Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of films, TV shows, music albums, video games and books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged. Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, Julie Doyle Roberts in 1999; the site hyperlinks to its source. A color of green, yellow or red summarizes the critics' recommendations, it is regarded as the foremost online review aggregation site for the video game industry. Metacritic's scoring converts each review into a percentage, either mathematically from the mark given, or what the site decides subjectively from a qualitative review. Before being averaged, the scores are weighted according to the critic's fame and volume of reviews; the website won two Webby Awards for excellence as an aggregation website. Criticism has focused on the assessment system, alleged third-party attempts to influence the scores, the lack of staff oversight of user reviews. Metacritic was launched in January 2001 by Marc Doyle, his sister Julie Doyle Roberts, a classmate from the University of Southern California law school, Jason Dietz, after two years of developing the site.
Rotten Tomatoes was compiling movie reviews, but Doyle and Dietz saw an opportunity to cover a broader range of media. They sold Metacritic to CNET in 2005. CNET and Metacritic were acquired by the CBS Corporation. Metacritic has been used by businesses to predict future sales. Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal wrote that Metacritic "influence the sales of games and the stocks of video game publishers", he explains its influence as coming from the higher cost of buying video games than music or movie tickets. Many executives say that low scores "can hurt the long-term sales potential". Wingfield wrote that Wall Street pays attention to Metacritic and GameRankings because the sites post scores before sales data are publicly available, citing the respective rapid rise and fall in company values after BioShock and Spider-Man 3 were released. In an interview with The Guardian, Marc Doyle cited two major publishers that "conducted comprehensive statistical surveys through which they've been able to draw a correlation between high metascores and stronger sales" in certain genres.
He claimed that an increasing number of businesses and financial analysts use Metacritic as "an early indicator of a game's potential sales and, by extension, the publisher's stock price". However, a 2015 study analyzing over 88 Xbox 360 and 80 PS3 games from 2012 found that Metacritic scores did not impact actual sales. Controversially, the website has been used by game publishers as a means of determining whether a game's developer receives additional royalties. One notable example is the 2010 game Fallout: New Vegas, which received an average Metascore of 84—one point too short of Bethesda's, the game's publisher, 85-point requirement; as a result, its developer, Obsidian Entertainment, received no additional bonus. Columnists took issue with the company's use of Metacritic, with one suggesting that that makes game critics accountable for deciding the developer's profits and another pointing out that a Metascore of 84 is not lower than 85; the latter pointed out the impressive sales of five million sold units and US$300 million in revenue, noted a series of Obsidian's layoffs in 2011 and 2012.
On the other hand, the website has been used by columnists and commentators as a general reference for critical reception, by publishers as a tool of improving their products. Along with other executives, in 2008, John Riccitiello CEO of Electronic Arts, showed Wall Street analysts a chart illustrating a downward trend in the average critical ratings of the company's games, he took the ratings and stressed the need for the company to bounce back. In 2008, Microsoft used Metacritic averages to delist underperforming Xbox Live Arcade games. Scores are weighted averages. Certain publications are given more significance "because of their stature". Metacritic has said. Games Editor Marc Doyle was interviewed by Keith Stuart of The Guardian to "get a look behind the metascoring process". Stuart wrote: "The metascore phenomenon, namely Metacritic and GameRankings, have become an enormously important element of online games journalism over the past few years". Doyle said that because video games lead to a greater investment of time and money, gamers are more informed about reviews than are fans of film or music.
In June 2018, the website introduced the'Metacritic: Must-See' label for films that attain scores of 81% or more, with at least 15 professional reviews for the given film. In September 2018, it added the'Metacritic: Must-Play' certification for video games attaining a score of 90% or more, a minimum number of 15 reviews from industry professionals. Metacritic received mixed reviews from website critics and columnists alike, its efficacy has been analyzed, with conclusions finding it to be useful or unreliable and biased. The website won two annual Webby Awards for excellence in the "Guides/Ratings/Reviews" category, in 2010 and 2015. Metacritic has been criticized for converting all scoring systems into a single quantitative percentage-based scale. For example, an "A" score equates to the value of 100, an "F" the value of zero, a "B–" the value of 67. Joe Dodson, former editor at Game Revolution, criticized Metacritic and similar sites for turning reviews into scores that he found to be too low.
