Ralf Jones is a video game character created by SNK. Ralf has made appearance in several games from the company, premiering in TNK III as a military tank driver; the Ikari Warriors series emphasized Ralf's role as a soldier with him becoming the partner of Clark Still. Both Ralf and Clark would become recurring characters in The King of Fighters fighting games series in which they appear as part of the Ikari Team participating in various tournaments while searching for various criminals. Additionally and Clark have appeared in few games from the Metal Slug series developed by SNK. Ralf Jones has been voiced by Monster Maezuka from his debut, who voices Kyoshiro Senryo, Choi Bounge and Benimaru Nikaido. Since his appearance in Ikari Warriors Ralf was meant to be a soldier, the SNK staff were inspired by the film series, Rambo. With the start of The King of Fighters, developers were focused in redesigning Ralf's character so that he would be different from Clark, whom he shared several similarities.
Ralf has been popular with gamers, having appeared in several popularity polls from journals. His character has received comments from various video games publications, which praised his attributes and development in the various games he has appeared. Developers from Ikari Warriors were inspired by the film series, when designing the game and Ralf and Clark. According to Keiko Iju, a former creator from SNK games, he needed to create "half-naked Rambos" as characters; the King of Fighters was only meant to feature characters from the Art of Fighting series and the Fatal Fury series. However, they decided to add characters from the Ikari Warriors series along with ones from Psycho Soldier in spirit of other gaming genres considered for the final product. Designers from The King of Fighters series found problems with the addition of Ralf and Clark to the game as they were similar; as such, the designers added new details to both characters in order to make them more distinguishable. While Clark received sunglasses, Ralf was given as bandana.
However, developers found their fighting styles to be similar, causing designer to adjust both of them until becoming different. In the making of The King of Fighters'94, Ralf was meant to appear shirtless. However, during the designing phase, developers felt his appearance was "a bit dated" and changed once again his outfit. In comparison to all the other characters from the game, Ralf was going to have grenades as part of his moveset, but the staff found that would be unfair for the other characters so he lost such ability. By The King of Fighters XII, Ralf's appearance was changed once again to his Ikari Warriors outfit as developers wanted to "stay true to the original concept" from The King of Fighters series. In Ikari Warriors, Ralf's attire was based on Rambo, he wore a red headband and a belt full of bullets. In the first game from The King of Fighters series, he wore jeans and a white sleeveless T-shirt, along with a military vest and a red bandanna. In The King of Fighters'99 is sightly changed with green jeans, black shirt, red gloves and with a pattern of green slashes added to his bandanna.
In The King of Fighters 2000, his outfit is once again modified but with darker colors from all his clothes. His attire from Ikari appears as alternate outfit for the character in the first Maximum Impact game. In KOF: Maximum Impact 2, Ralf retains his 2003 outfit but with a red jacket, his Armored Ralf version from the same game is different from the original Ralf, as his skin is darker and his hair is lighter. He additionally sports a green jacket, military pants, a white T-shirt and a green headband instead of his red bandana, he was given green protectors in his hands which have spikes. The additional outfits from the common Ralf are cosplays from Marco Rossi from the Metal Slug series and Jack Turner from the Art of Fighting series. In The King of Fighters XII, Ralf becomes bulkier and wears a dark olive military vest over a pair of dark olive cargo pants, his attire in The King of Fighters XIV is a mix of his'99 and XII outfits, with a white tank top and green camouflage cargo pants. His body sports light green war paint in this.
Ralf is a hot-blooded person. He is informal when talking with his partners or his commander Heidern although he tends to start talking in a more formal way. However, he is determined to accomplish all his missions becoming sad when he fails when he loses a war. Despite being the counterpart of Clark in many ways, they are always assigned to work together, he is protective of any new recruits that come under his command and will try his best to care for them, most notably with Whip. In KOF'94, Ralf and Clark shared the same set of Special Moves, with only their Super Special Move being different, his original Special Moves included the Vulcan Punch, the Gatling Attack, the Super Argentine Back Breaker. In KOF'95, he gain one new Special Move, the Dive Bomber Bop, in which Ralf jumps in the air and dives towards the opponent. In KOF'97, he gains the Ralf Kick, in KOF'99 the Ralf Tackle. In KOF 2003, he gains the Stealth Ralf Kick and the Unblock, his Super Special Move in KOF'94, is the Super Vulcan Punch, a more powerful version of the Vulcan Punch, while in KOF'96 he gains the Bareback Vulcan Punch, a version of the Super Vulcan Punch in which Ralf pins his opponent into the ground and unleashes a flurry of punch
The concept of the supernatural encompasses anything, inexplicable by scientific understanding of the laws of nature but argued by believers to exist. Examples include immaterial beings such as angels and spirits, claimed human abilities like magic and extrasensory perception. Supernatural entities have been invoked to explain phenomena as diverse as lightning and the human senses. Naturalists maintain that nothing beyond the physical world exists and hence maintain skeptical attitudes towards supernatural concepts; the supernatural is featured in paranormal and religious contexts, but can feature as an explanation in more secular contexts. Occurring as both an adjective and a noun, descendants of the modern English compound supernatural enters the language from two sources: via Middle French and directly from the Middle French's term's ancestor, post-Classical Latin. Post-classical Latin supernaturalis first occurs in the 6th century, composed of the Latin prefix super- and nātūrālis; the earliest known appearance of the word in the English language occurs in a Middle English translation of Catherine of Siena's Dialogue.
The semantic value of the term has shifted over the history of its use. The term referred to Christian understandings of the world. For example, as an adjective, the term can mean'belonging to a realm or system that transcends nature, as that of divine, magical, or ghostly beings. Obsolete uses include'of, relating to, or dealing with metaphysics'; as a noun, the term can mean'a supernatural being', with a strong history of employment in relation to entities from the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The metaphysical considerations of the existence of the supernatural can be difficult to approach as an exercise in philosophy or theology because any dependencies on its antithesis, the natural, will have to be inverted or rejected. One complicating factor is that there is disagreement about the definition of "natural" and the limits of naturalism. Concepts in the supernatural domain are related to concepts in religious spirituality and occultism or spiritualism. For sometimes we use the word nature for that Author of nature whom the schoolmen, harshly enough, call natura naturans, as when it is said that nature hath made man corporeal and immaterial.
Sometimes we mean by the nature of a thing the essence, or that which the schoolmen scruple not to call the quiddity of a thing, the attribute or attributes on whose score it is what it is, whether the thing be corporeal or not, as when we attempt to define the nature of an angle, or of a triangle, or of a fluid body, as such. Sometimes we take nature for an internal principle of motion, as when we say that a stone let fall in the air is by nature carried towards the centre of the earth, and, on the contrary, that fire or flame does move upwards toward firmament. Sometimes we understand by nature the established course of things, as when we say that nature makes the night succeed the day, nature hath made respiration necessary to the life of men. Sometimes we take nature for an aggregate of powers belonging to a body a living one, as when physicians say that nature is strong or weak or spent, or that in such or such diseases nature left to herself will do the cure. Sometimes we take nature for the universe, or system of the corporeal works of God, as when it is said of a phoenix, or a chimera, that there is no such thing in nature, i.e. in the world.
And sometimes too, that most we would express by nature a semi-deity or other strange kind of being, such as this discourse examines the notion of. And besides these more absolute acceptions, if I may so call them, of the word nature, it has divers others, as nature is wont to be set or in opposition or contradistinction to other things, as when we say of a stone when it falls downwards that it does it by a natural motion, but that if it be thrown upwards its motion that way is violent. So chemists distinguish vitriol into natural and fictitious, or made by art, i.e. by the intervention of human power or skill. We say that wicked men are still in the state of nature, but the regenerate in a state of grace; the term "supernatural" is used interchangeably with paranormal or preternatural — the latter limited to an adjective for describing abilities which appear to exceed what is possible within the boundaries of the laws of physics. Epistemologically, the relationship between the supernatural and the natural is indistinct in terms of natural phenomena that, ex hypothesi, violate the laws of nature, in so far as such laws are realistically accountable.
Parapsychologists use the term psi to refer to an assumed unitary force underlying the phenomena they study. Psi is defined in the Journal of Parapsychology as "personal factors or processes in nature which transcend accepted laws" and "which are non-physical in nature", it is used to cover both extrasensory perception, an "awareness of or response to an external event or influence not apprehended by sens
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, other information such as train tables, road signs, official communications with foreign countries. Based on English writing conventions, consonants correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation; the Hepburn style was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission, formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn, published in 1886; the "modified Hepburn system" known as the "standard system", was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization.
Although Kunrei romanization is favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard. The Hepburn style is regarded as the best way to render Japanese pronunciation for Westerners. Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages will be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization. Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script. In 1930 a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two; the Commission decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.
In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization; the ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994. As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki; the National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, the Ministry of Land and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs. In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines and attractions use it.
English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan. Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn. There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization; the two most common styles are as follows: The Traditional Hepburn, as defined in various editions of Hepburn's dictionary, with the third edition considered authoritative. It is characterized by the rendering of syllabic n as m before the consonants b, m and p: Shimbashi for 新橋. Modified Hepburn known as Revised Hepburn, in which the rendering of syllabic n as m before certain consonants is no longer used: Shinbashi for 新橋; the style was introduced in the third edition of Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, was adopted by the Library of Congress as one of its ALA-LC romanizations, is the most common version of the system today.
In Japan itself, there are some variants mandated for various uses: Railway Standard, which follows the Hyōjun-shiki Rōmaji. All Japan Rail and other major railways use it for station names. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism Standard, how to spell Roman letters of road signs, which follows the modified Hepburn style, it is used for road signs. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Passport Standard, a permissive standard, which explicitly allows the use of "non-Hepburn romaji" in personal names, notably for passports. In particular, it renders the syllabic n as m before b, m and p, romanizes long o as oh, oo or ou. Details of the variants can be found below; the romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and versions include: エ and ヱ were written as ye: Yedo ズ and ヅ were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku キャ, キョ, キュ were written as kiya, kiy
SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighters Clash
SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighters Clash is a series of SNK Playmore games between 1999 and 2006 for hand-held consoles, it is a digital collectible card game, spun off from the popular series of fighting games by SNK and Capcom, including references to many other kinds of games from both companies. The game uses cards based on SNK characters from a variety of earlier games; the first two versions of this game were released for Neo-Geo Pocket Color, a new version for the Nintendo DS was released in 2007. The first game in the series, released in 1999 for the Neo Geo Pocket Color handheld console, was the first crossover between SNK and Capcom. Characters in the game are illustrated in the super deformed art style. There are two complementary versions of the game: the Capcom version; each version of the game has a different starting deck and different exclusive cards that can be obtained, but the gameplay remains the same, with card battles resembling a somewhat simplified version of Magic: The Gathering, in which a maximum of three "creatures" are allowed in each player's field at any given moment and there is no mana to be spent to place them in the field.
This Japan-only sequel to SVC: Card Fighters' Clash was released in 2001 for the Neo Geo Pocket Color after Capcom vs. SNK 2. In addition to the 240 character and 60 action cards from the first game, 124 new cards are added, adding cast from Garou: Mark of the Wolves, Samurai Shodown: Warriors Rage, The King of Fighters'99 and 2000 for SNK, Project Justice, Mega Man Legends, Dino Crisis and Onimusha for Capcom, while including 40 Reaction cards that can be used during the opponent's attack. Another new feature is special character cards with alternate versions of various characters depicted with regular artwork instead of the super deformed style. Instead of being released as two versions, this game was released as a single version that lets the players decide to either start with a SNK deck or a Capcom deck, it was the last game to be released for the Neo Geo Pocket Color in Japan. This Nintendo DS game was released on December 14, 2006 in Japan and was released on April 24, 2007 in the United States.
In addition, there are key features: ADK characters were added to the SNK side, from games like Aggressors of Dark Kombat, Ninja Master's -Haoh-Ninpo-Cho- and the World Heroes series. Many newcomers have been added from recent games produced by both companies, such as Capcom's Dante and Phoenix Wright as well as SNK's Yuki and Nagase. Power Stone characters are absent from the game. After the American NDS version was released, an unavoidable bug was discovered in the game; the bug occurs during the second play through. The game crashes after talking to an opponent named Jon, who has to be defeated in order to finish the game. On June 6, SNK announced that the replacement cartridge would be available in stores on June 25 and began the process of implementing a recall; these cartridges have been sent by mail along with a package of five King of Fighters trading cards. The recall ended in January 2008. Fixed versions of the game features a black and white graphic behind the title font on the cartridge's label, while bugged versions feature the label in full color.
The other versions of the game did not contain the above-mentioned glitch. The game was poorly received. Eurogamer said it was "broken in the literal sense of not working as sold and, as such, must be scored appropriately; that the game underneath the bodged localisation is figuratively, a broken shell of what it once was and nowhere near as good as it should have been, is more than anything deeply sad." IGN said it was "Without a doubt one of the biggest letdowns thus far on DS." Game Revolution said that the game "takes everything I remember about playing tradable card games, highlights the bad parts, breaks." Famicom Tsūshin scored the game a 25 out of 40. Orlando, Greg. "SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighters DS". Newtype USA. 6. P. 131. ISSN 1541-4817. Bozon. "SNK vs. Capcom Card Fighters DS Review". IGN. Archive of the Snk vs Capcom: Card Fighters official website Archive of the Snk vs Capcom: Card Fighters 2 Expand Edition official website SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighter's Clash DS official website Card Fighters Project website SNK Vs. Capcom Card Fighters' Clash 2 Expand Edition English translation
A cartoon is a type of illustration animated in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, in the second sense they are called an animator; the concept originated in the Middle Ages, first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films. A cartoon is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were used in the production of frescoes, to link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days; such cartoons have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster.
Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London, examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons colored, were followed with the eye by the weavers on the loom. In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations humorous in intent; this usage dates from 1843, when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster; the original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, comic strips. Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others.
Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon. The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti, Chon Day. Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus, Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips. Richard Thompson illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip; the sports section of newspapers featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport. Editorial cartoons are found exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they employ humor, they are more serious in tone using irony or satire; the art acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters, Gerald Scarfe. Comic strips known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, are a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence.
In the United States, they are not called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter and drama are represented in this medium; some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson. Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events, they offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered. The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England. George Townshend produced some of caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of revolutionary France and Napoleon. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s, his career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning, his 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal c
Ikari Warriors is a vertically scrolling, run & gun shoot'em up arcade game developed by SNK, published in North America and Europe by Tradewest, released in 1986. Titled Ikari in Japan, Ikari Warriors was SNK's first major breakthrough US release; the game was released at the time. What distinguished Ikari Warriors were a two-player mode; the player characters in Ikari Warriors are Colonel Ralf and Second Lieutenant Clark of the King of Fighters series battling through hordes of enemies. According to designer Keiko Iju, the game was inspired by the popular Rambo films and takes its name from the Japanese title of Rambo: First Blood Part II. Ralf and Clark make an appearance as playable characters in Metal Slug 6 and Metal Slug 7, as well as the King of Fighters series. Stan Szczepanski holds the official Guinness World Record with 1,799,000 points; the player takes the role of commando-like warriors named Ralf and Clark, who must try to reach the village of Ikari. Enemy units attempting to kill the player include enemy soldiers and helicopters.
