Lawrence Lamond Phillips was a professional American football and Canadian football running back. A two-time college football national champion with the Nebraska Cornhuskers, Phillips played in the National Football League for the St. Louis Rams, Miami Dolphins, San Francisco 49ers from 1996 through 1999, for the Montreal Alouettes and Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League in 2002 and 2003. Phillips' career was overshadowed by his inability to stay out of trouble off the field. In 2015, Phillips was charged with the murder of his former cellmate, Damion Soward, arguably could have faced the death penalty. Phillips committed suicide on January 13, 2016, at Kern Valley State Prison in Delano, where he was serving a seven-year term for felony assault with a deadly weapon and was set to serve an additional twenty-five years once that sentence elapsed for domestic assault on his girlfriend. Phillips was born in Little Rock and moved to California, where he grew up in foster homes, he attended West Covina High School in West Covina, for his freshman and sophomore years.
He was a varsity starter both on offense as defense as an outside linebacker. He attended Baldwin Park High School in Baldwin Park, California for his junior and senior years, his team won a CIF championship his junior season, which attracted the attention of colleges, including the University of Nebraska. In 1993, his freshman year at Nebraska, Phillips worked his way up the player ranks, he came off the bench to rush for 137 yards and a touchdown in the Huskers' 14-13 win at Pac-10 champion UCLA. In the second half of the 1994 Orange Bowl, he sparked the Huskers' ground game, carrying 13 times for 64 of the 183 rushing yards against a formidable Seminole defense. All but one of Phillips' carries came in the fourth quarter, during which he scored on a 12-yard touchdown run; this game established him as the primary running back in the Nebraska offense. By his sophomore year, Phillips became the focal point of the offense because of injuries to quarterbacks Tommie Frazier and Brook Berringer, he tied a school record by rushing for 100 yards or more in 11 straight games in 1994 despite playing against eight or nine-man defensive fronts.
Against the #3 Miami Hurricanes, Phillips had 96 yards on 19 carries, including a 25-yard run, the longest rushing play the Hurricanes had allowed all season. During the regular season, he ran for 1,722 yards, still a Nebraska record for a sophomore. Phillips' performance in the Orange Bowl that year was key to Nebraska securing its undefeated season and the national championship in 1994. Less than two weeks after Phillips helped Nebraska win the 1994 championship, he pled not guilty to charges of assault and disturbing the peace; the charges came from a March 1994 incident, in which Phillips was accused of grabbing a 21-year-old college student "around the neck". Phillips had earlier entered into a pretrial diversion program, but was charged on November 18, 1994, after failing to complete the requirements of the program. Shortly before the start of the next season, Phillips' eligibility was in question for receiving a $100 lunch from a sports agent during the 1994 season; when Nebraska officials became aware of the violation,he reimbursed the agent.
The NCAA ruled him eligible just in time for the season opener, but continued to investigate other unspecified issues involving Phillips. When the 1995 season arrived, Phillips became an early front-runner for the Heisman Trophy. In Nebraska's second game of the season, against Michigan State—playing its first game under new coach Nick Saban—Phillips had 206 rushing yards and four touchdowns on 22 carries. After only two games, he had scored six touchdowns. Hours after the team returned from East Lansing on September 10, 1995, Phillips broke into backup quarterback Scott Frost's apartment by climbing the outside of the building to the third floor and entering through some sliding doors, he assaulted basketball player Kate McEwen. Phillips dragged McEwen out of the apartment by the hair and down three flights of stairs before smashing her head into a mailbox. Phillips was subsequently arrested, suspended by head coach Tom Osborne; the case became a source of controversy and media attention, with the perception that Frost had not tried to protect McEwen and that Osborne was coddling a star player by not kicking Phillips off the team permanently.
Osborne walked out on a press conference when asked, "If one of your players had roughed up a member of your family and had dragged her down a flight of steps, would you have reinstated that player to the team?" Outraged Nebraska faculty proposed that any student convicted of a violent crime be prohibited from representing the university on the football field. Osborne defended the decision, saying that abandoning Phillips might do more harm than good, stating the best way to help Phillips was within the structured environment of the football program. Osborne stated, "I felt the only thing I could put in a place that would keep him on track was football, because, the only consistent organizing factor in his life." After a six-game suspension, Osborne reinstated Phillips for the Iowa State game, although touted freshman Ahman Green continued to start. Phillips played against Kansas and Oklahoma. Despite pressure from the national media, Osborne named Phillips the starter for the Fiesta Bowl, which pitted No. 1 Nebraska against No. 2 Florida for the national championship.
In the game, Phillips rushed for 165 yards and two touchdowns on 25 carries and scored a touchdown on a 16-yard reception in the Cornhusker
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and in quantity, they are voiced, are involved in prosodic variation such as tone and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract; the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them. There are two complementary definitions of one phonetic and the other phonological. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" or "oh", produced with an open vocal tract. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis; this contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel.
In oral languages, phonetic vowels form the peak of many or all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden"; the phonetic definition of "vowel" does not always match the phonological definition. The approximants and illustrate this: both are without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables which suggests that phonologically they are consonants. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a rhotic dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/; the American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms "vocoid" for a phonetic vowel and "vowel" for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology, are classified as vocoids but not vowels. However and Emmory demonstrated from a range of languages that semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, so may be considered consonants on that basis.
Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic /l/ in table, or the syllabic nasals in button and rhythm. The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness; these three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, tongue root position; this conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928. Peter Ladefoged has said that "early phoneticians... thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, but they were not. They were describing formant frequencies."
The IPA Handbook concedes that "the vowel quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction and not a direct mapping of tongue position."Nonetheless, the concept that vowel qualities are determined by tongue position and lip rounding continues to be used in pedagogy, as it provides an intuitive explanation of how vowels are distinguished. Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1, associated with the height of the tongue. In close vowels known as high vowels, such as and, the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels known as low vowels, such as, F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the frequency of the first formant, the lower the vowel; the International Phonetic Alphabet defines seven degrees of vowel height, but no language is known to distinguish all of them without distinguishing another attribute: close near-close close-mid mid open-mid near-open open The letters are used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels.
However, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. The Kensiu language, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is unusual in that it contrasts true-mid with close-mid and open-mid vowels, without any difference in other parameters like backness or roundness. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness, many are parts of diphthongs, it appears that some varieties of German have five vowel heights that contrast independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten h
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script. It is treated as a letter of its own in Chamorro, Old Spanish, Slovak, Kazakh, Quechua, Welsh, Cornish and Belarusian Łacinka alphabets. In Vietnamese and Modern Spanish, it used to be considered a letter for collation purposes but this is no longer common; the digraph was first used in Latin since the 2nd century B. C. to transliterate the sound of the Greek letter chi in words borrowed from that language. In classical times, Greeks pronounced this as an aspirated voiceless velar plosive. In post-classical Greek this sound developed into a fricative. Since neither sound was found in native Latin words, in Late Latin the pronunciation occurred. In Old French, a language that had no or and represented by c, k or qu, ch began to be used to represent the voiceless palatal plosive, which came from in some positions and became and then. Now the digraph ch is used for all the aforementioned sounds; the Old French usage of ch was a model of several other digraphs for palatals or postalveolars: lh, nh, sh.
In the Goidelic languages, several Germanic, Slavic languages that use the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet, others, ch represents the voiceless velar fricative. Additionally, "ch" is used in transliterating into many European languages from Greek, Hebrew and various others. Breton has evolved a modified form of this digraph, c'h for representing, as opposed to ch, which stands for. In Manx, "ch" stands for. In Rheinische Dokumenta, ch represents. In Welsh, it represents the voiceless uvular fricative. In English, ch is most pronounced as, as in chalk, cherry, much, etc. Ch can be pronounced as, as in ache, choir and stomach. Most words with this pronunciation of ch find their origin in Greek words with the letter chi, like mechanics and character. In English words of French origin, "ch" represents, as in charade and nonchalant; this pronunciation occurs in a few loan words from other sources, like machete and pistachio. In certain dialects of British English ch is pronounced in two words: sandwich and spinach, in place names, such as Greenwich and Norwich.
In words of Scots origin it may be pronounced as, as in clachan. In words of Hebrew or Yiddish origin it may be pronounced as, as in challah; the digraph can be silent, as in Crichton, drachm and traditionally in schism. In English Braille, the "ch" digraph, when pronounced as, is represented by a single cell: In Breton ch represents the; this digraph should not be confused with c'h. In Catalan ch represents final sound. In the past it was used, but nowadays it is only used in some surnames. In medieval Catalan it was used to represent sound. Ch is the fifth letter of the Chamorro language and its sound is. In Mandarin Chinese ch is used in Pinyin to represent an aspirated voiceless retroflex affricate /tʂʰ/; the letter ch is a digraph consisting of the sequence of Latin alphabet graphemes C and H, however it is a single phoneme and represents a single entity in Czech collation order, inserted between H and I. In capitalized form, Ch is used at the beginning of a sentence, while CH or Ch can be used for standalone letter in lists etc. and only capitalized CH is used when the letter is a part of an abbreviation and in all-uppercase texts.