Doyle defended the grading system, believing that every scale should be converted directly to that of the website, with its lowest poss
Sunfighter is a 1971 album created by Paul Kantner and Grace Slick from Jefferson Airplane. The album was released shortly after the Airplane album Bark was released, is the second record released on the Airplane's own Grunt vanity label, distributed by RCA Records; the album features a picture of China Wing Kantner, on the cover. Many Bay Area musicians perform on the album, including all of the current lineup of Jefferson Airplane, members of the Grateful Dead, Crosby and Nash, the horn group, Tower of Power; this album is the first time a 17-year old Craig Chaquico recorded with Paul Kantner and Grace Slick. He would go on to become the lead guitarist for Jefferson Starship; the song "Sunfighter" is dedicated to Marty Balin. Part 1 of the song "Diana" was written in response to the story of the Weathermen. Part 2 is a response to the Ohio National Guard mass shooting of students at Kent State University; the song "Silver Spoon" concerns cannibalism. According to the liner notes, Grace Slick, now a vegan, conceived of the song out of frustration with pressure from vegetarian neighbors in Bolinas, where she and Kantner had moved.
The song "China" is about China Kantner. Her picture is used on the cover of the album. Paul Kantner – vocals, rhythm guitar Grace Slick – vocals, piano Jack Traylor – guitar on "Earth Mother", vocals on "Earth Mother" Jerry Garcia – guitar on "When I Was a Boy I Watched the Wolves", "Million", "Holding Together" Papa John Creach – electric violin on "Silver Spoon" and "Earth Mother" Craig Chaquico – lead guitar on "Earth Mother" Bill Laudner – vocals on "Million" Jack Casady – bass on "Silver Spoon" and "China" Spencer Dryden – drums on "Earth Mother" David Crosby – vocals on "Look at the Wood", "When I Was a Boy I Watched the Wolves", "Diana 2", tambourine on "Look at the Wood" Jorma Kaukonen – lead guitar on "Look at the Wood" Graham Nash – ARP synthesizer on "Look at the Wood", vocals on "When I Was a Boy I Watched the Wolves" and "Diana 2" Chris Wing – drums on "China" Pat Gleeson – moog on "Universal Copernican Mumbles", piano on "Universal Copernican Mumbles" John Vierra – synthesizer on "Universal Copernican Mumbles", keyboards on "Universal Copernican Mumbles" Phill Sawyer – sound effects on "Titanic" Peter Kaukonen – guitar on "Sunfighter", mandolin on "When I Was a Boy I Watched the Wolves" Shelley Silverman – drums on "When I Was a Boy I Watched the Wolves" Joey Covington – drums on "Silver Spoon", "Sunfighter", "China", "Holding Together" Edwin Hawkins Singers – vocals on "Sunfighter" Steven Schuster – flute on "Silver Spoon" and "Sunfighter", saxophone on "Sunfighter" and "China", horn arrangements on "Sunfighter", "China" Tower of Power – horns on "Sunfighter" and "China" Paul Kantner – producer Grace Slick – producer, libretto booklet Pat Ieraci – engineer Phill Sawyer – engineer Acy Lehman – cover, assistant on libretto booklet Heavy Water Lights – lights inside Gary Blackman – assistant on libretto booklet Album
Dasol Kim is a South Korean pianist. Born in Busan, Kim started playing the piano at the age of 11, by 15 won his first international competition and left for Germany, he studied with Arie Vardi. Kim won the Young Concert Artists International Auditions in Leipzig in 2010 and in New York in 2015. Additionally, he won First Prize in the 2011 Epinal International Piano Competition in France, Second Prize in the 2012 Concours Géza Anda in Switzerland. In 2012 he won the Kissinger Klavierolymp, the piano competition of the festival Kissinger Sommer, he won a Jury Discretionary Award at the 2017 Van Cliburn International Piano Competition in the United States. Kim has appeared as soloist with such orchestras as the New York Philharmonic, the Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra, the Tonhalle Orchestra Zurich, the Berlin Konzerthaus Orchestra, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the Brandenburg Chamber Orchestra, the MDR Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra, Concerto Budapest, the Belgium National Orchestra.
He has been engaged to perform the complete Beethoven piano sonatas in Korea. Kim's debut album, of works by Robert Schumann, was released on Deutsche Grammophon in 2015, he lives in Berlin and holds the Mortimer Levitt Piano Chair of Young Concert Artists