The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Appalachian Mountain Club
Appalachian Mountain Club is one of the United States oldest outdoor groups. Created in 1876 to explore and preserve the White Mountains in New Hampshire, it has expanded throughout the northeastern U. S. with 12 chapters stretching from Maine to Washington, D. C. The AMCs 150,000 members and supporters mix outdoor recreation, particularly hiking and backpacking, additional activities include cross-country skiing and flatwater canoeing and kayaking, sea kayaking, rock climbing and bicycle riding. The Club has about 2,700 volunteers, who lead roughly 7,000 trips, the organization publishes a number of books and trail maps. Appalachian Mountain Club was organized in 1876, incorporated in 1878, the group helped map the White Mountains and in 1888 built the first of eight High Huts in the range, modeled on Alpine shelters. It has converted a portion of the purchase to a preserve, logged a portion. The Club is considering purchasing more sporting camps in the vicinity, in September 2016, it was reported in The Boston Globe that Appalachian Mountain Club sold their Joy Street headquarters to a group of real estate investors for $15 million.
The deal would turn the 22,000 square feet of space on Beacon Hill into residential units. Appalachian Mountain Clubs headquarters is located at 5 Joy Street in Boston, Appalachian Mountain Club employed 686 individuals in 2014. AMC estimated that 16,000 individuals volunteered for the organization in 2014, Appalachian Mountain Club earns over $13,000,000 per year from its outdoor program centers, educational activities, membership dues, trail activities, and advertising. Sale of products nets over $700,000 per year, Appalachian Mountain Club receives $11,000,000 per year of charitable contributions and $2,000,000 of revenue from its investments. In 2014, Appalachian Mountain Club paid two outside telemarketing firms $108,837 for fundraising services, the telemarketing firms raised $146,842 for Appalachian Mountain Club. Appalachian Mountain Club has chapters located in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Appalachian Mountain Club owns and maintains a series of eight mountain huts in the White Mountains.
Modeled after similar shelters in the Alps, the various huts hold between 36 and 90 people, hikers may reserve bunks, at most huts dinner and breakfast are included with an overnight fee. Although extremely popular, the huts are controversial, facilitating thousands of hikers entering the back woods, Four years and an environmental impact statement were required to get the huts permits renewed by the U. S. Forest Service in 1999. A committee of Appalachian Mountain Club administers the Four Thousand Footer Club, anyone who has climbed to and from each of the 48 New Hampshire Four-thousand footers is eligible to apply for membership to the club. Members are given a patch and new inductees are invited to attend a celebration dinner. The Four Thousand Footer Club recognizes individuals who complete the New England Four Thousand Footers, the club journal, has been published since 1894
W. A. B. Coolidge
William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge was an American historian and mountaineer. Coolidge was born in New York City as the son of Frederic William Skinner Coolidge, a Boston merchant and he studied history and law at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, at Elizabeth College, and at Exeter College, Oxford. In 1875 he became a Fellow of Magdalen College, from 1880 to 1881 he was professor of British history at Saint Davids College in Lampeter and in 1883 he became a priest of the Anglican church. In 1870 at the age of twenty he was made a member of the Alpine Club, on many of these climbs he was accompanied by his aunt, Meta Brevoort, and a pet dog, given to him by one of his guides, Christian Almer. In 1885 he moved to Grindelwald, where he died in 1926, scherbadung,1886 Chüebodenhorn,1892 Swiss travel and Swiss guide-books. The central Alps of the Dauphiny and excursions in the valley of Grindelwald. The Alps in nature and history, ronald W. Clark, An Eccentric in the Alps, The story of W. A. B.
Museum Press, London 1959 Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge at Internet Archive Works by or about W. A. B. Coolidge in libraries
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2015 population of 168,270, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, the city is situated 57 miles from London,69 miles from Bristol,65 miles from both Southampton and Birmingham and 25 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the city of dreaming spires, a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold, Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a number of information technology and science-based businesses. Oxford was first settled in Saxon times and was known as Oxenaforda, meaning Ford of the Oxen. It began with the establishment of a crossing for oxen around AD900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066.
Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert DOyly, the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. DOyly set up a community in the castle consisting of a chapel. The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britains oldest places of formal education and it was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place and we have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation, a grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order, and friars of various orders all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century, the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort, these documents are often regarded as Englands first written constitution.
Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events, the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, what put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxfords earliest colleges were University College and Merton and these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers or religious sisters, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion. The term derives via Old French from Latin conventus, perfect participle of the verb convenio, meaning to convene, the original reference was to the gathering of mendicants who spent much of their time travelling. Technically, a monastery or nunnery is a community of monastics, whereas a friary or convent is a community of mendicants, and a canonry a community of canons regular. The terms abbey and priory can be applied to both monasteries and canonries, an abbey is headed by an Abbot, and a priory is a dependent house headed by a Prior. In English usage since about the 19th century the term convent almost invariably refers to a community of women, in historical usage they are often interchangeable, with convent especially likely to be used for a friary. When applied to houses in Eastern Orthodoxy and Buddhism, English refers to all houses of male religious as monasteries.
Christian monasticism Enclosed religious orders Herbermann, Charles, ed. Convent, carmelite Monastery of the Sacred Hearts —- an example of a modern-day convent Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Convent
Backpacker is an American publication that features information on wilderness hiking and adventure. It has been published since 1973, Backpacker magazine is currently published by Active Interest Media and is based in Boulder, Colorado. The magazine moved from Emmaus, Pennsylvania to Boulder in August 2007, the first issue of Backpacker appeared in the spring of 1973. The editors note written by founding editor William Kemsley explains, It took us three years to put together the first issue of Backpacker, in that time we debated some serious questions among ourselves. The note describes the founding editors worries that America in the early 1970s did not contain a backpacking community large enough to support a magazine and it expresses Kemsleys goal to support the magazine primarily through subscriptions rather than advertising. The Winter/Spring 2007 issue of the journal Appalachia includes an essay by Kemsley in which he describes how he developed the idea to create a magazine about backpacking.
The article, titled How the 1970s Backpacking Boom Burst Upon Us, Backpacker was owned first by Kemsley, who sold it to Ziff Davis in 1980, which sold it to CBS Publishing. In the late 1980s, it was bought by Rodale Press, which publishes Mens Health, Runners World, in May 2007, Rodale sold Backpacker to Active Interest Media and the magazine moved to Boulder, Colorado in August 2007. Backpacker goes beyond backpacking and hiking, featuring the latest in a variety of outdoor sports, including rock climbing, mountain biking, trail running, fly fishing. In each issue of Backpacker, readers will find outdoor gear reviews and survival tips, trip reports, coverage of specific destinations and even strength and conditioning advice. On May 17,2007 Active Interest Media, an El Segundo, CA-based magazine publisher, a May 10 article in the New York Post reported a sale price of $14.5 million. Active Interest Media, which publishes Yoga Journal and American Cowboy, moved Backpacker to Boulder, CO in the summer of 2007, in 2013 Dennis Lewon became Editor-in-Chief.
Backpacker publishes nine issues per year, which includes an annual gear guide in April, combined issues are published for December–January, February–March, and July–August. The magazine is divided into the service-centric Basecamp section, a well, a gear review section. Every April Backpacker presents its Editors Choice awards to highlight the best gear of the year, starting in 2004 Backpacker began publishing regional editions of the magazine that include map cards for local trails. The regional concept developed from survey results showed the magazines readers were interested in hikes near where they lived. It discontinued these map cards in the April 2008 as part of their effort to become a 100% carbon neutral magazine, the regional sections are now on-line. An all digital version of the magazine was made available
Alpine Club (UK)
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the worlds first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineerings acknowledged senior club, on 22 December 1857 a group of British mountaineers met at Ashleys Hotel in London. All were active in the Alps and instrumental in the development of alpine mountaineering during the age of alpinism. It was at this meeting that the Alpine Club, under the chairmanship of E. S. Kennedy, was born, John Ball was the first president and Kennedy, the first vice-president, succeeded him as president of the club from 1860 to 1863. It moved its headquarters to the Metropole Hotel, for climbing, a rope was required which would be both strong and light so that lengths of it could be carried easily. A committee of the club tested samples from suppliers and prepared a specification, the official Alpine Club Rope was made by John Buckingham of Bloomsbury. It was made from three strands of manila hemp, treated to be rot proof and marked with a red thread of worsted yarn.
One hundred and fifty years later, the Alpine Club continues, and its members remain active in the Alps. For many years it had the characteristics of a London-based Gentlemens club, however, it still requires prospective members to be proposed and seconded by existing members. These higher technical standards were often to be found in such as the Alpine Climbing Group. The club has produced a suite of guidebooks which cover some of the more popular Alpine mountaineering regions and it holds extensive book and photo libraries as well as an archive of historical artifacts which are regularly lent out to exhibitions. The clubs history has recently been documented by George Band in his book Summit,150 Years of the Alpine Club and its members activities are recounted annually in the clubs publication the Alpine Journal. As of 2009, the subscription costs between £39 and £60 per year, with a £27 rate for younger members. In 1895 the club moved to 23 Savile Row, and in June 1907, from 1937 to 1990 the club was based at 74, South Audley Street, in Mayfair, London.
In 1936–1937 the surveying firm of Pilditch and Company had converted the ground floor of the building into premises for the club. The clubs library was at the back of the building, in what was once the picture gallery of Sir William Cuthbert Quilter. In 1990 the club sold its lease of 74, South Audley Street and briefly shared quarters with the Ski Club of Great Britain at 118, Eaton Square. In 1991 the Alpine Club acquired the freehold of a five-storey Victorian warehouse at 55, Charlotte Road, on the edge of the City of London, the clubs lecture room, bunk-house and archives are all housed there