A number of power-ups along the way help the player achieve victory. Players must proceed towards the village of Ikari. Trying to prevent them from reaching the village are enemy soldiers and other units. Along the way, players may commandeer enemy tanks and helicopters to help fight their way through the enemy personnel; the tanks are immune to enemy bullets, but have a limited supply of fuel and will sustain damage when it runs out or the tank is caught in an explosion, taking the player with it unless he can exit the tank and get clear before it blows up. The helicopters have two different weapons, a spread gun and a cannon, may fly over water. Turning the joystick changes the direction the character faced independent of the direction the character was moving, as controlled by pushing the joystick; this gives the player freedom to walk in eight different directions. No shot is fired from directly in front of the player. If a player character takes too long moving up screen, the computer starts using "call for fire".
A red spot appears below him. Ikari Warriors is the first popular video game to have used rotary joysticks, which can be rotated in addition to being pushed in eight directions; the less successful TNK III, released in 1985 and from SNK, is the first to have used such joysticks. The system features two buttons: one for the standard gun and another for lobbing grenades, it is one of the few games at the time to allow two-player cooperative side-by-side gameplay, to use vehicles. The game cabinet is a standard upright model. Ikari Warriors printed circuit boards were manufactured in two different versions: SNK pinout and JAMMA pinout. Most SNK-pinout units were put into Ikari Warriors cabinets, while most JAMMA-pinout units were supplied as conversion kits; the SNK-pinout boards have a 22/44-pin edge connectors. The JAMMA-pinout PCBs have a 28/56-pin edge connectors. Both types consist with interconnects. Ikari Warriors uses SNK's model LS-30 joysticks; the joysticks are connected to the PCB via auxiliary wiring harnesses.
The game is known as Ikari in Japan and Ikari Warriors in the United States and Europe. In addition to changing the names of the main characters from Ralf and Clark to Paul and Vince, the military commander the player rescues at the end of the game is named General Kawasaki in the Japanese version and Colonel Cook in the US/Euro version. General Kawasaki's name was unchanged in the NES version; the enemies in the game were Neo-Nazis, as evidenced by the presence of a swastika at the middle of the final room. Ikari Warriors was ported to the Nintendo Entertainment System, IBM PC, Apple II, Atari ST, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC; the MSX port and conversions for 16-bit machines were released in 1987. The PC and Commodore 64 ports were developed by Quicksilver Software. In 1989, a second C64 version was released in the UK by Elite Software; the NES version was developed by Micronics. Both the Atari 2600 and Atari 7800 ports were released in 1990 as one of the final published games for those systems.
The game was included on the SNK 40th Anniversary Collection for the Nintendo Switch and PlayStation 4. In 1996, Next Generation listed the arcade version of Ikari Warriors as number 61 on their "Top 100 Games of All Time", lauding the innovative joysticks, play balance, power-ups which offer an invigorating boost to the player character's capabilities without taking away the game's challenge. Computer and Video Games enthusiastically reviewed the "classy" Amstrad personal computer conversion, calling the graphics "simply brilliant" and the gameplay "awesomely addictive", they said that players "won't see better... for quite a while" because "the Amstrad graphics are as close as dammit to the arcade machine and the playability goes off the C+VG scale". The PC version of the game received 4 out of 5 stars in Dragon. Ikari Warriors spawned the sequels Victory Ikari III: The Rescue. SNK released; the game features communist fighters Che Fidel Castro as its heroes. Front Line, a 1982 arcade game with similar gameplay, i
Continuous track called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels. This band is made of modular steel plates in the case of military vehicles and heavy equipment, or synthetic rubber reinforced with steel wires in the case of lighter agricultural or construction vehicles; the large surface area of the tracks distributes the weight of the vehicle better than steel or rubber tyres on an equivalent vehicle, enabling a continuous tracked vehicle to traverse soft ground with less likelihood of becoming stuck due to sinking. The prominent treads of the metal plates are both hard-wearing and damage resistant in comparison to rubber tyres; the aggressive treads of the tracks provide good traction in soft surfaces but can damage paved surfaces, so some metal tracks can have rubber pads installed for use on paved surfaces. Continuous tracks can be traced back as far as 1770 and today are used on a variety of vehicles, including bulldozers, excavators and tractors.
Polish mathematician and inventor Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński conceived of the idea in the 1830s. The British polymath Sir George Cayley patented a continuous track, which he called a "universal railway". In 1837, a Russian inventor Dmitry Zagryazhsky designed a "carriage with mobile tracks" which he patented the same year, but due to a lack of funds and interest from manufacturers he was unable to build a working prototype, his patent was voided in 1839. Although not a continuous track in the form encountered today, a dreadnaught wheel or "endless railway wheel" was patented by the British Engineer James Boydell in 1846. In Boydell's design, a series of flat feet are attached to the periphery of the wheel, spreading the weight. A number of horse-drawn wagons and gun carriages were deployed in the Crimean War, waged between October 1853 and February 1856, the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich manufacturing dreadnaught wheels. A letter of recommendation was signed by Sir William Codrington, the General commanding the troops at Sebastopol.
Boydell patented improvements to his wheel in 1854 – the year his dreadnaught wheel was first applied to a steam engine – and 1858, the latter an impracticable palliative measure involving the lifting one or other of the driving wheels to facilitate turning. A number of manufacturers including Richard Bach, Richard Garrett & Sons, Charles Burrell & Sons and Clayton & Shuttleworth applied the Boydell patent under licence; the British military were interested in Boydell's invention from an early date. One of the objectives was to transport Mallet's Mortar, a giant 36 in weapon, under development, but, by the end of the Crimean war, the mortar was not ready for service. A detailed report of the tests on steam traction, carried out by a select Committee of the Board of Ordnance, was published in June 1856, by which date the Crimean War was over the mortar and its transportation became irrelevant. In those tests, a Garrett engine was put through its paces on Plumstead Common; the Garrett engine featured in the Lord Mayor's show in London, in the following month that engine was shipped to Australia.
A steam tractor employing dreadnaught wheels was built at Bach's Birmingham works, was used between 1856 and 1858 for ploughing in Thetford. Between late 1856 and 1862 Burrell manufactured not less than a score of engines fitted with dreadnaught wheels. In April 1858, "The Engineer" gave a brief description of a Clayton & Shuttleworth engine fitted with dreadnaught wheels, supplied not to the Western Allies, but to the Russian government for heavy artillery haulage in the Crimea, in the post-war period. Steam tractors fitted with dreadnaught wheels had a number of shortcomings and, notwithstanding the creations of the late 1850s, were never used extensively. In August 1858, more than two years after the end of the Crimean War, John Fowler filed British Patent No. 1948 on another form of "Endless Railway". In his illustration of the invention, Fowler used a pair of wheels of equal diameter on each side of his vehicle, around which pair of toothed wheels ran a'track' of eight jointed segments, with a smaller jockey/drive wheel between each pair of wheels, to support the'track'.
Comprising only eight sections, the'track' sections are essentially'longitudinal', as in Boydell's initial design. Fowler's arrangement is a precursor to the multi-section caterpillar track in which a large number of short'transverse' treads are used, as proposed by Sir George Caley in 1825, rather than a small number of long'longitudinal' treads. Further to Fowler's patent of 1858, in 1877, a Russian, Fyodor Blinov, created a tracked vehicle called "wagon moved on endless rails", it was pulled by horses. Blinov received a patent for his "wagon" in 1878. From 1881 to 1888 he developed a steam-powered caterpillar-tractor; this self-propelled crawler was tested and featured at a farmers' exhibition in 1896. Steam traction engines were used at the end of the 19th century in the Boer Wars, but neither dreadnaught wheels nor continuous tracks were used, rather "roll-out" wooden plank roads were thrown under the wheels as required. In short, whilst the development of the continuous track engaged the attention of a number of inventors in the 18th and 19th centuries, the general use and exploitation of the continuous track belonged to the 20th century.
A little-known American inventor, Henry T. Stith, developed a continuous track prototype which was, in multiple forms, patented in 1873, 1880, 1900; the last