click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Methyl radical

Methyl is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH•3. It is a metastable colourless gas, produced in situ as a precursor to other hydrocarbons in the petroleum cracking industry, it can act as either a strong oxidant or a strong reductant, is quite corrosive to metals. Its first ionization potential is 9.837±0.005 eV. The carbon centre in methyl can bond with electron-donating molecules by reacting: CH•3 + R• → RCH3Because of the capture of the nucleophile, methyl has oxidising character. Methyl is a strong oxidant with organic chemicals. However, it is a strong reductant with chemicals such as water, it does not form aqueous solutions, as it reduces water to produce methanol and elemental hydrogen: 2 CH•3 + 2 H2O → 2 CH3OH + H2 The molecular geometry of the methyl radical is trigonal planar, although the energy cost of distortion to a pyramidal geometry is small. All other electron-neutral, non-conjugated alkyl radicals are pyramidalized to some extent, though with small inversion barriers.

For instance, t-butyl radical has a bond angle of 118° with a 0.7 kcal/mol barrier to pyramidal inversion. On the other hand, substitution of hydrogen atoms by more electronegative substituents leads to radicals with a pyramidal geometry, such as the trifluoromethyl radical, CF3, with a much more substantial inversion barrier of around 25 kcal/mol. Methyl undergoes the typical chemical reactions of a radical. Below 1,100 °C, it dimerises to form ethane. Upon treatment with an alcohol, it converts to either an alkoxy or hydroxyalkyl. Reduction of methyl gives methane; when heated above, at most, 1,400 °C, methyl decomposes to produce methylidyne and elemental hydrogen, or to produce methylene and atomic hydrogen: CH•3 → CH• + H2 CH•3 → CH•2 + H•Methyl is corrosive to metals, forming methylated metal compounds: M + n CH•3 → Mn Some radical SAM enzymes generate methyl radicals by reduction of S-adenosylmethionine. It can be produced by the ultraviolet photodissociation of acetone vapour at 193 nm: C3H6O → CO + 2 CH•3 It is produced by the ultraviolet dissociation of halomethanes: CH3X → X• + CH•3 It can be produced by the reaction of methane with the hydroxyl radical: OH• + CH4 → CH•3 + H2OThis process begins the major removal mechanism of methane from the atmosphere.

The reaction occurs in the stratosphere. In addition to being the largest known sink for atmospheric methane, this reaction is one of the most important sources of water vapor in the upper atmosphere; this reaction in the troposphere gives a methane lifetime of 9.6 years. Two more minor sinks are soil sinks and stratospheric loss by reaction with •OH, •Cl and •O1D in the stratosphere, giving a net lifetime of 8.4 years. Methyl radicals can be obtained by pyrolysis of azomethane, CH3N=NCH3, in a low-pressure system. Methyl was discovered in interstellar medium in 2000 by a team led by Helmut Feuchtgruber who detected it using the Infrared Space Observatory, it was first detected in molecular clouds toward the centre of the Milky Way

Machine de Marly

The Machine de Marly known as the Marly Machine or the Machine of Marly, was a large hydraulic system in Yvelines, built in 1684 to pump water from the river Seine and deliver it to the Palace of Versailles. King Louis XIV needed a large water supply for his fountains at Versailles. Before the Marly Machine was built, the amount of water delivered to Versailles exceeded that used by the city of Paris, but this was insufficient, fountain-rationing was necessary. Most of the water pumped by the Marly Machine ended up being used to develop a new garden at the Château de Marly; however if all the water pumped at Marly had been supplied to Versailles, it still would not have been enough: the fountains running à l'ordinaire required at least four times as much. The Machine de Marly, based on a prototype at Modave Castle, consisted of fourteen gigantic water wheels, each 11.5 meters or 38 feet in diameter, that powered more than 250 pumps to bring water 162 metres up a hillside from the Seine River to the Louveciennes Aqueduct.

Louis XIV had countless inventions that were supposed to bring water to his fountains. The Machine de Marly was by far his most costly plan. After three years of construction and a cost of 5,500,000 livres, the massive contraption, considered the most complex of the 17th century, was completed. "The chief engineer for the project was Arnold de Ville and the'contractor' was Rennequin Sualem." Both men had experience in pumping water from coal mines in the region of Liège. The machine suffered from frequent breakdowns, required a permanent staff of sixty to maintain and required costly repairs — but functioned for 133 years. Destroyed in 1817, it was replaced by a "machine temporaire" during 10 years and a steam engine entered in service from 1827 to 1859. From 1859 to 1963, the pumping at Marly was assumed by another hydraulic machine conceived by the engineer Xavier Dufrayer. Dufrayer's machine was replaced by electromechanical pumps. From the beginning, the construction of the château and the park of Versailles water supply had posed a problem.

The site chosen by Louis XIV, a former hunting lodge of Louis XIII, was far removed from any river and high in elevation. The sovereign's will to have a park with more and more basins, water jets and fountains became a hallmark of his reign by the extension and improvement of a permanent water supply system with the construction of new pumps and reservoirs to collect more water, from a greater and greater distance; the idea to bring water from the Seine to Versailles had always been under consideration. But more than just the distance - the river is located nearly 10 km from the château - there was the problem of the elevation to ascend, nearly 150 meters. Since 1670, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV's Superintendent of the King's Buildings, had opposed several projects, including one proposed by Jacques de Manse, both for reasons of feasibility and that of cost, but Arnold de Ville, a young and ambitious bourgeois of Huy in the Province of Liège, who had built a pump in Saint-Maur, succeeded in submitting to the king his project for pumping the waters of the River Seine to the Château of Val in the forest of Saint-Germain, demonstrating that the same could be done to supply Versailles.

This machine, a sort of small scale model of what the Machine of Marly could be, impressed the king, who entrusted him with the development of a machine on the Seine to supply not only the gardens of Versailles, but those of the Chateau of Marly under construction. The Machine de Marly site is located 7 km north of the Château de Versailles and 16.3 km west of the center of Paris, on the Seine in the Yvelines department. The river pumps and administration buildings are located in. One reservoir is in the town of Marly-le-Roi. Between Port-Marly and Bezons, the Seine, along its length, was divided into two arms by a series of islands and earth berms linked together by timber/rock dikes to form two disconnected, parallel river beds over ten kilometers in length; the hydraulic pumping machinery, propelling the river water to the top of the hill that borders the Seine, was constructed across from the left arm of the river, a little below the small village of La Chaussée, downstream of Bougival.

A dam at Bezons on the right arm creates a hydraulic head measuring 3.1 meters high to power the wheels of the Machine de Marly. The upper pumping relay station was located next to the Château des Eaux and pumped water to the top of the Louveciennes aqueduct, which fed the Louveciennes and Marly reservoirs, near the site of the Château de Marly, it does not seem that one has completed a machine that has made as much noise in the world as that of Marly... To design and build this machine, Arnold de Ville, who did not have the technical skills, appealed to two men from Liège, the master carpenter and mechanic Rennequin Sualem and his brother Paulus, he had worked with them on a pump at the Château de Modave and Rennequin Sualem was the designer of the pump at the Château de Val. The entire project – channeling and dikes on the Seine, construction of the machine and the network of aqueducts and basins – would last for 6 years; the chosen site on the Seine would become the town of Bougival. About 7 kilometers upstream, Colbert channeled a portion

Olympus Inferno

Olympus Inferno is a 2008 film about the Ossetia war and the first feature film on this subject. It is in Russian, with some English and Georgian, although a lector reads over the English and Georgian lines in Russian; the film was released half a year after the conflict. The name of the film belongs to an invented species of butterfly, the "Olympus Inferno," which in the film is sought in South Ossetia by an American entomologist and a Russian journalist; the name "Olympus Inferno" was coined by director Igor Voloshin. The film begins with the director discussing it with the producer. Michael Orraya, an American entomologist, is requesting a visa to Georgia, so he can get to South Ossetia. At the same time, Zhenya, an old schoolmate of Michael's and a Russian journalist, is doing the same, they are told conflicting information. Michael is going to make a film about a rare type of moth, Zhenya is coming at the request of Michael's father; when they arrive, they are told by Akhsar, a resident, that the Georgians are leaving the village.

They are coming to the conclusion that something is going to happen in the village soon. However, the Ossetians are not preparing take measures after the airing of a televised speech of Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili; the events take place the evening of 7 August 2008. Late in the evening and Zhenya set up special cameras in a nature reserve in order to film the moth, the Olympus Inferno. During the night while goofing around in the reserve, the two are taken prisoner by Georgian forces. Thanks to the interference of an American military officer, the Georgians clarify that Michael is not a Russian, but an American, he is released, requests that Zhenya be let go, claiming that she is his fiancée. At that moment, the Georgian tanks head for the road to Tskhinvali. In response to Michael's question about what is going on, the American offer answers, "an operation for directing constitutional order." Zhenya screams, "This is war!" and she and Michael run away. Zhenya and Michael return to their recording equipment to find footage of the Olympus Inferno moth, as well as footage of the Georgian offensive in the same video.

The two take the disc and all of their equipment and hide it in a neighboring building, the remnants of a destroyed church. But it becomes clear that Zhenya has the disc of the Georgian offensive on South Ossetia, and a hunt is declared on Zhenya and Michael, who decide to make their way to Russian peacekeepers in Tskhinvali. Along the road to the town they come across its residents, who say that Tskhinvali is being bombed; the residents ask Zhenya and Michael whether they are Russian. Zhenya answers that they both are Russian; the residents give them something to eat and drink. Among the Ossetians is a guy named Gabo, eager to fight with Georgian forces. However, his mother will not let him go; when at the crossroads it becomes clear that their path leads to a different part of Tskhinvali, Gabo's mother releases him so he can escort the protagonists. Igor Voloshin - himself Leonid Petrov - himself Henry David — Michael Polina Filonenko — Zhenya Vadim Tsallati — Vakho, captain of Georgian counter-intelligence Adgur Maliya — Akhsar Elena Khramovaa — Akhsar's wife Artur Gurgenyan — Gabo Venera Skveriya — Gabo's mother Adgur Dzheniya — Viktor Andreyevich, colonel-peacekeeper Sergey Sanguliya — Georgian colonel Ruslan Shakaya — Georgian lieutenant Martin Cook — journalist Anatoliy Fokht — operator Denis Pertskheliya — journalists' driver Piter Elad — Captain Adams, American instructor in the Georgian army Nathan Stowell — news anchor Natalya Papaskiri — woman at the information bureau Aleksandr Mkrtchyan — Vakho's agent Sabina Akhmedova — Jessica In 2009, film was nominated for five TEFI, but won only two.

August Eighth 5 Days of War Olimpius Inferno on IMDb

Bell, Rhein-Hunsrück

Bell is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kastellaun; the municipality lies in the Hunsrück. The main centre – there are six Ortsteile – with its 479 inhabitants lies one kilometre from Kastellaun and the Hunsrückhöhenstraße on the edge of the hollow where the streams rise that form the Mörsdorfer Bach, which flows down to Castle Balduinseck where it empties into the Flaumbach, itself a tributary to the Moselle. Bell’s Ortsteile are the main centre called Bell, the outlying centres of Hundheim, Leideneck, Wohnroth and Völkenroth along with the Blümlingshof and the Rothenberger Hof. In 1220, Bell had its first documentary mention in the directory of yearly payments to the Archbishopric of Trier, the liber annalium. So, Bell is a much older settlement; the name itself is pre-Germanic, being a Celtic word for a settlement in the heights.

Grave finds near Bell the Wagon Grave of Bell from late Hallstatt times, show that the area was settled by Celts. A Roman estate east of the church discovered in the mid 19th century and certified as a “ground monument”, a Frankish manor just to its south in the cadastral area “In den Hupfeldern” give one some clue as to the village's importance in the time when the Franks were taking over the land. Bell was the main centre of a parish to which belonged Leideneck, Alterkülz and the castle and residence town of Kastellaun, now the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde. Neighbouring places with names ending in —heim and —bach date from the time of the Frankish takeover during the Migration Period, are therefore much younger than Bell. Places with names ending in —roth were established in the time of widespread woodland clearing in the Early Middle Ages. Bell lay near the Celtic Roman, “high road”. Only much in the High Middle Ages when it was under the lordship of the Counts of Sponheim, did Bell's name once again crop up in history: in 1305, Count Simon II granted Kastellaun, the little place at his castle, town rights, obtained from Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Archbishop-Elector of Trier Baldwin's brother, market rights as well, in 1308.

Bell bore its share of woe in the wars that swept across Europe through the ages. It was bad in the Nine Years' War with King Louis XIV's policy of Réunions. Beginning in 1794, Bell lay under French rule. In 1815 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. Late in the Second World War Bell was spared destruction when the Americans marched in on 13 March 1945 thanks to several local inhabitants and their clergyman, who courageously seized the initiative and hoisted a white flag on the churchtower. Since 1946, Bell has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Within the framework of the administrative reform in Rhineland-Palatinate begun in the mid 1960s, today's municipality was newly formed on 17 March 1974 out of what were until the six separate municipalities of Bell, Krastel, Leideneck, Völkenroth and Wohnroth. Wohnroth had its first documentary mention in the directory of yearly payments to the Archbishopric of Trier, the liber annalium in 1220.

The other outlying centres, were first mentioned 90 years in a taxation register kept by the County of Sponheim. With the introduction of the Reformation into the County in 1557, Kastellaun and Alterkülz, along with the municipalities that were dependent on them, became parochially autonomous. Leideneck split away in 1854 and thereafter shared a clergyman with Kappel, but since 1976, it has once more been parochially united with Bell; the last municipalities that left the parish of Bell were Spesenroth in 1926, which joined Kastellaun, Hasselbach in 1947, which nowadays belongs to the parish of Alterkülz. The church's age is not known for certain; the tower's Romanesque building style would mean that it comes from some time between the 11th and 13th centuries. The nave, however, is newer, it was newly built from the ground up in 1728. The old rectory was built to replace an older one in 1716. Worthy of note are the church's three bells; the oldest one, the kleine Maria dates from 1313, along with Sohren’s and Büchenbeuren’s bells is one of the oldest in the Hunsrück.

Its diameter is 79 cm, its height is 77 cm and it weighs 250 kg. The große Maria was poured in 1459 by bellfounder Thilmann from Hachenburg, its diameter is 126 cm, its height is 110 cm and it weighs 900 kg. In 1694, some of Louis XIV's soldiers stole this bell. A brave man from Bell named Braun ran after the soldiers and had earnest words with their general, who relented and let Mr. Braun have the bell back, it turned out that Braun was not Protestant. As thanks for Mr. Braun's good deed, the Protestant Presbytery at that time decided that whenever a member of Mr. Braun's family or one of his descendants was buried, the bells at Bell's Protestant church – including the one that he had recovered – would peal to accompany them to thei

Mythos (band)

Mythos was a German band formed in Berlin by vocalist and multi-instrumentalist Stephan Kaske, bassist Harold Weiße and drummer Thomas Hildebrand in 1969. All doing their A level at the same school, the self-taught musicians released their eponymous debut in 1971. Influenced by Pink Floyd, Ash Ra Tempel and Hawkwind the album draws on science fiction and ecological themes noticeable on the closing track "Encyclopedia Terrae"; the release saw the band support Family, Colosseum at a festival and Humble Pie at their show in Berlin 1971, however after three years the band split. Kaske recruited Axel Brauer on drums and Michael Krantz on bass; the band failed to record and split up. On his own Kaske signed, as Mythos, to Cosmic Chorus, recorded various TV and film soundtracks before recording DreamLab in 1975. In 1976 Kaske expanded the lineup to include Sven Dohrow on guitars, Eberhard Seidler on bass and Ronnie Schreinzer on drums; the band released two albums, Strange Guys and Concrete City. Kaske left the band in 1980 in order to concentrate on setting up his own recording studio in Berlin and pursue solo projects, released the two albums.

Dohrow and Schreinzer formed The Twins, changing to a synthpop style and scoring a number of minor hits. Stephan Kaske - Guitars, flute, vocals, vocoder Harald Weiße - Bass, acoustic guitar, effects Thomas Hildebrand - Drums, percussion 1972 – Mythos LP 1975 – Dreamlab LP 1978 – Strange Guys LP 1979 – Concrete City LP 1980 – Quasar LP 1981 – Grand Prix LP 1999 – Wintermezzo CD 2011 – Superkraut: Live at Stagge's Hotel 1976 CD 1994- sound of silence 1998- Le printemps mystique 2000- Emerald summer 2000- Feuillage 2002- The modern electronic kamasutra 2004- The dramatic stories edgar poe 2006- Mysteria 2008- Surround sound offensive 2012- Surround sound evolution 2015- Jules verne forever Mythos at discogs Mythos at allmusic

Shirō (kickboxer)

Shirō is a Japanese Karate fighter and kickboxer. Shiro entered a special schedule high school so that he could spend time training and fighting in Thailand during the year at the 96 Penang Gym, he alterns between fights in Thailand stadiums and fight in Japan an the NJKF organization where he made his Japanese pro debut. In 2012 he faced Rui Ebata for NJKF Bantamweight title, the fight ended in a draw. In 2016 he won the ISKA World Muay Thai tile against Daniel Mcgowan. In 2019 Shiro particaptes in the RISE World Series tournament, he earned the biggest win of his carrer during the semi-final when he defeated Rajadamnern Stadium champion Rungkit Wor. Sanprapai, he will face Tenshin Nasukawa in the final. 2019 RISE World Series -58kg Tournament Runner-up 2013 Rangsit Stadium International Bantamweight Champion 2016 ISKA World Muay Thai Bantamweight Champion List of male kickboxers