Muscat is the capital and largest city of Oman. It is the seat of the Governorate of Muscat. According to the National Centre for Statistics and Information, the total population of Muscat Governorate reached 1.4 million as of September 2018. The metropolitan area spans 3,500 km2 and includes six provinces called wilayats. Known since the early 1st century CE as an important trading port between the west and the east, Muscat was ruled by various indigenous tribes as well as foreign powers such as the Persians, the Portuguese Empire, the Iberian Union and the Ottoman Empire at various points in its history. A regional military power in the 18th century, Muscat's influence extended as far as East Africa and Zanzibar; as an important port-town in the Gulf of Oman, Muscat attracted foreign tradesmen and settlers such as the Persians and the Balochis. Since the ascension of Qaboos bin Said as Sultan of Oman in 1970, Muscat has experienced rapid infrastructural development that has led to the growth of a vibrant economy and a multi-ethnic society.
Muscat is termed as a Global City. The rocky Western Al Hajar Mountains dominate the landscape of Muscat; the city lies on the Arabian Sea along the Gulf of Oman and is in the proximity of the strategic Straits of Hormuz. Low-lying white buildings typify most of Muscat's urban landscape, while the port-district of Muttrah, with its corniche and harbour, form the north-eastern periphery of the city. Muscat's economy is dominated by trade, liquified natural gas and porting. Ptolemy's Map of Arabia identifies the territories of Moscha Portus. Scholars are divided in opinion on which of the two related to the city of Muscat. Arrianus references Omana and Moscha in Voyage of Nearchus. Interpretations of Arrianus' work by William Vincent and Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville conclude that Omana was a reference to Oman, while Moscha referred to Muscat. Other scholars identify Pliny the Elder's reference to Amithoscuta to be Muscat; the origin of the word Muscat is disputed. Some authors claim that the word has Arabic origins -- from moscha, meaning an inflated skin.
Other authors claim that the name Muscat means anchorage or the place of "letting fall the anchor". Other derivations include muscat from Old Persian, meaning strong-scented, or from Arabic, meaning falling-place, or hidden. Cryptus Portus is synonymous with Oman, but "Ov-man", the old Sumerian name Magan, means sea-people in Arabic. An inhabitant is a Muscatter, Muscatite or Muscatan. Evidence of communal activity in the area around Muscat dates back to the 6th millennium BCE in Ras al-Hamra, where burial sites of fishermen have been found; the graves appear to indicate the existence of burial rituals. South of Muscat, remnants of Harappan pottery indicate some level of contact with the Indus Valley Civilisation. Muscat's notability as a port was acknowledged as early as the 1st century CE by the Greek geographer Ptolemy, who referred to it as Cryptus Portus, by Pliny the Elder, who called it Amithoscuta; the port fell to a Sassanid invasion in the 3rd century CE, under the rule of Shapur I, while conversion to Islam occurred during the 7th century.
Muscat's importance as a trading port continued to grow in the centuries that followed, under the influence of the Azd dynasty, a local tribe. The establishment of the First Imamate in the 9th century CE was the first step in consolidating disparate Omani tribal factions under the banner of an Ibadi state. However, tribal skirmishes continued; the Abbasids occupied the region until the 11th century, when they were driven out by the local Yahmad tribe. Power over Oman shifted from the Yahmad tribe to the Azdi Nabahinah clan, during whose rule, the people of coastal ports such as Muscat prospered from maritime trade and close alliances with the Indian subcontinent, at the cost of the alienation of the people of the interior of Oman; the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque sailed to Muscat in 1507, in an attempt to establish trade relations. As he approached the harbor, his ships were fired on, he decided to conquer Muscat. Most of the city burned to the ground after the fighting; the Portuguese maintained a hold on Muscat for over a century, despite challenges from Persia and a bombardment of the town by the Ottoman Turks in 1546.
The Turks twice captured Muscat from the Portuguese, in the Capture of Muscat and 1581-88. The election of Nasir bin Murshid Al-Ya'rubi as Imam of Oman in 1624 changed the balance of power again in the region, from the Persians and the Portuguese to local Omanis. On August 16, 1648 the Imam dispatched an army to Muscat, which captured and demolished the high towers of the Portuguese, weakening their grip over the town. Decisively, in 1650, a small but determined body of the Imam's troops attacked the port at night, forcing an eventual Portuguese surrender on January 23, 1650. A civil war and repeated incursions by the Persian king Nader Shah in the 18th century destabilised the region, further strained relations between the interior and Muscat; this power vacuum in Oman led to the emergence of the Al Bu Sa‘id dynasty, which has ruled Oman since. Muscat's naval and military supremacy was re-established in the 19th century by Said bin Sultan, who signed a treaty with U. S. President Andrew Jackson's representative Edmund Roberts on September 21, 1833.
Having gained control over Zanzibar, in 1840 Said moved his capital to Stone Town, the ancient quarter of Zanzibar City.
History of Rioja wine
The history of Rioja wine reflects a long and varied winemaking tradition in the Spanish region of La Rioja, starting with the first Phoenician settlers in 11th century BC. As with many of Europe's most well known wine regions, the Ancient Romans founded many of the Rioja vineyards. Throughout the Middle Ages, pilgrims to the shrine of St. James at Santiago de Compostela passed through the region and carried back with them the reputation of wines from the area; the phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th century was a major catalyst in the expansion and modernization of the Rioja wine industry, with the devastation the French wine industry both opening up the French wine market and bringing an influx of French investment into the region. Today, together with Sherry, Rioja is the most internationally recognized of all Spanish wines; the earliest vine-growing people to reach the Rioja were the Phoenicians, who traveled up the Ebro river and left traces of settlements near Alfaro. The Rioja region was conquered by the Ancient Romans in the early 2nd century BC and came under Roman rule through treaties with the local Celtiberian and Vascon tribes.
Vineyards were established at settlements near modern-day Calahorra and Logroño and bodegas soon sprang up in order to supply the Roman troops. Archaeological exploration has uncovered evidence of a local cistern from that period with the capacity to hold 75,000 liters of wine. Wine historian Roger Dion has theorized that when the Romans settled in Bordeaux, some of the plant cuttings that they took with them may have originated in Rioja vineyards, in the form of an ancient vine Balisca, which may have been the ancestor of the Cabernet family, leading to the development of the classic varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Petit Verdot in the Médoc wine region. Vineyards occupied the usual part of rural landscapes in medieval Rioja during the High Middle Ages There are proofs of Rioja wine export towards other regions as early as the late 13th century, which testifies the beginnings of a commercial production. From the 15th century on, the Rioja Alta specialized in wine growing; the popular pilgrimage route el Camino de Santiago took thousands of Christian pilgrims right through the heart of the Rioja throughout the Middle Ages, just as it does today.
Whereas many visitors sampled the local wine and the reputation of the region became widespread, not many samples of the wines left the area. Following the Reconquista, Rioja wine merchants began to look for outside markets for their wine. Looking north, some bodegas brought their wines to the trading ports of Bilbao and Santander where it became available to Dutch and English wine merchants; this developing trade with its Basque Country neighbors served as an impetus for the bodegas to expand their wine production. As the region's reputation grew, the local authorities tried to implement safeguards to protect the quality and reputation of the wine. In 1560 the use of grapes from outside the Rioja region was prohibited and wine exported from the region had to transported in bota bags, branded with a seal to guarantee the authenticity of their contents. In the 1780s, Don Manuel Quintano of nearby Burgos traveled to Bordeaux to learn their winemaking techniques. On his return, he introduced the use of Oak aging barrels to the Rioja bodegas, which improved the longevity of Rioja wines.
This opened up their export potential, markets soon developed in places as far-flung as Cuba and Mexico. Despite this success, the regional authorities dictated that the all Rioja wines, whether destined for foreign or domestic consumption, must be the same price, regardless of the added expense incurred by oak aging; this significant economic disadvantage caused the use of oak to fall out of favor for a century. The Duke de la Victoria owned a bodega in Logroño and spent considerable time in London during a period of exile following the defeat of the Carlists, it was there that he and an aide, Colonel Luciano Murrieta, discussed ways in which to modernize the Rioja wine industry, with the aim of competing for the sizable British market. Murrieta was dispatched to Bordeaux to learn the latest advances in the Bordeaux wine industry, much like Quintano had been several decades before. One of the improvements Murrieta brought back was the utilization of large vats to crush and ferment the grapes, in place of the outdoor stone lagos in which grapes were traditionally crushed by the feet of the vineyard workers.
Murrieta reintroduced the use of oak for aging. In the 1850s, the fungal disease powdery mildew began to ravage vineyards in nearby Galicia, opening up the market up for Rioja bodegas, only affected; the completion of a railway system linking Logroño to Bilbao and Irun coincided with the onset of the phylloxera epidemic in Europe. The French were the first and hardest hit by the louse, which created an immediate and insatiable demand for all the wine the Rioja could produce. Amidst devastation in the French wine industry, dozens of négociant and French winemakers from Bordeaux, traveled to the Rioja to set up wineries, where they could continue to produce wine – bringing with them extensive knowledge and experience; this ushered in a period of unprecedented prosperity for the Rioja wine industry. The subsequent boom in the Rioja wine industry lasted until phylloxera reached the region itself in the 1890s. By the cure of grafting American rootstock had been employed in France and it was only a matter of time before the Spanish were able to replant their own vineyards with the new grafted vines.
In the meantime, regional authorities stepped in to curb all wine imports, so that the local wine supply would take priority. Laws were passed prohibiting the ex
Pozol is the name of both fermented corn dough and the drink made from it, which has its origins in Pre-Columbian Mexico. Other ingredients besides corn dough and water, such as cocoa, may be added to it; the drink is consumed in the south of Mexico in the states of Tabasco. It is a thirst-quencher, used to fight diseases, it has aided indigenous peoples of the Americas as sustenance on long trips across the jungles. Since ancient times, the Maya-Chontales from Belize prepared this drink with boiled cornmeal and grains, it was called pochotl, but after the arrival of the Spanish in Tabasco in 1519, the name changed to the now-familiar "pozol". Pozol was traditionally made by women by fermenting corn dough, when dissolved in water, is eaten raw by various ethnic groups of southern and southeastern Mexico. In Chiapas, this drink was prepared for Mayans and Chiapanecos. Pozol is drunk throughout the day by the lower classes, though it is used throughout all classes. In pre-Hispanic times, it was drunk unsweetened.
Because it does not go bad pozol cornballs have been used by various groups as provisions for their long journeys through the jungle. Besides its use as food, the drink has been used as medicine and for religious ceremonies. In the past pozol balls were used by the Maya as a poultice, to prevent or treat skin infections and wounds. Pozol had a ceremonial importance, since pre-Hispanic times, it was used as an important component of offerings in various Maya festivities; these festivities were related to the harvest of corn. Pozol is still used today by the Maya of the Yucatán Peninsula as part of their harvest rites. Pozol is made by fermenting corn dough, rolled into balls or loaves and may be preserved in banana leaves; the drink, a "sort of whitish porridge," is made by soaking the dough in water. Common extra ingredients included chili pepper and sugar. White pozol is made from dough mixed with unsweetened water, it can be sweetened with sugar or not. Some people from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas prefer to prepare sourdough.
Sour Pozol is more common in Tuxtla Gutierrez. Sour dough can be taken with or without sugar, it can be consumed cold with a slice of chili. The Lacandones use pozol mixed with honey to lower fever and control diarrhea and other intestinal disorders, in a similar way as other people use drugs or eat foods containing yeast or lactobacillus. Today, pozol is prepared using milk and horchata; the corn dough is mixed with milk, instead of water, sugar. This combination makes a much sweeter version of the traditional pozol. Sweetened pozol with cocoa is the most popular version of pozol in Tabasco. In the State of Tabasco, pozol is a traditional drink. During the Prehispanic era, pozol was a appreciated beverage due to its resistance qualities, this was believed in Tabasco. In 1579 the government of Tabasco declared. In the declaration, it was said that: "We're in the habit Chontal indians of not eating but of only drinking water, if they ate, they ate little and drank a drink, made of its currency, cacao, a thick concoction called: pozol".
Pozol has been consumed in Tabasco since pre-Hispanic times. Europeans described pozol as a beverage that allowed the indigenous people to resist the heat of this tropical zone. In Tabasco there are four different types of pozol: white pozol, black pozol, Cacao Special pozol, sour pozol. In the little towns and villages it is customary to drink white pozol without sugar, instead using salt and fresh Chile amashito, or with candied papaya called "Oreja de mico". Pozol, just as the “Pocho” dance, the “caballito blanco”, is representative of the culture and variety in the State of Tabasco. In Villahermosa, all Tabasco, it is common to find many places to try pozol. There is a saying: "A visitor who arrives to Tabasco and drinks pozol and likes it, takes up residence in Tabasco". For some of the Native People or "indígenas", Pozol represents a semi-ritual to their gods. Since ancient times, the Mayans and Chiapanecos from this state, as well as the ones from Tabasco, made this beverage using cooked corn and cacao.
Pozol is a beverage is enjoyed at midday, to calm both hunger and thirst. It is nutritive as it is rich in amino acids and fiber. Locals may accompany this drink with a small bite a taco or empanada, but enjoy the non-cacao version by biting on chilli conserves quenching its spicy taste with the freshness and smoothness of the cold corn-based drink. List of chocolate beverages List of maize dishes Tejuino Poi Ogi
Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit brandy, is added. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including Port, Madeira, Commandaria wine, the aromatised wine Vermouth. One reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it. Though other preservation methods now exist, fortification continues to be used because the process can add distinct flavors to the finished product. Although grape brandy is most added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may be neutral spirit, made from grapes, sugar beets or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit. For example, in the U. S. only spirits from fruit may be used. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavour of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still; when added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind.
The end result is a wine, both sweeter and stronger containing about 20% alcohol by volume. During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine; the earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation. In the case of some fortified wine styles, a high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast; this causes fermentation to stop. Commandaria is made in Cyprus' unique AOC region north of Limassol from high altitude vines of Mavro and Xynisteri, sun dried and aged in oak barrels. Recent developments have produced different styles of Commandaria. Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands.
The wine is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif, to sweet wines more consumed with dessert. Madeira is deliberately heated and oxidised as part of its maturation process, resulting in distinctive flavours and an unusually long lifespan once a bottle is opened. Marsala wine is a wine from Sicily, available in both fortified and unfortified versions, it was first produced in 1772 by an English merchant, John Woodhouse, as an inexpensive substitute for sherry and port, gets its name from the island's port, Marsala. The fortified version is blended with brandy to make two styles, the younger weaker Fine, at least 17% abv and aged at least four months; the unfortified Marsala wine is aged in wooden casks for five years or more and reaches a strength of 18% by evaporation. Mistelle is sometimes used as an ingredient in fortified wines Vermouth and Sherry, though it is used as a base for apéritifs such as the French Pineau des Charentes.
It is produced by adding alcohol to non-fermented or fermented grape juice. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation and, as a consequence Mistelle is sweeter than fermented grape juice in which the sugars turn to alcohol. Moscatel de Setúbal is a Portuguese wine produced around the Setúbal Municipality on the Península de Setúbal; the wine is made from the Muscat of Alexandria grape and fortified with aguardente. The style was believed to have been invented by José Maria da Fonseca, the founder of the oldest table wine company in Portugal dating back to 1834. Port wine is a fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal, it is a sweet red wine, but comes in dry, semi-dry and white varieties. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Spain; the word "sherry" itself is an anglicisation of Jerez. In earlier times, sherry was known as sack. In the European Union "sherry" is a protected designation of origin. After fermentation is complete, sherry is fortified with brandy.
Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol. Sherry is produced in a variety of styles, ranging from dry, light versions such as finos to much darker and sometimes sweeter versions known as olorosos. Cream sherry is always sweet. Vermouth is a fortified wine flavoured with aromatic herbs and spices using guarded recipes; some of the herbs and spices used may include cardamom, cinnamon and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; the person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. Cider is popular in the United Kingdom and Ireland in the West Country, available; the UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing companies. Cider is popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, Canada and New Zealand. Aside from the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in other European countries including Portugal, northern Italy, Spain. Central Europe has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U. S. and parts of Canada, varieties of fermented cider are called hard cider to distinguish alcoholic cider from non-alcoholic "cider" or "sweet cider" made from apples. The juice of any variety of apple can be used to make cider; the addition of sugar or extra fruit before a second fermentation increases the ethanol content of the resulting beverage. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% to 8.5% ABV or more in traditional English ciders, 3.5% to 12% in continental ciders.