In Czech alphabet, the digraph Ch is handled as a letter equal to other letters. In Czech dictionaries and other alphabetical lists, it has its own section, following that of words beginning with H and preceding that of words that begin with I. Thus, the word chemie will not be found in the C section of a Czech dictionary, nor the name Chalupa in the C section of the phonebook; the alphabetical order h ch is observed when the combination ch occurs in median or final position: Praha precedes Prachatice, hod precedes hoch. In the 15th century, the Czech language used to contain many digraphs like modern Polish does but most of them were replaced by single letters with diacritic marks by the reform of Jan Hus. Besides ch, there is only one digraph used in the Czech language - dž, representing voiced postalveolar affricate. However, ch is the only Czech digraph, treated as a single letter while dž is used in translating a foreign word into Czech. Dutch ch was voiceless, while g was voiced. In the northern Netherlands, both ch and g are voiceless, while in the southern Netherlands and Flanders the voiceless/voiced distinction is upheld.
The voiceless fricative is pronounced or in the north and in the south, while the voiced fricative is pronounced in the north and in the south. This difference of pronunciation is called'hard and soft g'. In native French words, ch represents as in chanson. In most words of Greek origin, it represents as in chœur, chirographier. In German, ch represents two allophones: the voiceless velar fricative when following back vowels or and the voiceless palatal fricative in
Th is a digraph in the Latin script. It was introduced into Latin to transliterate Greek loan words. In modern languages that use the Latin alphabet, it represents a number of different sounds, it is the most common digraph in order of frequency in the English language. The most logical use of ⟨th⟩ is to represent a consonant cluster of the phonemes /t/ and /h/, as in English knighthood; this is not a digraph, since a digraph is a pair of letters representing a single phoneme or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the separate characters. The digraph ⟨th⟩ was first introduced in Latin to transliterate the letter theta ⟨Θ, θ⟩ in loans from Greek. Theta was pronounced as an aspirated stop /tʰ/ in Classical and Koine Greek.⟨th⟩ is used in academic transcription systems to represent letters in south and east Asian alphabets that have the value /tʰ/. According to the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, for example, ⟨th⟩ represents a series of Thai letters with the value /tʰ/.⟨th⟩ is used to transcribe the phoneme /tʰ/ in Southern Bantu languages, such as Zulu and Tswana.
During late antiquity, the Greek phoneme represented by the letter ⟨θ⟩ mutated from an aspirated stop /tʰ/ to a fricative /θ/. This mutation affected the pronunciation of ⟨th⟩, which began to be used to represent the phoneme /θ/ in some of the languages that had it. One of the earliest languages to use the digraph this way was Old High German, before the final phase of the High German consonant shift, in which /θ/ and /ð/ came to be pronounced /d/; the Old English Latin alphabet adapted the runic letters ⟨þ⟩ and ⟨ð⟩ to represent this sound, but the digraph ⟨th⟩ superseded these letters in Middle English. However, in early Old English of the 7th and 8th centuries, the runic letters were not used yet and the digraph used in its place. In modern English, an example of the ⟨th⟩ digraph pronounced as /θ/ is the one in tooth. In Old and Middle Irish, ⟨th⟩ was used for /θ/ as well, but the sound changed into. Other languages that use ⟨th⟩ for /θ/ include Albanian and Welsh, both of which treat it as a distinct letter and alphabetize it between ⟨t⟩ and ⟨u⟩. English uses ⟨th⟩ to represent the voiced dental fricative /ð/, as in father.
This unusual extension of the digraph to represent a voiced sound is caused by the fact that, in Old English, the sounds /θ/ and /ð/ stood in allophonic relationship to each other and so did not need to be rigorously distinguished in spelling. The letters ⟨þ⟩ and ⟨ð⟩ were used indiscriminately for both sounds, when these were replaced by ⟨th⟩ in the 15th century, it was used for both sounds. In the Norman dialect Jèrriais, the French phoneme /r/ is realized as /ð/, is spelled ⟨th⟩ under the influence of English. In the Latin alphabet for the Javanese language, ⟨th⟩ is used to transcribe the phoneme voiceless retroflex stop ʈ, written as ꦛ in the native Javanese script; because neither /tʰ/ nor /θ/ were native phonemes in Latin, the Greek sound represented by ⟨th⟩ came to be pronounced /t/. The spelling retained the digraph for etymological reasons; this practice was borrowed into German, French and other languages, where ⟨th⟩ still appears in Greek words, but is pronounced /t/. See German orthography.
Interlingua employs this pronunciation. In early modern times, French and English all expanded this by analogy to words for which there is no etymological reason, but for the most part the modern spelling systems have eliminated this. Examples of unetymological ⟨th⟩ in English are the name of the River Thames from Middle English Temese and the name Anthony from Latin Antonius. In English, ⟨th⟩ for /t/ can occur in loan-words from French or German, such as Neanderthal; the English name Thomas has initial / t /. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages ⟨th⟩ represents a dental stop, /t̪/. In Irish and Scottish Gaelic, ⟨th⟩ represents the lenition of /t/. In most cases word-initially, it is pronounced /h/. For example: Irish and Scottish Gaelic toil'will' → do thoil'your will'; this use of digraphs with ⟨h⟩ to indicate lenition is distinct from the other uses which derive from Latin. While it is true that the presence of digraphs with ⟨h⟩ in Latin inspired the Goidelic usage, their allocation to phonemes is based on the internal logic of the Goidelic languages.
It is a consequence of their history: the digraph in Old and Middle Irish, designated the phoneme /θ/, but sound changes complicated and obscured the grapheme–sound correspondence, so that ⟨th⟩ is found in some words like Scottish Gaelic piuthar "sister" that never had a /θ/ to begin with. This is an example of "inverted spelling": the model of words where the original interdental fricative had disappeared between vowels caused ⟨th⟩ to be reinterpreted as a marker of hiatus; the Irish and Scottish Gaelic lenited /t/ is silent in final position, as in Scottish Gaelic sgith /skiː/ "tired". And it is silent in initial position, as in Scottish Gaelic thu /uː/ "you". In English the ⟨th⟩ in "asthma" and "clothes" is silent. U+1D7A ᵺ LATIN SMALL LETTER TH WITH STRIKETHROUGH is used for phonetic notation in some dictionaries. Eth Pronunciation of English th Thorn
Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9. In Ancient Greek, θ represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/, but in Modern Greek it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In its archaic form, θ was written as a cross within a circle, as a line or point in circle. Archaic crossed forms of theta are seen in the wheel letters of Linear A and Linear B; the cursive form ϑ was retained by Unicode as U+03D1 ϑ "GREEK THETA SYMBOL", separate from U+03B8 θ "GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA". For the purpose of writing Greek text, the two can be font variants of a single character, but θ and ϑ are used as distinct symbols in technical and mathematical contexts. In Latin script used for the Gaulish language, theta developed into the tau gallicum, conventionally transliterated as Ð, although the bar extends across the centre of the letter; the phonetic value of the tau gallicum is thought to have been.
The early Cyrillic letter fita developed from θ. This letter existed in the Russian alphabet until the 1918 Russian orthography reform. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, represents the voiceless dental fricative, as in thick or thin, it does not represent the consonant in the, the voiced dental fricative. A similar-looking symbol, described as a lowercase barred o, indicates in the IPA a close-mid central rounded vowel; the lowercase letter θ is used as a symbol for: A plane angle in geometry An unknown variable in trigonometry A special function of several complex variables One of the Chebyshev functions in prime number theory The potential temperature in meteorology The score of a test taker in item response theory Theta Type Replication: a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes Threshold value of an artificial neuron A Bayer designation letter applied to a star in a constellation. According to Porphyry of Tyros, the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul.
Johannes Lydus says that the Egyptians used a symbol for Kosmos in the form of theta, with a fiery circle representing the world, a snake spanning the middle representing Agathos Daimon. The Egyptians used the symbol of a point within a circle to represent the sun, which might be a possible origin of its use as the Sun's astrological glyph, it is worthwhile to note that θῆτα has the same numerical value in isopsephy as Ηλιος: 318. In classical Athens, it was used as an abbreviation for the Greek θάνατος and as it vaguely resembles a human skull, theta was used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times, it survives on potsherds used by Athenians. Petrus de Dacia in a document from 1291 relates the idea that theta was used to brand criminals as empty ciphers, the branding rod was affixed to the crossbar spanning the circle. For this reason, use of the number theta was sometimes avoided where the connotation was felt to be unlucky—the mint marks of some Late Imperial Roman coins famously have the sum ΔΕ or ΕΔ substituted as a euphemism where a Θ would otherwise be expected.
Greek ThetaCoptic ThetheCyrillic FitaMathematical ThetaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. Ѳ, ѳ—Fita, a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Greek theta ʘ—Bilabial click Voiceless dental fricative Theta nigrum