click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is abbreviated Me; such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical; the anion has the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are reactive and observed; the methylium cation is otherwise not encountered. Some compounds are considered to be sources of the CH3+ cation, this simplification is used pervasively in organic chemistry. For example, protonation of methanol gives an electrophilic methylating reagent that reacts by the SN2 pathway: CH3OH + H+ → CH3OH2+Similarly, methyl iodide and methyl triflate are viewed as the equivalent of the methyl cation because they undergo SN2 reactions by weak nucleophiles; the methanide anion exists only under exotic conditions. It can be produced by electrical discharge in ketene at low pressure and its enthalpy of reaction is determined to be about 252.2±3.3 kJ/mol.

In discussions mechanisms of organic reactions, methyl lithium and related Grignard reagents are considered to be salts of "CH3−". Such reagents are prepared from the methyl halides: 2 M + CH3X → MCH3 + MXwhere M is an alkali metal; the methyl radical has the formula CH3. It exists in dilute gases, but in more concentrated form it dimerizes to ethane, it can be produced by thermal decomposition of only certain compounds those with an -N=N- linkage. The reactivity of a methyl group depends on the adjacent substituents. Methyl groups can be quite unreactive. For example, in organic compounds, the methyl group resists attack by the strongest acids; the oxidation of a methyl group occurs in nature and industry. The oxidation products derived from methyl are CH2OH, CHO, CO2H. For example, permanganate converts a methyl group to a carboxyl group, e.g. the conversion of toluene to benzoic acid. Oxidation of methyl groups gives protons and carbon dioxide, as seen in combustion. Demethylation is a common process, reagents that undergo this reaction are called methylating agents.

Common methylating agents are dimethyl sulfate, methyl iodide, methyl triflate. Methanogenesis, the source of natural gas, arises via a demethylation reaction. Certain methyl groups can be deprotonated. For example, the acidity of the methyl groups in acetone is about 1020 more acidic than methane; the resulting carbanions are key intermediates in many reactions in organic synthesis and biosynthesis. Fatty acids are produced in this way; when placed in benzylic or allylic positions, the strength of the C-H bond is decreased, the reactivity of the methyl group increases. One manifestation of this enhanced reactivity is the photochemical chlorination of the methyl group in toluene to give benzyl chloride. In the special case where one hydrogen is replaced by deuterium and another hydrogen by tritium, the methyl substituent becomes chiral. Methods exist to produce optically pure methyl compounds, e.g. chiral acetic acid. Through the use of chiral methyl groups, the stereochemical course of several biochemical transformations have been analyzed.

A methyl group may rotate around the R—C-axis. This is a free rotation only in the simplest cases like gaseous CClH3. In most molecules, the remainder R breaks the C ∞ symmetry of the R—C-axis and creates a potential V that restricts the free motion of the three protons. For the model case of C2H6 this is discussed under the name ethane barrier. In condensed phases, neighbour molecules contribute to the potential. Methyl group rotation can be experimentally studied using quasielastic neutron scattering. French chemists Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Eugene Peligot, after determining methanol's chemical structure, introduced "methylene" from the Greek methy "wine" and hȳlē "wood, patch of trees" with the intention of highlighting its origins, "alcohol made from wood"; the term "methyl" was derived in about 1840 by back-formation from "methylene", was applied to describe "methyl alcohol". Methyl is the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry term for an alkane molecule, using the prefix "meth-" to indicate the presence of a single carbon

Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland

Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland abbreviated as Kollumerland c.a. is a municipality in the Northern Netherlands, located in the province of Friesland. In 2019 it merged with the municipalities of Dongeradeel and Ferwerderadiel to form the new municipality Noardeast-Fryslân. Augsbuurt, Kollum, Kollumerzwaag, Oudwoude, Veenklooster, Warfstermolen and Zwagerbosch. Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland has a population of 12,775. Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland, June 2015; the Burum community houses the satellite ground station of the Nationale SIGINT Organisatie. Media related to Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Cumbrian Newspapers Group Ltd v Cumberland & Westmoreland Herald Ltd

Cumbrian Newspapers Group Ltd v Cumberland & Westmorland Herald Newspaper & Printing Co Ltd BCLC 286 is a UK company law case concerning variation of the class rights attached to shares. CNG published the Penrith Observer with a 5500 weekly circulation; the chairman Sir John Burgess had 10.67% of the shares in CWHNP since 1968. Under the constitution CNG had negotiated special rights which it had bargained for in return for closing down a competing paper, the Cumberland Herald, when it had joined, for acting as CWHNP’s advertising agent, it had the right to preferences on unissued shares to not be subject to have a transfer of shares to it refused by the directors pre emption rights and the right to appoint a director if shareholding remained above 10%. The CWHNP directors wanted to cancel CNG’s special rights. CNG argued. Scott J held that the CNG's rights as a shareholder could not be varied without its consent because they were class rights when they were conferred ‘special rights on one or more of its members in the capacity of member or shareholder’.

He set out three main categories of "special rights" that might exist: rights annexed to shares rights for particular people under the constitution, rights unattached to particular shares but conferring a benefit on a group of members. They could not fall into the first category of rights ‘annexed to’ particular shares, because CNG’s special rights came from the constitution. A second classification of right might be like that in Eley v Positive Government Security Life Assurance Co Ltd but they were not like that either. A third category involves rights or benefits that, although not attached to any particular shares, were nonetheless conferred on the beneficiary in the capacity of member or shareholder of the company.’ These are in this category. It is like the rights in Bushell v Faith. Enforcement of such rights depends on the possession of some shares, except article 12 which would appear to require 10% for enforcement, but what did the legislature mean with the phrase ‘rights attached to a class of shares’?

‘It would, in my opinion, be surprising and unsatisfactory if class rights contained in articles were to be at the mercy of a special resolution majority at a general meeting, unless they were rights attached to particular shares.’ So, he said that the phrase ‘was intended by the legislature to cater for the variation or abrogation of any special rights given by the memorandum or articles of a company to any class of members, to say, not only rights falling into the first category I have described, but rights falling into the third category.’ The court held that this applied not just to rights, but to obligations. So in Rayfield v Hands Ch 1 the obligation of shareholders who were directors to purchase the shares of non-director shareholders on request was enforceable on the same basis as a class right of the director-shareholders. UK company law

Rock Juice

Rock Juice is the eighth studio album by the Flamin' Groovies, released in September 1993 and produced by Cyril Jordan, who provided the cover art, Karl Derfler. The album was completed by Jordan and Groovies' bassist George Alexander after the group's breakup in 1991, they are the only musicians credited in the liner notes. Alexander said that the originals had been recorded with prior members Jack Johnson, Paul Zahl, Bobby Ronco prior to the breakup, but that all of their vocals were edited out of the final mix. Versions of eight of these songs appear on the compilation album Step Up, released by the Groovies' then-label, AIM Records, after their 1991 breakup. Rock Juice was the last new recording recorded and released by the original incarnation of the Flamin' Groovies, although the group's incomplete and cancelled fourth album was issued in 1995. However, after the band reformed in 2013, a ninth studio album was released in 2017. All tracks written by Cyril Jordan except where noted "Way Over My Head" "Sealed with a Kiss" "Hold on Me" "Somebody's Fool" "Stay Away" "I'm Only What You Want Me to Be" "Shakin'" "Give It Away "Thanks John" "This Could Be the Night" "Ainsley's Song "Little Girl" "When She's in Town" "Flyin' Saucers Rock & Roll" Cyril Jordan - guitar, vocals George Alexander - bass, vocals Others

Greatest Hits Live (Carly Simon album)

Greatest Hits Live is singer-songwriter Carly Simon's 15th album, second greatest-hits album and first live album, released in 1988. It is Simon's only live album to date. All the songs are live versions recorded on 35MM film from a 1987 HBO special shot on Martha's Vineyard called Carly Simon: Live from Martha's Vineyard, released in 1987 on VHS and in 2004 and 2010 on DVD; the album version runs in a different track order than the video version, three tracks from the video version are removed- "Give Me All Night", "You Have To Hurt", "The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of". The song "The Right Thing to Do", is included on the album, but didn't make it into the final televised cut of the concert, it would be included on both DVD releases as a bonus performance. Greatest Hits Live has been released on Vinyl, Cassette tape, Compact disc; the album sold well upon release, going Gold immediately. In 1996, the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA, for sales of over 1,000,000 copies in the United States alone.

All tracks composed by Carly Simon. B. Mattioti - remote recording Album - Billboard Album - International Carly Simon's Official Website

Google Book Search Settlement Agreement

The Google Book Search Settlement Agreement was a proposal between the Authors Guild, the Association of American Publishers, Google in the settlement of Authors Guild et al. v. Google, a class action lawsuit alleging copyright infringement on the part of Google; the settlement was proposed in 2008, but rejected by the court in 2011. In November 2013, the presiding U. S. Circuit Judge dismissed Authors al. v. Google. On April 18, 2016, the Supreme Court turned down an appeal. In 2002, Google began digitizing library books. In 2004, the company launched Google Books; the project allowed users to view snippets of copyrighted books, download and view full copies of public domain books. On September 20, 2005, the Authors Guild filed a class action lawsuit in the Southern District of New York against Google; the Authors Guild argued that Google's Library Project involved "massive copyright infringement" because it created digital copies of copyrighted works. In response, Google temporarily stopped digitizing copyrighted works to allow for changes to its Print Publisher Program and to allow copyright owners to submit lists of books they wished to be excluded from the project.

On October 19, 2005, the Association of American Publishers filed another lawsuit against Google for copyright infringement, seeking an injunction on the book project. Google responded that the endeavor constituted fair use, as they were only showing "snippets" of the books that they did not have explicit permission to display from the work's copyright holder. In Spring 2006 the parties began negotiations to settle the lawsuit. On November 14, 2013, Authors Guild Inc. et al. v. Google Inc. was dismissed by U. S. Circuit Judge Denny Chin; this decision was a victory for Google, granting them the right to expand their digital library. There were several proposed settlement agreements to Authors Guild Inc. et al. v. Google Inc. but none were accepted by all of the parties involved. On October 28, 2008, Google announced an agreement to pay $125 million to settle the lawsuit; the settlement agreement included licensing provisions, allowing Google to sell personal and institutional subscriptions to its database of books.

On November 9, 2009, the parties filed an amended settlement agreement after a Department of Justice brief suggested that the initial agreement may violate United States antitrust law. On February 18, 2010, the court held a hearing to decide. On March 22, 2011, supervising judge Denny Chin issued a ruling rejecting the settlement. Chin urged that the settlement be revised from one whether authors opt into having their works digitized rather than opt out, planned a "status conference", at which to discuss next steps, for April 25. A series of status conferences were held throughout 2011, but an amended "opt-in" settlement was never reached; the case was scheduled to go to court by July 2012, after Judge Chin certified the class represented by the Authors Guild, meaning that the guild could represent the other plaintiffs in the class action lawsuit. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals overturned that class certification in 2013. In October 2008, the parties involved in the lawsuit proposed a settlement agreement, which called for Google to pay out $125 million: $45 million to the rightsholders whose copyrights had been infringed.

In exchange, the agreement released Google and its library partners from liability for its book digitization. The agreement was built upon an intricate joint venture arrangement for the management of Google's book project, including a variety of revenue models. Google would generate revenue from its books project through an institutional subscription for libraries, a consumer subscription for indefinite access to individual books, referral links to retail booksellers, advertising on book pages. In November 2009, the parties amended the settlement agreement; the amended agreement included the following significant changes: Foreign works The amended agreement limited the use of foreign books to those that are registered with the U. S. Copyright Office or published in the United Kingdom, Canada, or Australia, it added representatives from the UK, Australia to the board of the Books Rights Registry. Revenue model Under the amended agreement, rightsholders had the ability to renegotiate their revenue share, Google would add flexibility in discounting.

Unclaimed works. If the rightsholder was never ascertained, the funds would have been distributed cy-près instead of distributed among other rightsholders. Public access license The amended agreement expanded the number of public licenses allowed for a library. In February 2009, a Google Book Search Settlement website was created where rightsholders could claim their books for the purposes of the settlement. Rightsholders whose books had digitized by Google and who claimed their books receives a one-time payment of $60 per book, or $5 to $15 for partial works, called "inserts", plus 63% of all revenues associated with their works, including subscription and advertisements. After claiming a book, a rightsholder had the ability to alter the default display settings; the court held a hearing to decide whether the proposed settlement was fair on February 18, 2010. On March 22, 2011, the supervising judge, Denny Chin, issued a ruling rejecting the settlement. Chin discussed seven objec