In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice, although CAMRA says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice. In the US, there is a 50% minimum. In France, cider must be made from apples. In 2014, a study found that a 1-US-pint bottle of mass-market cider contained five teaspoons of sugar, nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale. Perry is a similar product to cider made from fermented pear juice; the flavour of cider varies. Ciders can be classified from dry to sweet, their appearance ranges from cloudy with sediment to clear, their colour ranges from colourless to amber to brown. The variations in clarity and colour are due to filtering between pressing and fermentation; some apple varieties will produce a clear cider without any need for filtration. Both sparkling and still ciders are made. Modern, mass-produced ciders resemble sparkling wine in appearance. More traditional brands tend to be cloudier.
They are stronger than the mass-produced varieties and taste more of apples. Colourless, white cider has the same apple juice content as conventional cider but is harder to create because the cider maker has to blend various apples to create a clearer liquid. White ciders tend to be more refreshing, they are 7–8 % ABV in strength. Black cider, by contrast, is dry amber premium cider which has an alcohol content of 7–8 % ABV; the descriptor black comes after the brand name such as Union Black and Barnstormer Black. Cider is an ancient beverage. No-one knows when or where it was first made, because the native distribution of its principal component, the apple, is so widespread, from the Near East to Northwestern Europe. In the cider market, ciders can be broken down into two main styles and specialty; the first group consists of modern ciders and heritage ciders. Modern ciders are produced from culinary apples such as Gala. Heritage ciders are produced like Golden Russet. Cider was made from the only resources available to make it, so style wasn't a large factor when considering the production process.
Apples were confined to the cooler climates of Western Europe and Britain where civilization was slow to develop record keeping. Cider was first made from crab apples, ancestors of the bittersweet and bittersharp apples used by today's English cider makers. English cider contained a drier, higher alcohol content version, using open fermentation vats and bittersweet crab apples; the French developed a sweet, low alcohol "cidre" taking advantage of the sweeter apples and the keeving process. These are the roots of the standard styles. Cider styles evolved based on the methods used, the apples local tastes. Production techniques developed, as with most technology, by error. In fact, the variables were nearly too widespread to track, including: spontaneous fermentation, the type of vessels used, environmental conditions, the apple varieties. Refinements came much when cider became a commercial product and the process was better understood. However, since there is growing popularity in ciders, the production of specialty styles has begun to increase.
Modern ciders are made from culinary apples and are lower in tannins and higher in acidity than other cider styles. Common culinary apples used in modern ciders include McIntosh, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Fuji. A sweet or low alcohol cider may tend to have a strong aromatic and flavor character of apple, while drier and higher alcohol ciders will tend to produce a wider range of fruity aromas and flavors. Modern ciders can range from brilliant to a hazy clarity. Clarity can be altered through various cider making practices, depending on the cider maker's intentions. Heritage ciders are made from both culinary and cider apples, including bittersweet, heirlooms, wild apples, crabapples. Common apples used in heritage cider production include Dabinett, Kingston Black, Roxbury Russet, Wickson. Heritage ciders are higher in tannins than modern ciders, they range in colour from yellow to amber ranging from brilliant to hazy. Clarity of heritage ciders depends on the cider making pract
A drinking establishment is a business whose primary function is the serving of alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises. Some establishments may serve food, or have entertainment, but their main purpose is to serve alcoholic beverages. There are different types of drinking establishment ranging from seedy bars or nightclubs, sometimes termed "dive bars", to 5,000 seat beer halls and elegant places of entertainment for the elite. A public house, informally known as a "pub", is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises in countries and regions of British influence. Although the terms are used to refer to the same thing, there is a difference between pubs, inns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially. A tavern or pot-house is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than also be served food, though not licensed to put up guests; the word derives from the Greek ταβέρνα/taverna. A brewpub is a restaurant that brews beer on the premises.
A beer hall is a large pub. An Izakaya is a type of Japanese drinking establishment which serves food to accompany the drinks. A speakeasy is an establishment. Types of bars range from seedy bars or nightclubs, sometimes termed "dive bars", to elegant places of entertainment for the elite. Many bars have a happy hour to encourage off-peak patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge during their peak hours; such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band or a popular disc jockey. Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons; some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go dancers, or strippers. The term "bar" is derived from the specialized counter; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. A public house, informally known as a "pub", is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises in countries and regions of British influence.
Although the terms are used to refer to the same thing, there is a definite difference between pubs, inns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially. A pub that offers lodging may be called an hotel in the United Kingdom. Today, many pubs in the UK, Canada and Australia with the word "inn" or "hotel" in their names no longer offer accommodation, in some cases have never done so; some pubs bear the name of "hotel" because they are in countries where stringent anti-drinking laws were once in force. In Scotland until 1976, only hotels could serve alcohol on Sundays. In Wales, an 1881 Act applied the same law until 1961 when local polls could lift such a ban in a district and in 1996 the last ban was lifted in Dwyfor; the need for such polls was removed by the Welsh Assembly in 2003. There are 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. In many places in villages, a pub can be the focal point of the community, so there is concern that more pubs are closing down than new ones opening; the history of pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse, to the development of the modern prevailing tied house system.
A tavern or pot-house is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than also be served food, though not licensed to put up guests. The word derives from the Latin taberna and the Greek ταβέρνα/taverna, whose original meaning was a shed or workshop; the distinction of a tavern from an inn, bar or pub varies by location, in some places being identical and in others being distinguished by traditions or by legal license. In Renaissance England, a tavern was distinguished from a public ale house by dint of being run as a private enterprise, where drinkers were "guests" rather than members of the public. A brewpub is a restaurant that brews beer on the premises; some brewpubs, such as those in Germany, have been brewing traditionally on the premises for hundreds of years. Others, such as the Les 3 Brasseurs chain in France and Canada, the various chains in North America, are modern restaurants. A beer hall is a large pub. Bavaria's capital Munich is the city most associated with beer halls.
The largest beer hall was the 5,000-seat Mathäser near the München Hauptbahnhof which has since been converted into a film theatre. An izakaya is a type of Japanese drinking establishment which serves food to accompany the drinks; the food is more substantial than that offered in other types of drinking establishments in Japan such as bars or snack bars. A beer garden' is an outdoor area in which beer, other drinks, local food are served. Beer gardens are most common there, they are attached to a beer hall, pub, or restaurant. The term "beer garden" has become a generic term for open-air establishments. Many countries have such establishments; the characteristics of a traditional beer garden include trees, wooden benches, a gravel bed, freshly prepared meals. Some modern beer gardens use plastic chairs, fast food, other variations of the traditional beer garden; the largest traditional beer garden in the world is the Hirschgarten in
Samos is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre -wide Mycale Strait. It is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos was an rich and powerful city-state known for its vineyards and wine production, it is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, is still produced on the island; the island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.
Strabo derived the name from the Phoenician word sama meaning "high". The area of the island is 477.395 km2, it is 43 km long and 13 km wide. It is separated from Anatolia by the 1-mile-wide Mycale Strait. While mountainous, Samos has several large and fertile plains. A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards; the most important plains except the capital, Vathy, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, the 9th most populous of the Greek islands; the Samian climate is Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, warm rainless summers. Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains and Kerkis; the Ampelos massif is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres. Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres; the mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.
According to Strabo, the name Samos is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore". Samos is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal, stone marten, wild boar and monk seal. Samos is one of the sunniest places in Europe with 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time, its climate is wet in winter and dry in summer. In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery, its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera—the Heraion. Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis: Samos became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece; this early prosperity of the Samians seems due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians developed an extensive oversea commerce.
They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet; the Samians are credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar. The feud between Miletus and Samos broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War, with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme; the result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos reached the height of its prosperity, its navy not only ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.
In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance. Eupalinos' tunnel is notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner. With a length of over 1 km, Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering; the aqueduct is now part of the Pythagoreion. After Polycrates' death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered and depopulated the island, it had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia.