Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments. The most common instruments used are metallophones played by mallets and a set of hand-played drums called kendhang which register the beat. Other instruments include xylophones, bamboo flutes, a bowed instrument called a rebab, vocalists called sindhen. Although the popularity of gamelan has declined since the introduction of pop music, gamelan is still played on formal occasions and in many traditional Indonesian ceremonies. For most Indonesians, gamelan is an integral part of Indonesian culture; the word gamelan comes from the low Javanese word gamel, which may refer to a type of mallet used to strike instruments or the act of striking with a mallet. The term karawitan refers to classical gamelan music and performance practice, comes from the word rawit, meaning'intricate' or'finely worked'; the word derives from the Javanese word of Sanskrit origin, which refers to the sense of smoothness and elegance idealized in Javanese music.
Another word from this root, means a person with such sense, is used as an honorific when discussing esteemed gamelan musicians. The high Javanese word for gamelan is gangsa, formed either from the words tembaga and rejasa referring to the materials used in bronze gamelan construction, or tiga and sedasa referring to their proportions; the gamelan predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records and thus represents an indigenous art form. In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing, in the themes of the Wayang kulit. In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167, the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountain in Medang Kamulan, he thus invented the gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other gongs; the earliest image of a musical ensemble is found on the bas-relief of 8th century Buddhist monument of Borobudur, Central Java.
The Borobudur's musicians play lute-like stringed instruments, kendang drums, suling flutes, small cymbals and bells. Some of these musical instruments are indeed included in a complete gamelan orchestra. Musical instruments such as the bamboo flute, drums in various sizes and bowed and plucked string instruments were identified in this image; however it lacks xylophones. The image of this musical ensemble is suggested to be the ancient form of the gamelan; the instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire. According to the inscriptions and manuscripts dated from the Majapahit period, the kingdom had a government office in charge of supervising the performing arts, including the gamelan; the arts office oversaw the construction of musical instruments, as well as scheduling performances at the court. In the palaces of Java the oldest known ensembles, Gamelan Munggang and Gamelan Kodok Ngorek, are from the 12th century; these formed the basis of a "loud style" of music.
In contrast, a "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry, in a manner believed to be similar to the chorus that accompanies the modern bedhaya dance. In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts and techniques are shared between the styles. A gamelan is a multi-timbre ensemble consisting of metallophones, flutes, voices, as well as bowed and plucked strings; the hand-played drum called kendhang controls the tempo and rhythm of pieces as well as transitions from one section to another, while one instrument gives melodic cues to indicate treatment or sections of a piece. Some of the instruments that make up a gamelan in present-day Central Java are shown below: Instruments Varieties of gamelan are distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, repertoire and cultural context.
In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, those that arose in prestigious courts are considered to have their own style and tuning. Certain styles may be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style; the varieties are grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese and Sundanese peoples. The Madurese had their own style of gamelan, although it is no longer in use, the last orchestra is kept at the Sumenep palace. One important style of Sundanese gamelan is Gamelan Degung, which uses a subset of gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Balinese gamelan is associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics of Gamelan gong kebyar, its best-known style. Other popular Balinese styles include Kecak, a theatrical dance and music form known as the "monkey chant." Javanese gamelan dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, is known for a slower, more meditative quality than the gamelan music of Bali.
Javanese gamelan can be made from brass. Outside the main core on Java and Bali, gamelan has spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes resulting as well. Malay Gamelan comes from the Javanese tra
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
A metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, conducts electricity and heat well. Metals are malleable or ductile. A metal may be an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure; some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the number is inexact as the boundaries between metals and metalloids fluctuate due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved.
In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two and helium, not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements. Metals are present in many aspects of modern life; the strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools and railroad tracks. Precious metals were used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements; the history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, iron and brass were in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel.
Metals are lustrous, at least when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured. Sheets of metal thicker than a few micrometres appear opaque; the solid or liquid state of metals originates in the capacity of the metal atoms involved to lose their outer shell electrons. Broadly, the forces holding an individual atom’s outer shell electrons in place are weaker than the attractive forces on the same electrons arising from interactions between the atoms in the solid or liquid metal; the electrons involved become delocalised and the atomic structure of a metal can be visualised as a collection of atoms embedded in a cloud of mobile electrons. This type of interaction is called a metallic bond; the strength of metallic bonds for different elemental metals reaches a maximum around the center of the transition metal series, as these elements have large numbers of delocalized electrons. Although most elemental metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is a wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense and osmium the most dense.
Magnesium and titanium are light metals of significant commercial importance. Their respective densities of 1.7, 2.7 and 4.5 g/cm3 can be compared to those of the older structural metals, like iron at 7.9 and copper at 8.9 g/cm3. An iron ball would thus weigh about as much as three aluminium balls. Metals are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving; the nondirectional nature of metallic bonding is thought to contribute to the ductility of most metallic solids. In contrast, in an ionic compound like table salt, when the planes of an ionic bond slide past one another, the resultant change in location shifts ions of the same charge into close proximity, resulting in the cleavage of the crystal; such a shift is not observed in a covalently bonded crystal, such as a diamond, where fracture and crystal fragmentation occurs. Reversible elastic deformation in metals can be described by Hooke's Law for restoring forces, where the stress is linearly proportional to the strain. Heat or forces larger than a metal's elastic limit may cause a permanent deformation, known as plastic deformation or plasticity.
An applied force may be a compressive force, or a shear, bending or torsion force. A temperature change may affect the movement or displacement of structural defects in the metal such as grain boundaries, point vacancies and screw dislocations, stacking faults and twins in both crystalline and non-crystalline metals. Internal slip and metal fatigue may ensue; the atoms of metallic substances are arranged in one of three common crystal structures, namely body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed. In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others. In fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others; some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature. The
The celesta or celeste is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. It looks similar to an upright piano, albeit with smaller keys and a much smaller cabinet, or a large wooden music box; the keys connect to hammers that strike a graduated set of metal plates or bars suspended over wooden resonators. Four- or five-octave models have a damper pedal that sustains or damps the sound; the three-octave instruments do not have a pedal because of their small "table-top" design. One of the best-known works that uses the celesta is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy" from The Nutcracker; the sound of the celesta is similar to that of the glockenspiel, but with a much softer and more subtle timbre. This quality gave the instrument its name, meaning "heavenly" in French; the celesta is used to enhance a melody line played by another instrument or section. The delicate, bell-like sound is not loud enough to be used in full ensemble sections; the celesta is a transposing instrument. Its sounding range is considered to be C4 to C8.
The original French instrument had a five-octave range, but because the lowest octave was considered somewhat unsatisfactory, it was omitted from models. The standard French four-octave instrument is now being replaced in symphony orchestras by a larger, five-octave German model. Although it is a member of the percussion family, in orchestral terms it is more properly considered a member of the keyboard section and played by a keyboardist; the celesta part is written on two braced staves, called a grand staff. The celesta was invented in 1886 by the Parisian harmonium builder Auguste Mustel, his father, Victor Mustel, had developed the forerunner of the celesta, the typophone, in 1860. This instrument produced sound by striking tuning forks instead of the metal plates that would be used in the celesta; the dulcitone was developed concurrently in Scotland. The typophone/dulcitone's uses were limited by its low volume, too quiet to be heard in a full orchestra. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is cited as the first major composer to use this instrument in a work for full symphony orchestra.
He first used it in his symphonic poem The Voyevoda, Op. posth. 78, premiered in November 1891. The following year, he used the celesta in passages in his ballet The Nutcracker, most notably in the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, which appears in the derived Nutcracker Suite, Op. 71a. However, Ernest Chausson preceded Tchaikovsky by employing the celesta in December 1888 in his incidental music, written for a small orchestra, for La tempête; the celesta is notably used in Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 6 in the 1st, 2nd and 4th movements, in his Symphony No. 8 and Das Lied von der Erde. Karol Szymanowski featured it in his Symphony No. 3. Gustav Holst employed the instrument in his 1918 orchestral work The Planets in the final movement, the Mystic, it features prominently in Béla Bartók's 1936 Music for Strings and Celesta. George Gershwin included a celesta solo in the score to An American in Paris. Ferde Grofe wrote an extended cadenza for the instrument in the third movement of his Grand Canyon Suite.
Dmitri Shostakovich included parts for celesta in seven out of his fifteen symphonies, with a notable use in the fourth symphony's coda. Twentieth-century American composer Morton Feldman used the celesta in many of his large-scale chamber pieces such as Crippled Symmetry and For Philip Guston, it figured in much of his orchestral music and other pieces. In some works, such as "Five Pianos" one of the players doubles on celesta; the celesta is used in many 20th-century opera scores, including Giacomo Puccini's Tosca, Maurice Ravel's L'heure espagnole and L'enfant et les sortileges, Richard Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos, Die Frau ohne Schatten, while "an excellent example of its beauty when well employed", is the Silver Rose scene in his Der Rosenkavalier, Ferruccio Busoni's Arlecchino and Doktor Faust, Carl Orff's Carmina Burana and Der Mond, Gian Carlo Menotti's Amelia Goes to the Ball, Benjamin Britten's The Turn of the Screw and A Midsummer Night's Dream, Conrad Susa's Transformations, Philip Glass' Akhnaten.
The keyboard glockenspiel part in Mozart's The Magic Flute is nowadays played by a celesta. Since Earl Hines took it up in 1928, other jazz pianists have used the celesta as an alternative instrument. In the 1930s, Fats Waller sometimes played celesta with his right hand and piano with his left hand. Other notable jazz pianists who played the celesta include Memphis Slim, Meade "Lux" Lewis, Willie "The Lion" Smith, Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Buddy Greco, Oscar Peterson, McCoy Tyner, Sun Ra, Keith Jarrett, Herbie Hancock. A celesta provides the introduction to Someday You'll Be Sorry, a song Louis Armstrong recorded for RCA, is featured prominently throughout the piece. A number of recordings Frank Sinatra made for Columbia in the 1940s feature the instrument, as do many of his albums recorded for Capitol in the 1950s; the instrument is used prominently in the introduction to the 1928 recording by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five of "Basin Street Blues". No
A handbell is a bell designed to be rung by hand. To ring a handbell, a ringer grasps the bell by its flexible handle - traditionally made of leather, but now made of plastic – and moves the arm to make the hinged clapper inside the bell strike. An individual handbell can be used as a signal to catch people's attention or summon them together, but handbells are often heard in tuned sets; the first tuned handbells were developed by brothers Robert and William Cor in Aldbourne, England, between 1696 and 1724. The Cor brothers made latten bells for hame boxes, but for reasons unknown, they began tuning their bells more finely to have an accurate fundamental tone, fitted them with hinged clappers that moved only in one plane. A foundry in Loughborough, that originated in the 14th century became John Taylor & Co in 1784. Tuned sets of handbells, such as the ones made by the Cor brothers, were used by change ringers to rehearse outside their towers. Tower bell ringers' enthusiasm for practicing the complicated algorithms of change ringing can exceed the neighbours' patience, so in the days before modern sound control handbells offered them a way to continue ringing without the aural assault.
The handbell sets used by change ringers had the same number of bells as in the towers – six or twelve tuned to a diatonic scale. Handbells were first taken to the United States from England by Margaret Shurcliff in 1902, she was presented with a set of 10 handbells in London by Arthur Hughes, the general manager of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry after completing two separate two-and-a-half-hour change ringing peals in one day. The bells used in American handbell choirs are always English handbells. "English handbells" is a reference to a specific type of handbells, not to the country of origin. While some American handbell choirs do use bells made in England, the majority play bells made either by Malmark Bellcraftsmen or by Schulmerich Bells, both based in Pennsylvania. In the United Kingdom, there is a distinction between "American handbells" and "English handbells". In America, they are all called English handbells; the two major defining characteristics of English handbells are their clappers and ability to produce overtones.
The clapper on an English handbell is on a hinge and moves back and forth in a single direction, unlike a school bell in which the clapper swings in any direction. It has a spring that holds the clapper away from the casting after the strike to allow the bell to ring freely. Furthermore, the shaft of the clapper is rigid, such that the bell may be held with its mouth facing upward; the overtones on an English handbell are a 12th above the fundamental, while Dutch handbells – such as Petit & Fritsen – focus on the overtone a minor 10th or a major 10th above the fundamental. Handbells can weigh as little as 7 oz or upwards of 18 lb. A handbell choir or ensemble or handbell team is a group that rings recognizable music with melodies and harmony, as opposed to the mathematical permutations used in change ringing; the bells include all notes of the chromatic scale within the range of the set. While a smaller group uses only 25 bells, the sets are larger, ranging up to an eight-octave set; the bells are arranged chromatically on foam-covered tables.
Unlike an orchestra or choir in which each musician is responsible for one line of the texture, a handbell ensemble acts as one instrument, with each musician responsible for particular notes, sounding his or her assigned bells whenever those notes appear in the music. Handbell choirs ring music composed or arranged for handbells because of their resonant sound, the limited note range of a set, the unique pitch-by-pitch division of the staff among the ringers. There are several major publishers providing printed handbell music such as the Hope Publishing Company, The Lorenz Corporation and Alfred Music as well as free sites from individual composers and arrangers. Costs associated with handbell music result from shipping and dissemination; the coordination of the ringers requires a different approach than other ensembles. All the ringers read from a score; this score is similar to a piano score, but with an additional convention: The C♯ above middle C and all notes below are always written in the bass clef, the D♭ above middle C and all notes above are always written in the treble clef.
Handbell music is written one octave lower than the sound the bells make, so a middle C bell is playing the note C5. Due to handbells' relative rarity outside of the confines of church services—although less so now than in the 1980s and early 1990s—the majority of pieces last four minutes. A few composers and arrangers write more intricate works. To ring a handbell, the ringer moves it in such a way that the cla
Carl Heinrich Maria Orff was a German composer and music educator, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana. The concepts of his Schulwerk were influential for children's music education. Carl Orff was born in the son of Paula and Heinrich Orff, his family was active in the Imperial German Army. His paternal grandmother was Catholic of Jewish descent. At age five, Orff began to play piano and cello, composed a few songs and music for puppet plays. In 1911, at age 16, some of Orff's music was published. Many of his youthful works were songs settings of German poetry, they fell into the style of Richard Strauss and other German composers of the day, but with hints of what would become Orff's distinctive musical language. In 1911/12, Orff wrote Zarathustra, Op. 14, an unfinished large work for baritone voice, three male choruses and orchestra, based on a passage from Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical novel Also sprach Zarathustra. The following year, he composed an opera, das Opfer. Influenced by the French Impressionist composer Claude Debussy, he began to use colorful, unusual combinations of instruments in his orchestration.
Moser's Musik-Lexikon states that Orff studied at the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. He served in the German Army during World War I, when he was injured and nearly killed when a trench caved in. Afterwards, he held various positions at opera houses in Mannheim and Darmstadt returning to Munich to pursue his music studies. In the mid-1920s, Orff began to formulate a concept he called elementare Musik, or elemental music, based on the unity of the arts symbolized by the ancient Greek Muses, involved tone, poetry, image and theatrical gesture. Like many other composers of the time, he was influenced by the Russian-French émigré Igor Stravinsky, but while others followed the cool, balanced neoclassic works of Stravinsky, it was works such as Les noces, a pounding, quasi-folkloric evocation of prehistoric wedding rites, that appealed to Orff. He began adapting musical works of earlier eras for contemporary theatrical presentation, including Claudio Monteverdi's opera L'Orfeo. Orff's German version, was staged under his direction in 1925 in Mannheim, using some of the instruments, used in the original 1607 performance.
The passionately declaimed opera of Monteverdi's era was unknown in the 1920s, Orff's production met with reactions ranging from incomprehension to ridicule. In 1924 Dorothee Günther and Orff founded the Günther School for gymnastics and dance in Munich. Orff was there as the head of a department from 1925 until the end of his life, he worked with musical beginners. There he developed his theories of music education. In 1930, Orff published. Before writing Carmina Burana, he edited 17th-century operas. However, these various activities brought him little money. Orff's relationship with German national-socialism and the Nazi Party has been a matter of considerable debate and analysis, his Carmina Burana was hugely popular in Nazi Germany after its premiere in Frankfurt in 1937. Given Orff's previous lack of commercial success, the monetary factor of Carmina Burana's acclaim was significant to him, but the composition, with its unfamiliar rhythms, was denounced with racist taunts. He was one of the few German composers under the Nazi regime who responded to the official call to write new incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream after the music of Felix Mendelssohn had been banned.
Defenders of Orff note that he had composed music for this play as early as 1917 and 1927, long before this was a favor for the Nazi regime. Orff was a friend of Kurt Huber, one of the founders of the resistance movement Weiße Rose, condemned to death by the Volksgerichtshof and executed by the Nazis in 1943. Orff by happenstance called at Huber's house on the day after his arrest. Huber's distraught wife, begged Orff to use his influence to help her husband, but he declined her request. If his friendship with Huber was discovered, he told her, he would be "ruined". On 19 January 1946 Orff wrote a letter to the deceased Huber; that month, he met with Clara Huber, who asked him to contribute to a memorial volume for her husband. Orff's letter was published in that collection the following year. In it, Orff implored him for forgiveness, he had a long friendship with German-Jewish musicologist and refugee Erich Katz, who fled Nazi Germany in 1939. According to Canadian historian Michael H. Kater, during Orff's denazification process in Bad Homburg, Orff claimed that he had helped establish the White Rose resistance movement in Germany.
There was no evidence for this other than his own word, other sources dispute his claim. Kater made a strong case in his earlier writings that Orff collaborated with Nazi German authorities. However, in Orff's denazification file, discovered by Viennese historian Oliver Rathkolb in 1999, no remark on the White Rose is recorded. In any case, Orff's assertion that he had been anti-Nazi during the war was accepted by the American denazification authorities, who changed his previous category of "gray unacceptable" to "gray acceptable", enabling him to continue to compose for public presentation, to enjoy the royalties that the popularity of Carmina Buran
The toy piano known as the kinderklavier, is a small piano-like musical instrument. Most modern toy pianos use round metal rods, as opposed to strings in a regular piano, to produce sound; the US Library of Congress recognizes the toy piano as a unique instrument with the subject designation, Toy Piano Scores: M175 T69. The most famous example of a dedicated composition for the instrument is the "Suite for Toy Piano" by John Cage. Toy pianos come in many shapes, from scale models of upright or grand pianos to toys which only resemble pianos in that they possess keys. Toy pianos are no more than 50 cm in width, made out of wood or plastic; the first toy pianos were made in the mid-19th century and were uprights, although many toy pianos made today are models of grands. Rather than hammers hitting strings as on a standard piano, the toy piano sounds by way of hammers hitting metal bars or rods which are fixed at one end; the hammers are connected to the keys by a mechanism similar to that which drives keyboard glockenspiels.
Toy pianos ostensibly use the same musical scale as full size pianos, although their tuning in all but the most expensive models is very approximate. The pitch to which they are tuned is close to the standard of 440 Hz for the A above middle C. A typical toy piano will have a range of one to three octaves; the cheapest models may not have black keys. This means they can play a fixed diatonic scale, but not the full chromatic scale, or diatonic scales in other keys. Diatonic toy pianos have only eight keys and can play one octave. Other variants may have non-functioning black keys between every key, but they either do not play, play the same notes as an adjacent white key, or play a special sound effect. Early toy pianos used glass bars to produce their sound, but Albert Schoenhut, son of a German toy-making family, introduced metal sounding bars to make the instrument more durable. One popular model used metal xylophone bars, struck by a wooden sphere thrown up by the piano key to make its sound.
In 1866 he was offered employment in Philadelphia, United States, to repair German toy pianos, damaged in transit. In 1872 he established the Schoenhut Piano Company to manufacture toy pianos, diversifying into other instruments. By 1917, Schoenhut produced a catalog showing 10 pages of upright and grand pianos of all shapes and sizes, with one page devoted to miniature piano stools alone; the models had nicknames beginning with "P", such as Packer, Padder and Poet. Keys were made of imitation ivory. By 1935, Schoenhut had produced over 40 styles and sizes of toy piano, with prices ranging from 50 cents to 25 dollars. In 1930, a toy piano metal rod design was patented in the US by Alice Violet Bennett. During the 1950s, J. Chein & Company of Burlington, NJ manufactured the PianoLodeon, a child's piano remarkable for the fact that it operated by a mechanism related to an actual player piano; the child could play the keys or let a small piano roll take over, the metal rods being struck by hammers propelled by a vacuum driven by a blower.
In the 1960s, the Tomy Toy Company offered the Tuneyville Player Piano using organ music, in which air blows through pipes. The child can insert a plastic disk to play a recognizable tune. By the 1950s, the toy piano market was dominated by two main toy piano makers: Jaymar and Schoenhut, counterparts to the Steinway and Baldwin for adult pianos. Wooden keys and hammers were replaced by moulded plastic ones. In the late 1970s, Schoenhut was acquired by Jaymar, although the two retained their distinct identities. Jaymar/Schoenhut experienced difficulty during the recession of the 1980s, folding and re-emerging as the Schoenhut Piano Company in 1997. Today, Schoenhut Piano Company is still the leading manufacturer, with other toy piano manufacturers: Hering from Brazil, Zeada from China, New Classic Toys from Netherlands. From 1939 to 1970, Victor Michel improved toy-piano conception. Michelsonne French toy-pianos are known for their uniquely distinctive sound. Launched in 2000, the annual Toy Piano Festival, held in San Diego at the University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, features a collection of toy pianos, recordings of compositions, live performance of existing and new works written for toy pianos.
The Festival influenced the Library of Congress to designate, in 2001, a dedicated subject heading and call number, Toy Piano Scores: M175 T69. Though made as a child's toy, the toy piano has been used in serious classical and contemporary musical contexts; the most famous example is the "Suite for Toy Piano" by John Cage. Other works in classical music for the instrument include "Ancient Voices of Children" by George Crumb and a number of pieces by Mauricio Kagel. Steve Beresford has used toy pianos in his improvised music. British experimental composers use the toy piano especially the Promenade Theatre Orchestra, a quartet of composer/performers, whose central instrumentation consisted of four matched French Michelsonne toy pianos and Hohner reed organs, their music was, repetitive minimalism of great technical difficulty, great dynamic power, were used in various combinations with reed organs, used compositional techniques that were either specific to British experimentalism, or borrowed from other disciplines (such a