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Metaphilosophy

Metaphilosophy is "the investigation of the nature of philosophy". Its subject matter includes the aims of philosophy, the boundaries of philosophy, its methods. Thus, while philosophy characteristically inquires into the nature of being, the reality of objects, the possibility of knowledge, the nature of truth, so on, metaphilosophy is the self-reflective inquiry into the nature and methods of the activity that makes these kinds of inquiries, by asking what is philosophy itself, what sorts of questions it should ask, how it might pose and answer them, what it can achieve in doing so, it is considered by some to be a subject prior and preparatory to philosophy, while others see it as inherently a part of philosophy, or automatically a part of philosophy while others adopt some combination of these views. The interest in metaphilosophy led to the establishment of the journal Metaphilosophy in January 1970. Although the term metaphilosophy and explicit attention to metaphilosophy as a specific domain within philosophy arose in the 20th century, the topic is as old as philosophy itself, can be traced back at least as far as the works of Plato and Aristotle.

Some philosophers consider metaphilosophy to be a subject apart from philosophy, above or beyond it, while others object to that idea. Timothy Williamson argues that the philosophy of philosophy is "automatically part of philosophy", as is the philosophy of anything else. Nicholas Bunnin and Jiyuan Yu write that the separation of first- from second-order study has lost popularity as philosophers find it hard to observe the distinction; as evidenced by these contrasting opinions, debate persists as to whether the evaluation of the nature of philosophy is'second-order philosophy' or simply'plain philosophy'. Many philosophers have expressed doubts over the value of metaphilosophy. Among them is Gilbert Ryle: "preoccupation with questions about methods tends to distract us from prosecuting the methods themselves. We run as a rule, not better, if we think a lot about our feet. So let us... not speak of it all but just do it." The designations metaphilosophy and philosophy of philosophy have a variety of meanings, sometimes taken to be synonyms, sometimes seen as distinct.

Morris Lazerowitz claims to have coined the term'metaphilosophy' around 1940 and used it in print in 1942. Lazerowitz proposed that metaphilosophy is'the investigation of the nature of philosophy'. Earlier uses have been found in translations from the French; the term is derived from Greek word meta μετά and philosophía φιλοσοφία. The term'metaphilosophy' is used by Paul Moser in the sense of a'second-order' or more fundamental undertaking than philosophy itself, in the manner suggested by Charles Griswold: "The distinction between philosophy and metaphilosophy has an analogue in the familiar distinction between mathematics and metamathematics." This usage was considered nonsense by Ludwig Wittgenstein, who rejected the analogy between metalanguage and a metaphilosophy. As expressed by Martin Heidegger: "When we ask, "What is philosophy?" we are speaking about philosophy. By asking in this way we are taking a stand above and, outside of philosophy, but the aim of our question is to enter into philosophy, to tarry in it, to conduct ourselves in its manner, that is, to "philosophize".

The path of our discussion must, not only have a clear direction, but this direction must at the same time give us the guarantee that we are moving within philosophy and not outside of it and around it." Some other philosophers treat the prefix meta as meaning'about...', rather than as referring to a metatheoretical'second-order' form of philosophy, among them Rescher and Double. Others, such as Williamson, prefer the term'philosophy of philosophy' instead of'metaphilosophy' as it avoids the connotation of a'second-order' discipline that looks down on philosophy, instead denotes something, a part of it. Joll suggests that to take metaphilosophy as'the application of the methods of philosophy to philosophy itself' is too vague, while the view that sees metaphilosophy as a'second-order' or more abstract discipline, outside philosophy, "is narrow and tendentious". In the analytical tradition, the term "metaphilosophy" is used to tag commenting and research on previous works as opposed to original contributions towards solving philosophical problems.

Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote about the nature of philosophical understanding. He suggested. In the Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein wrote that there is not a metaphilosophy in the sense of a metatheory of philosophy. C. D. Broad distinguished Critical from Speculative philosophy in his "The Subject-matter of Philosophy, its Relations to the special Sciences," in Introduction to Scientific Thought, 1923. Curt Ducasse, in Philosophy as a Science, examines several views of the nature of philosophy, concludes that philosophy has a distinct subject matter: appraisals. Ducasse's view has been among the first to be described as'metaphilosophy'. Henri Lefebvre in Métaphilosophie argued, from a Marxian standpoint, in favor of an "ontological break", as a necessary methodological approach for critical social theory. Paul Moser writes that typical metaphilosophical discussion includes determining the conditions under which a claim can be said to be a philosophical one, he regards meta-ethics, the study of ethics, to be a form of metaphilosophy, as well

Alfredo Reichlin

Alfredo Reichlin was an Italian journalist and politician. When he was young, Reichlin took part in the Italian Resistance with the Garibaldi Brigades, as a member of the Patriotic Action Groups. In 1946, Reichlin joined the Italian Communist Party of which he has been one of the most important leaders. A pupil of Palmiro Togliatti, Reichlin has been vice-secretary of the Italian Communist Youth Federation and in 1958 he became editor-in-chief of L'Unità. In the 1960s he approached the positions of Pietro Ingrao, leader of the left-wing current of the party. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies from 1968 to 1994, during the 1970s Reichlin entered the National Leadership of the party and worked side by side with Enrico Berlinguer and became once again editor-in-chief of L'Unità from 1977 to 1981. In 1989, Reichlin became Minister of Economy of the Shadow Cabinet of the Italian Communist Party, he has been in favor of the party's transformation from PCI to the Democratic Party. Reichlin has been married to journalist and politician Luciana Castellina: they had two children and Pietro, both of them economists.

He died in Rome on 21 March 2017, at the age of 91. Files about his parliamentary activities: V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI legislature

Vincent Placcius

Vincent Placcius was a German writer, professor and polymath. He was born in 1642 and died in 1699, he was a professor of morals and eloquence for twenty-four years. He is chiefly remembered for his work "The Art of Excerpting" which in its day could be considered to be a precursor to the computer hard disk. Several of his works have been auctioned for huge sums by Christie's. John Gorton's General Biographical Dictionary provides the following information about Vincent Placcius:Vincent Placcius, a learned jurist, was born at Hamburg in 1642, he studied at Helmstadt, after travelling in France and Italy, he returned to his native city, where he practiced at the bar, was appointed professor of morals and eloquence, which post he held until his death in 1699. His principal work is a curious bibliographical piece respecting anonymous and pseudonymous writers, entitled "De Scriptis et Scriptoribus anonymis atque pseudonymis Syntagma". Alexander Chalmers' General Biographical Dictionary provides the following information about Vincent Placcius:Vincent Placcius was an eminent philologer of Hamburgh, where he was born in 1642, completed his studies at Helmstadt and Leipzig, improved his talents by travelling in France and Italy.

When he returned, he applied himself to the bar, afterwards became professor of morals and eloquence, in which situation he continued twenty-four years. He was beloved by his pupils, when he died, April 6, 1699, regretted by his countrymen in general, who had considered him as an oracle, his works are, 1. “A Dictionary of anonymous and pseudonymous Authors,” published in 1708, in 2 vols. folio, by the care of Fabricius a curious work, but abounding with faults, 2. “De jurisconsulto perito Liber,” 1693, 8vo. 3. “Carmina juvenilia,” Amst. 1667, 12mo. 4. “De arte excerpendi,” Hamburgh, 1689, 8vo, with several others, all testifying, abundantly proving, his talents and erudition. Wikisource-Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie