The 3M Company known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation operating in the fields of industry, worker safety, health care, consumer goods. The company produces a variety of products, including adhesives, laminates, passive fire protection, personal protective equipment, window films, paint protection films and orthodontic products, electronic materials, medical products, car-care products, electronic circuits, healthcare software and optical films, it is based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul. In 2017, 3M made $31.7 billion in total sales, the company ranked No. 97 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company has 91,000 employees and has operations in more than 70 countries. Five businessmen founded 3M in Two Harbors, Minnesota, in 1902. A mining venture, the goal was to mine corundum, but this failed because the mine's mineral holdings were anorthosite, which had no commercial value.
Co-founder John Dwan solicited funds in exchange for stock and Edgar Ober and Lucius Ordway took over the company in 1905. The company moved to Duluth and began researching and producing sandpaper products. William L. McKnight a key executive, joined the company in 1907, A. G. Bush joined in 1909. 3M became financially stable in 1916 and was able to pay dividends. The company moved to St. Paul in 1910, where it remained for 52 years before outgrowing the campus and moving to its current headquarters at 3M Center in Maplewood, Minnesota in 1962; the company began by mining stone from quarries for use in grinding wheels. Struggling with quality and marketing of its products, management supported its workers to innovate and develop new products, which became its core business. Twelve years after its inception, 3M developed its first exclusive product: Three-M-ite cloth. Other innovations in this era included masking tape, waterproof sandpaper, Scotch-brand tapes. By 1929, 3M had made its first moves toward international expansion by forming Durex to conduct business in Europe.
The same year, the company's stock was first traded over the counter and in 1946 listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The company is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and of the S&P 500; the founders original plan was to sell the mineral corundum to manufacturers in the East for making grinding wheels. After selling one load, on June 13, 1902, the five went to the Two Harbors office of company secretary John Dwan, on the shore of Lake Superior and is now part of the 3M National Museum, signed papers making Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing a corporation. In reality, however and his associates were not selling what they thought. Failing to make sandpaper with the anorthosite, the founders decided to import minerals like Spanish garnet, after which sale of sandpapers grew. In 1914, customers complained that the garnet was falling off the paper; the founders discovered that the stones had traveled across the Atlantic Ocean packed near olive oil, the oil had penetrated the stones.
Unable to take the loss of selling expensive inventory, they roasted the stones over fire to remove the olive oil. The company's late innovations include waterproof sandpaper and masking tape, as well as cellophane "Scotch Tape" and sound-deadening materials for cars. In 1947, 3M began producing perfluorooctanoic acid by electrochemical fluorination. During the 1950s, the company expanded worldwide with operations in Canada, France, Germany and the United Kingdom in large part by Clarence Sampair. In 1951, DuPont started purchasing PFOA from then-Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company for use in the manufacturing of teflon, a product that brought DuPont a billion-dollar-a-year profit by the 1990s. DuPont referred to PFOA as C8. In 1951, international sales were $20 million. 3M's achievements were recognized by the American Institute of Management naming the company "one of the five best-managed companies in the United States" and included it among the top 12 growth stocks. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, 3M published a line of board games under the "3M bookshelf game series" brand.
These games were marketed to adults and sold through department stores, with learned simple rules but complex game play and depth and with uniformly high-quality components. As such, they are the ancestors of the German "Eurogames"; the games covered a variety of topics, from business and sports simulations to word and abstract strategy games. They were a major publisher at the time for influential U. S. designers Sid Sackson and Alex Randolph. In the mid-1970s, the game line was taken over by Avalon Hill. 3M's Mincom division introduced several models of magnetic tape recorders for instrumentation use and for studio sound recording. An example of the latter is the model M79 recorder, which still has a following today. 3M Mincom was involved in designing and manufacturing video production equipment for the television and video post-production industries in the 1970s and 1980s, with such items as character generators and several different models of video switchers, from models of audio and video routers to video mixers for studio production work.
3M Mincom was involved in some of the first digital audio recordings of the late 1970s to see commercial release when a prototype machine was brought to the Sound 80 studios in Minneapolis. After drawing on the experience of that prototype recorder, 3M introduced in 1979 a commercially available digital audio recording system called the "3M Digital Audio Mastering System", which
The Honda NSX, marketed in North America as the Acura NSX, is a two-seat, mid-engine sports car manufactured by Honda/Acura The origins of the NSX trace back to 1984, with the HP-X concept, a mid-engined 3.0 L V6 engined rear wheel drive sports car. Honda committed to the project, with the intention of meeting or exceeding the performance of the V8 engined Ferrari range, while offering reliability and a lower price point; the concept thus evolved and had its name changed to NS-X, which stood for "New", "Sportscar" "Unknown world", although the production model was launched as the NSX. The NSX was designed by a team led by Chief Designer Masahito Nakano and Executive Chief Engineer Shigeru Uehara, it benefited from advanced aerodynamics and styling inspired by a F-16 fighter jet cockpit and input from the late Formula One World Champion, Ayrton Senna, during the final development stages. This NSX became the world's first mass-produced car to feature an all-aluminium body, it was powered by an all-aluminium 3.0 L V6 engine, which featured Honda's VTEC system developed in the 1980s, a 5-speed manual transmission, or starting in 1994 the SportShift 4-speed automatic transmission known as F-Matic, which allows the option of conventional automatic shifting or manually shifting with a fingertip shift lever on the steering column.
It was presented at the 1989 Chicago Auto Show and was built in a purpose-made factory in Japan, for sale from 1990. It was available as a coupé and, from 1995, a targa top, it underwent a performance upgrade in 1997, which saw the arrival of a larger 3.2 L V6 engine, a facelift in 2002 before being discontinued in 2005. North American models were sold as the Acura NSX. In December 2007, Honda announced plans to launch a NSX successor by 2010, based on the styling of the front V10-engined Acura ASCC. Despite prototypes being tested for production, just a year Honda announced that plans had been cancelled due to poor economic conditions. Instead, in March 2010, Honda unveiled the HSV-010 GT for participation in the Japanese SuperGT Championship; this car never reached production as a street-legal car. Reports that Honda was again developing a successor to the NSX reemerged in April 2011. By December 2011, Honda announced a second generation NSX concept, unveiled the following month at the 2012 North American International Auto Show as the Acura NSX Concept.
The production model was displayed three years at the 2015 North American International Auto Show, for sale in 2016. Although the original name was retained, this time it was defined as "New Sports eXperience". Unlike the first generation NSX, manufactured in Japan, the new NSX was designed and engineered in Marysville, Ohio, at Honda's plant, led by chief engineer Ted Klaus; the new NSX is a hybrid sports car powered by 3.5 L twin-turbo V6 engine and three electric motors, two of which form part of the "SH-AWD" all wheel drive drivetrain, altogether capable of close to 600 hp. The transmission is a 9-speed dual-clutch semi-automatic, its body utilizes a space frame design, made from aluminium, ultra-high strength steel, other rigid and lightweight materials, some of which are the world's first applications. The first production vehicle with VIN #001 was auctioned off by Barrett Jackson on January 29, 2016. NASCAR team owner Rick Hendrick won the auction with a bid for US$1,200,000; the entire bid was donated to the charities Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation and Camp Southern Ground.
The first NSX rolled off the line in Ohio on May 27, 2016. Hendrick was there to drive it off; the first sales of the new NSX in the US were registered in June 2016
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section; the two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create complex cross-sections, to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It forms parts with an excellent surface finish. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die; this limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, multiple stages are needed. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Metal bars and tubes are often drawn. Extrusion may be semi-continuous; the extrusion process can be done with the material cold. Extruded materials include metals, ceramics, modelling clay, foodstuffs; the products of extrusion are called "extrudates". Referred to as "hole flanging", hollow cavities within extruded material cannot be produced using a simple flat extrusion die, because there would be no way to support the centre barrier of the die.
Instead, the die assumes the shape of a block with depth, beginning first with a shape profile that supports the center section. The die shape internally changes along its length into the final shape, with the suspended center pieces supported from the back of the die; the material flows around the fuses together to create the desired closed shape. The extrusion process in metals may increase the strength of the material. In 1797, Joseph Bramah patented the first extrusion process for making pipe out of soft metals, it involved preheating the metal and forcing it through a die via a hand-driven plunger. In 1820 Thomas Burr implemented that process with a hydraulic press. At that time the process was called "squirting". In 1894, Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to brass alloys; the process begins by heating the stock material. It is loaded into the container in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram presses on the material to push it out of the die. Afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it.
If better properties are required it may be heat treated or cold worked. The extrusion ratio is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the cross-sectional area of the final extrusion. One of the main advantages of the extrusion process is that this ratio can be large while still producing quality parts. Hot extrusion is a hot working process, which means it is done above the material's recrystallization temperature to keep the material from work hardening and to make it easier to push the material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 230 to 11,000 metric tons. Pressures range from 30 to 700 MPa, therefore lubrication is required, which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions, or glass powder for higher temperature extrusions; the biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost for its upkeep. The extrusion process is economical when producing between several kilograms and many tons, depending on the material being extruded.
There is a crossover point. For instance, some steels become more economical to roll. Aluminium hot extrusion die Cold extrusion is done at near room temperature; the advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer tolerances, better surface finish, fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot shortness. Materials that are cold extruded include: lead, aluminum, zirconium, molybdenum, vanadium and steel. Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes, fire extinguisher cases, shock absorber cylinders and gear blanks. In March 1956, a US Patent was filed for "process for warm extrusion of metal." Patent US3156043 A outlines that a number of important advantages can be achieved with warm extrusion of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys if a billet to be extruded is changed in its physical properties in response to physical forces by being heated to a temperature below the critical melting point.
Warm extrusion is done above room temperature, but below the recrystallization temperature of the material the temperatures ranges from 800 to 1800 °F. It is used to achieve the proper balance of required forces and final extrusion properties. Friction extrusion was invented at The Welding Institute in the UK and patented in 1991, it was intended as a method for production of homogenous microstructures and particle distributions in metal matrix composite materials. Friction extrusion differs from conventional extrusion in that the charge rotates relative to the extrusion die. An extrusion force is applied so as to push the charge against the die. In practice either the die or the charge may rotate or they may be counter-rotating; the relative rotary motion between the charge and the die has several significant effects on the process. First, the relative motion in the plane of rotation leads to large shear stresses, plastic deformation in the layer of charge in contact with and near the die; this plastic deformation is dissipated by recovery and recrystallization processes
Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper with about 12–12.5% tin and with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability; the archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; the Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were made of brasses and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects use the more inclusive term "copper alloy" instead. There are two basic theories as to the origin of the word.
Romance theoryThe Romance theory holds that the word bronze was borrowed from French bronze, itself borrowed from Italian bronzo "bell metal, brass" from either, bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon from Brentḗsion ‘Brindisi’, reputed for its bronze. Proto-Slavic theoryThe Proto-Slavic theory reflects the philological issue that in the most of Slavonic languages word "bronza" corresponds to "war metal" while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used exclusively for military purposes; the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. Bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC, it was only that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC.
Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more controlled, the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic; the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt and some ancient sites in China and Mesopotamia. Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools socketed axes, are found, which show no signs of wear.
With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, used by the living for ritual offerings. Though bronze is harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron improved in quality; as cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron, blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. There are many different bronze alloys, but modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper.
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs and blades. Historical "bronzes" are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture suggests. The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in
The Porsche 911 is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has all round independent suspension, it has undergone continuous development. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with the 993, produced from 1994–1998 model years, being the last of the air-cooled Porsche sports cars; the 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s aspirated the 911 Carrera RSR won major world championship sports car races, such as Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona against prototypes; the 911-derived 935 turbo won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979 and Porsche won World Championship for Makes titles in 1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979 with 911-derived models. In the 1999 international poll to determine the Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth, it is one of two in the top five that had remained continuously in production, was until 1998 a successful surviving application of the air- cooled opposed rear-engine layout pioneered by its ancestor, the Porsche 356.
It is one of the oldest sports coupé nameplates still in production with one million manufactured as of May 2017. Although Porsche changes the internal codes for its models, all 911 models were and are sold as a "911"; the headings below use Porsche's internal classifications. Porsche 911 Porsche 930 Turbo a turbocharged version of the original 911 Porsche 964 Porsche 993 the last air-cooled 911 Porsche 996 all-new body and water-cooled engines Porsche 997 Porsche 991 Porsche 992 The series letter is used by Porsche to indicate the revision for production cars, it changes annually to reflect changes for the new model year. Not all of the Porsche 911 models produced are mentioned here; the listed models are notable for their role in the advancements in technology and their influence on other vehicles from Porsche. 911 Carrera line-up. Models offered: Carrera, Carrera S, Carrera 4, Carrera 4S, Carrera GTS, Carrera 4 GTS, Carrera T. All models have cabriolet options except the 911 Carrera T. 911 Targa line-up.
Models offered: Targa 4, Targa 4S, Targa 4 GTS. 911 Turbo line-up. Models offered: Turbo, Turbo S. All models have cabriolet options. GT3/GT3 RS: Track focused version of the 911 Carrera with a aspirated engine and rear wheel drive layout. No cabriolet variant available. A grand touring variant featuring comfort oriented options called the GT3 Touring was available for the 991 generation models only. GT2/GT2 RS: The highest performance derivative, a track focused of the 911 Turbo with rear wheel drive layout. No cabriolet version available. Now available as an RS model only; the 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche in 1959. The Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful, larger and a more comfortable replacement for the 356, the company's first model; the new car made its public debut at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show. The car was developed with the proof-of-concept twin-fan Type 745 flat-six engine, but the car presented at the auto show had a non-operational mockup of the single-fan 901 engine, receiving a working unit in February 1964.
It was designated as the "Porsche 901". A total of 82 cars were built as. However, French automobile manufacturer Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in the middle. Instead of selling the new model with a different name in France, Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars' part numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years. Production began in September 1964, with the first 911s exported to the US in February 1965; the first models of the 911 had a rear-mounted 130 PS Type 901/01 flat-6 engine, in the "boxer" configuration like the 356, the engine is air-cooled and displaces 1,991 cc as compared to the 356's four-cylinder, 1,582 cc unit. The car had four seats although the rear seats were small, thus it is called a 2+2 rather than a four-seater. A four or five-speed "Type 901" manual transmission was available; the styling was penned by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche, son of Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche. Erwin Komenda, the leader of the Porsche car body construction department who objected, but was involved in the design.
Production of the 356 ended in 1965, but there was still a market for a 4-cylinder car in the US. The 912, introduced in the same year, served as a direct replacement, offering the de-tuned version of 356 SC's 4-cylinder, 1,582 cc, 90 hp boxer four Type 616/36 engine inside the 911 bodywork with Type 901 four-speed manual transmission. In 1966, Porsche introduced the more powerful 911S with Type 901/02 engine having a power output of 160 PS. Forged aluminum alloy wheels from Fuchs, with a 5-spoke design, were offered for the first time. In motorsport at the same time, the engine was developed into the Type 901/20 and was installed in the mid-engine 904 and 906 with an increased power output of 210 PS, as well as fuel injected Type 901/21 installed in variants of the 906 and 910 with a power output of 220 PS. In August 1967, th
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov