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In DC Comics' DC Universe, a metahuman is a human with superpowers. The term is synonymous with both mutant and mutate in the Marvel Universe and posthuman in the Wildstorm and Ultimate Marvel Universes. In DC Comics, the term is used loosely in most instances to refer to any human-like being with extranormal powers and abilities, be they cosmic, science, skill or tech in nature. A significant portion of these are normal human beings born with a genetic variant called the "metagene", which causes them to gain powers and abilities during freak accidents or times of intense psychological distress; the term as a referent to superheroes began in 1986 by author George R. R. Martin, first in the Superworld role playing system, later in his Wild Cards series of novels; the term was first used by a fictitious race of extraterrestrials known as the Dominators when they appeared in DC Comics' Invasion! mini-series. The Dominators use this term to refer to any human native of the planet Earth with "fictional superhuman abilities".

The prefix "meta-" means "beyond", denoting persons and abilities beyond human limits. Metahuman may relate to an individual who has exceeded what is known as "The Current Potential", meaning one's ability to move matter with mind.. Before the White Martians arrived on Earth, Lord Vimana, the Vimanian overlord from the Xenobrood mini-series, claimed credit for the creation of the human race both normal and metahuman, due to their introduction of superpowered alien genetic matter into human germline DNA; the Vimanians in the series forced their super powered worker drones to mate with humanity's ancestors Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus in order to create a race of superpowered slaves. The Invasion! mini-series provided a concept for why humans in the DC Universe would survive catastrophic events and develop superpowers. One of the Dominators discovered that select members of the human race had a "biological variant," which he called the meta-gene; this gene lay dormant until an instant of extraordinary physical and emotional stress activates it.

A "spontaneous chromosomal combustion" takes place, as the metagene takes the source of the biostress – be it chemical, radioactive or whatever – and turns the potential catastrophe into a catalyst for "genetic change," resulting in metahuman abilities. DC does not use the "metagene concept" as a solid editorial rule, few writers explicitly reference the metagene when explaining a character's origin. DC has characters born with superhuman abilities, suggesting the metagene can activate spontaneously and without any prior appearance in the ancestry. One well-known example involves the second Black Canary. Although her mother was a superhero, neither she nor her husband Larry Lance were born with any known metagenes. However, Dinah Laurel was born with a metagene, the infamous ultrasonic scream known as the Canary Cry; the prefix meta-, in this context means "beyond"—as in metastable, beyond regular stability and ready to collapse at the slightest disruption, or metamorphosis, the state of going beyond a single shape.

In the DC comic mini-series Invasion!, the Dominators point out that the Meta-gene is contained inside every cell of the human body. In the DC Comics universe, metahuman criminals are incarcerated in special metahuman prisons, like the prison built on Alcatraz Island, outfitted not only with provisions to hold criminals whose powers are science and technology-based, but mystical dampeners to hold villains whose powers are magic based. Prisoners in this facility are tagged with nanobyte tracers injected into their bloodstream that allow them to be located wherever they are, it is possible for individuals skilled in science and biology to manipulate, dampen or modify the activities of the metagene. During the Final Crisis while the Dominators were devised a Gene Bomb able to accelerate the metagene activity to the point of cellular and physical instabilities, an anti-metagene virus was spread as a last-ditch weapon in the invaded Checkmate quarters; this metavirus has the opposite effects of the Gene Bomb and shutting down the metagene and stripping the metahumans of their powers for an unspecified amount of time.

The genetic potential for a future metagene was discovered in ancient Homo sapien's DNA by the White Martian race. The White Martians performed experiments on these primitive humans, changing how the metahuman phenotype was expressed by the metagene. Due to their experiments, they altered the destiny of the human race. Whereas before, evolution would have made mankind into a race of superhumans similar to the Daxamites and Kryptonians, now only a select few humans would develop metahuman powers; as punishment for this, the group of renegades known as the Hyperclan was exiled to the Still Zone, a version of the Phantom Zone. The White Martians created a metavirus, a metagene that could be passed from host to host via touch; this metavirus was responsible for the empowerment of the first Son of Vulcan. From that time onwards, the Sons of Vulcan passed the metavirus down in an unbroken line, sworn to hunt and kill White Martians; the terms "meta" and "metahuman" do not refer only to humans born with biological variants.

Superman and Martian Manhunter as well as Wonder Woman and Aquaman are referred to in many instances as "metahumans." It can refer to anyone with extraordinary powers, no matter the origins and including those not born with such power. According to Countdown to Infinite Crisis 1.3 million metahum

Tish Murtha

Patricia Anne "Tish" Murtha was a British social documentary photographer best known for documenting marginalised communities, social realism and working class life in Newcastle upon Tyne and the North East of England. The posthumously published books of her work are Elswick Kids. Murtha was born 1956 in North East England. In 1976, aged 20, she left home to study at the School of Documentary Photography at The University of Wales, set up by Magnum Photos member David Hurn. After graduating in 1978, she returned to Newcastle and set out to document “marginalized communities from the inside” - unlike other photographers who came to document social poverty in the region at the time Murtha didn’t just document it, she lived it, as the third of ten children of Irish descent, brought up in a council house in Elswick, she captured the lives of her friends and the community around her while herself on a job scheme for the unemployed; this led to the controversial exhibitions Juvenile Jazz Bands and Youth Unemployment, raised as a subject of debate in the House of Commons.

Around this time Murtha was commissioned to document the campaign Save Scotswood Works and provided photographs for the THAC publications Do you know what this is doing to my little girl? - Home Truths in the Year Of The Child and Burying The Problem, highlighting social poverty on Tyneside. In 1982, Murtha moved to London, where she worked on London By Night along with Bill Brandt, Brian Griffin and Peter Marlow; the group exhibition documenting Soho and the commercial sex industry, was exhibited in The Photographers’ Gallery, London. Murtha lived in the capital for five years, she photographed emerging celebrities Julian Clary and Philip Herbert and took the first headshots of a young Declan Donnelly upon her return to the north east in 1987. Between 2008 and 2012, Murtha's work was selected for three Arts Council / British Council Collection exhibitions. Posthumously, Murtha's work was included in the group exhibitions True/Grit - A Celebration of Northern Realism, For Ever Amber. and Childhoods - 1977 to 2016.

On 13 March 2013—the day before what would have been her 57th birthday—Murtha died after suffering a sudden brain aneurysm. She is survived by her daughter and grandson, Dexter. Paul Reas and Lulu Preece at University of South Wales began scanning the Tish Murtha archive, which contains thousands of unseen images, her daughter Ella published the book Youth Unemployment through Bluecoat Press in November 2017 after a successful Kickstarter campaign. Youth Unemployment. Liverpool: Bluecoat, 2017. ISBN 978-1908457394. Hardback first edition. Liverpool: Bluecoat, 2018. ISBN 978-1908457424. Paperback second edition. Elswick Kids. Liverpool: Bluecoat, 2018. ISBN 978-1908457509. Hardback. Newport Tip 1978. Southport: Café Royal, 2018. Edition of 500 copies. Newport Doc Photo Class of'78. Southport: Café Royal, 2018. Four titles in a box, Newport Tip 1978, Army Snow Clearance Bridgend 1978, The Queens Jubilee Newport 1977, Newport Doc Photo Class of'78. Edition of 150 copies; the Queen's Silver Jubilee Newport 1977.

Southport: Café Royal, 2018. The book of the year. London: Ink Links, 1980. ISSN 0144-5367. No Such Thing as Society: Photography in Britain 1967–1987: From the Arts Council Collection and the British Council Collection. London: Hayward, 2007. By David Alan Mellor. ISBN 978-1-85332-265-5. Unpopular Culture: Grayson Perry Selects from the Arts Council Collection. London: Hayward, 2008. By Grayson Perry and Blake Morrison. ISBN 978-1853322679 Observadores: Fotografos da Cena Britanica de 1930 Ate Hoje. São Paulo: SESI, 2012. ISBN 978-8582050576 For Ever Amber: Stories From A Film & Photography Collection. Leeds: Pressision, 2015. London Nights. London: Hoxton Mini Press. 2018. ISBN 978-1-910566-34-3. With essays by Anna Sparham and poetry by Inua Ellams. Published in conjunction with an exhibition at the Museum of London. Do you know what this is doing to my little girl? - Home Truths in the Year Of The Child - a THAC Report. Tyneside Free Press Workshop, 1979. ISBN 9780901242525. Burying The Problem - a THAC Report.

Tyneside Free Press Workshop, 1980. Photoworks. Issue 10. Brighton: Photoworks, 2008. ISBN 978-1903796276. History of Photography, Volume 33, Number 4: Crushing The Social. Routledge, November 2009. ISSN 0308-7298. Wombat: Portfolio No. 24: Tish Murtha. Paris: Wombat, September 2016. Loose Associations. Volume 4, Number 2: Various. London: The Photographers' Gallery, 2018. ISBN 9786000028091. Includes work by Alex Prager. Murtha's work is held in the following public collections: Arts Council of Great Britain British Council The AmberSide Collection UK UNESCO Memory of the World Register National Portrait Gallery, London Youth Unemployment, Side Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne and touring, 1981 Juvenile Jazz Bands, Side Gallery, Newcastle upo

Rawalpindi experiments

The Rawalpindi experiments were experiments involving use of mustard gas carried out by scientists from Porton Down of the British military on hundreds of Indian soldiers. Experiments were carried out before and during the Second World War in a military installation at Rawalpindi, now in Pakistan; these experiments lasted more than 10 years. Since the publication of the story by Rob Evans of The Guardian on 1 September 2007, the experiments are referred to as the Rawalpindi experiments or Rawalpindi mustard gas experiments in the media and elsewhere; the experiments in Rawalpindi were part of a much larger project intended to test the effects of chemical weapons on humans. More than 20,000 British servicemen and -women were subjected to chemical warfare trials between 1916 and 1989 at the Defence Ministry's Porton Down research centre in southwest England; the experiments were done to determine the effects of mustard gas, now known to be carcinogenic. According to documents at the British National Archives in London, British army scientists and doctors tested the effects of mustard gas on over 500 Indian soldiers over a ten-year period.

Beginning in the early 1930s, scientists at Rawalpindi sent Indian soldiers, wearing shorts and cotton shirts, into gas chambers to experience the effects of mustard gas. The scientists hoped to determine the appropriate dosage to use on battlefields. Many of the subjects suffered severe burns from their exposure to the gas; these tests caused large numbers of burns, some of which were so damaging that the subjects had to be hospitalized. According to the report burned patients were very miserable and depressed and in considerable discomfort. No long-term effects of exposure were studied; the patients were treated at the Indian Military Hospital Rawalpindi now known as the Military Hospital Rawalpindi. The exact place where the British Military facility with gas chambers was located in Rawalpindi is not known. Porton Down officials have argued that trials took place in a different era, during a conflict, so their conduct should not be judged by today's standards. Keen as Mustard, a documentary film about tests in tropical Australia on serviceman volunteers during WWII.

British National Archives

Kinbrace railway station

Kinbrace railway station is a railway station serving the village of Kinbrace in the Highland council area in the north of Scotland. It is located on the Far North Line. Trains stop on request. Helmsdale had been linked to Inverness by rail in 1870; the Sutherland and Caithness Railway was formed in 1871 to carry the railway onward to Thurso and Wick, by a route which took it through Strath Ullie. The line included a station at Kinbrace; the station is 118 miles 20 chains from Inverness, has a single platform, long enough for a four-coach train. In the May 2019 timetable, there are four trains north to Wick via Thurso and three south to Inverness from Mon-Sat. There is a fourth Wick to Inverness service. There is a single train each way on Sundays. RAILSCOT page on Kinbrace

Indrajit Coomaraswamy

Indrajit Coomaraswamy is a Sri Lankan economist and the 14th Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Coomaraswamy was born on 3 April 1950 in Ceylon, he was the son of civil servant Rajendra Wijeyamani. His paternal grandfather C. Coomaraswamy was a civil servant and his maternal grandfather S. K. Wijeyaratnam was chairman of Negombo Urban Council, he has Radhika. Coomaraswamy was educated at Harrow School, he was captain of Royal's primary cricket team. He was captain of Harrow's cricket team from 1967 to 1968 and played rugby for the school for three years. After school he joined Emmanuel Cambridge from where he received BA and MA degrees, he played first-class cricket for Cambridge University Cricket Club between 1971 and 1972. He proceeded to the University of Sussex from where he obtained a DPhil degree. Coomaraswamy is married to Tara de Fonseka, they have two sons -- Arjun. Coomaraswamy is a Sri Lankan Tamil. Coomaraswamy joined the Central Bank of Sri Lanka in 1973, working as a staff officer in its Economic Research and Bank Supervision divisions until 1989.

He was seconded to the Ministry of Finance and Planning between 1981 and 1989 to provide advice on macroeconomic issues and structural reforms. He worked at the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1990 to 2008, holding various posts including Chief Officer, Economics in the International Finance and Markets Section, he was an advisor to Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and Project Minister of Economic Reforms and Technology Milinda Moragoda between 2001 and 2002. Coomaraswamy rejoined the Commonwealth Secretariat in 2010 as Interim Director of its Social Transformation Programme Division, he was special advisor to the controversial Galleon Group hedge fund. He was director of a British company called Galleon Research Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Galleon International Management LLC, he was appointed as a non-executive director of John Keells Holdings PLC in February 2011. He was appointed as a director of Tokyo Cement Group in March 2011, he worked for Hatton National Bank and was a director of SEEDS Limited.

He was a member of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura's Board of Study and a director of Nawaloka College of Higher Studies. He was a senior advisor to Minister of Development Strategies and International Trade Malik Samarawickrama. Coomaraswamy was appointed Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka in July 2016, replacing Arjuna Mahendran whose tenure was mired by allegations of corruption. Coomaraswamy played rugby for Ceylonese Rugby & Football Club and captained the national team in the 1974 Rugby Asiad, he played cricket for the Tamil Union Cricket and Athletic Club

Austria under National Socialism

Austria under National Socialism describes the period of Austrian history from 12 March 1938 when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany until the end of World War II in 1945. The origins of National Socialism in Austria continues to be debated. Professor Andrew Gladding Whiteside regarded the emergence of an Austrian variant of National Socialism as the product of the German-Czech conflict of the multi-ethnic Austrian Empire and rejected the view that it was a precursor of German Nazism. In 1918, at the end of World War I, with the breakup of the multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the abolition of the Habsburg monarchy, there were three major political groups competing with one another in the young republic of Austria: the Social Democratic Party of Austria, Christian Social Party, the nationalist Great German Union, which became the Greater German People's Party in 1920. At the time, smaller parties such as the Communist Party of Austria and the Austrian National Socialists were neither present in the Reichsrat nor the Nationalrat.

SDAP, GVP, DNSAP were although for different reasons, in favour a union of German Austria with the German state, a republic by that time. The CS tended to favour the union, but differed at first on a different subject - they were split on the idea of continuing the monarchy instead of a republic. Whereas only the KPÖ decidedly spoke against the annexation in the course of the 1920s and 1930s, the monarchists spoke up against the annexation and turned to favor it, after the Bavarian Soviet Republic had failed, Germany had a conservative government; the Treaty of Saint-Germain, signed 10 September 1919 by Karl Renner, first chancellor of the republic forbade any union with Germany, abolished the monarchy, stated the First Austrian Republic as an independent country. The First Austrian Republic angered many Austrian pan-Germans who made the claim that the republic violated the Fourteen Points that were announced by United States President Woodrow Wilson during peace talks the right to "self-determination" of all nations.

Life and politics in the early years were marked by serious economic problems and a increasing tension between the different political groups. From 1918 to 1920 the government was led by the Social Democratic Party and by the Christian Social Party in coalition with the German nationalists. On 31 May 1922, prelate Ignaz Seipel became Chancellor of the Christian Social government, he succeeded in improving the economic situation with the financial help of the League of Nations. Ideologically, Seipel was anti-communist and did everything in his power to reduce, as far as possible, the influence of the Social Democrats - both sides saw this as a conflict between two social classes; the military of Austria was restricted to 30,000 men by the allies and the police force was poorly equipped. By 1918 the first homeguards were established like the Kärntner Abwehrkampf. In 1920 in Tirol the first Heimwehr was put in duty under the command of Richard Steidle with the help of the Bavarian organisation Escherich.

Soon other states followed. In 1923 members of the Monarchist "Ostara" shot a worker dead and the Social Democrats founded their own protective organization. Other paramilitary groups were the formed from former active soldiers and members of the Roman Catholic Church; the Vaterländische Schutzbund were National Socialists. They started the Austrian Sturmabteilung; the German Workers' Party had been founded in Bohemia as early as 1903. It was part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, it supported German nationalism and anti-clericalism, but at first was not anti-Semitic. This party stood for making Austria and the Austrian Germans a part of Germany. In 1909 lawyer, Walter Riehl joined the party and he became leader in 1918. Soon after that the name was changed to the German National Socialist Workers' Party. After the fall of the monarchy, the party split into a Czechoslovakian party and an Austrian party under Riehl. From 1920 onwards this Austrian party cooperated with the Munich formed German Workers' Party and the National Socialist German Workers' Party, which Adolf Hitler led after 1921.

In 1923 Riehl's party was a marginal factor in Austrian politics. In 1924 there was another split and Karl Schulz led a splinter group; the two opposed each other. In 1926 Richard Suchenwirth founded the Austrian branch of Hitler's German National Socialist party in Vienna. Around that time Benito Mussolini formed his Fascist dictatorship in Italy and became an important ally of the far right; the Austrian National Socialists linked to Hitler got only 779 votes in the 1927 General Election. The strongest grouping besides the Social Democrats was the Unity Coalition led by the Christian Social Party but including German Nationalists and the groups of Riehl and Schulz. In the course of these years there were frequent serious acts of violence between the various armed factions and people were killed. In the General Election of 1930, the Social Democrats were the largest single party; the Christian Social Party came second but stayed in office in a coalition with sm