Banach reestablished the University. However, because the Soviets were removing Poles from Soviet-annexed formerly-Polish territories, Banach prepared to return to Kraków. Before he could do so, he died in August 1945, having been diagnosed seven months earlier with lung cancer; some of the notable mathematical concepts that bear Banach's name include Banach spaces, Banach algebras, Banach measures, the Banach–Tarski paradox, the Hahn–Banach theorem, the Banach–Steinhaus theorem, the Banach–Mazur game, the Banach–Alaoglu theorem, the Banach fixed-point theorem.

Stefan Banach was born on 30 March 1892 at St. Lazarus General Hospital in Kraków part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, into a Góral Roman Catholic family and was subsequently baptised by his father, while his mother abandoned him upon this event and her identity is ambiguous. Banach's parents were natives of the Podhale region. Greczek was a soldier in the Austro-Hungarian Army stationed in Kraków. Little is known about Banach's mother. According to his baptismal certificate, she was worked as a domestic help. Unusually, Stefan's surname was his mother's instead of his father's, though he received his father's given name, Stefan. Since Stefan Greczek was a private and was prevented by military regulations from marrying, the mother was too poor to support the child, the couple decided that he should be reared by family and friends. Stefan spent the first few years of his life with his grandmother, but when she took ill Greczek arranged for his son to be raised by Franciszka Płowa and her niece Maria Puchalska in Kraków.

Young Stefan would regard Franciszka as Maria as his older sister. In his early years Banach was tutored by Juliusz Mien, a French intellectual and friend of the Płowa family, who had emigrated to Poland and supported himself with photography and translations of Polish literature into French. Mien taught Banach French and most encouraged him in his early mathematical pursuits. In 1902 Banach, aged 10, enrolled in Kraków's IV Gymnasium. While the school specialized in the humanities and his best friend Witold Wiłkosz spent most of their time working on mathematics problems during breaks and after school. In life Banach would credit Dr. Kamil Kraft, the mathematics and physics teacher at the gymnasium with kindling his interests in mathematics. While Banach was a diligent student he did on occasion receive low grades and would speak critically of the school's math teachers. After obtaining his matura at age 18 in 1910, Banach moved to Lwów with the intention of studying at the Lwów Polytechnic.

He chose engineering as his field of study since at the time he was convinced that there was nothing new to discover in mathematics. At some point he attended Jagiellonian University in Kraków on a part-time basis; as Banach had to earn money to support his studies it was not until 1914 that he at age 22, passed his high school graduation exams. When World War I broke out, Banach was excused from military service due to his left-handedness and poor vision; when the Russian Army opened its offensive toward Lwów, Banach left for Kraków, where he spent the rest of the war. He made his living as a tutor at the local gymnasiums, worked in a bookstore and as a foreman of road building crew, he attended some lectures at the Jagiellonian University at that time, including those of the famous Polish mathematicians Stanisław Zaremba and Kazimierz Żorawski, but little is known of that period of his life. In 1916, in Kraków's Planty gardens, Banach encountered Professor Hugo Steinhaus, one of the renowned mathematicians of the time.

According to Steinhaus, while he was strolling through the gardens he was surprised to overhear the term "Lebesgue integral" (Lebesgue integration was