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Methylation

In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom by a methyl group. Methylation is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom; these terms are used in chemistry, soil science, the biological sciences. In biological systems, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes. In vitro methylation of tissue samples is one method for reducing certain histological staining artifacts; the counterpart of methylation is called demethylation. In biological systems, methylation is accomplished by enzymes. Methylation can modify regulate gene expression, RNA processing and protein function, it has been recognized as a key process underlying epigenetics. The Methylation cycle in medicine relates to the metabolism of various systems including DN and the production of glutathione. Faulty methylation cycle has been related to various abnormal conditions including Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Methanogenesis, the process that generates methane from CO2, involves a series of methylation reactions.

These reactions are effected by a set of enzymes harbored by a family of anaerobic microbes. In reverse methanogenesis, methane serves as the methylating agent. A wide variety of phenols undergo O-methylation to give anisole derivatives; this process, catalyzed by enzymes such as caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of lignols, percursors to lignin, a major structural component of plants. Plants produce isoflavones with methylations on hydroxyl groups, i.e. methoxy bonds. This 5-O-methylation affects the flavonoid´s water solubility. Examples are 5-O-methylgenistein, 5-O-methylmyricetin or 5-O-methylquercetin known as azaleatin. Together with ubiquitin and phosphorylation, methylation is a major biochemical process for modifying protein function; the most prevalent protein methylations produce specific histones from lysine. Otherwise histidine, asparagine, cysteine are susceptible to methylation; some of these products include S-methylcysteine, two isomers of N-methylhistidine, two isomers of N-methylarginine.

Methionine synthase regenerates methionine from homocysteine. The overall reaction transforms 5-methyltetrahydrofolate into tetrahydrofolate while transferring a methyl group to Hcy to form Met. Methionine Synthases can be cobalamin-dependent and cobalamin-independent: Plants have both, animals depend on the methylcobalamin-dependent form. In methylcobalamin-dependent forms of the enzyme, the reaction proceeds by two steps in a ping-pong reaction; the enzyme is primed into a reactive state by the transfer of a methyl group from N5-MeTHF to Co in enzyme-bound cobalamin, forming methyl-cobalamin that now contains Me-Co and activating the enzyme. A Hcy that has coordinated to an enzyme-bound zinc to form a reactive thiolate reacts with the Me-Cob; the activated methyl group is transferred from Me-Cob to the Hcy thiolate, which regenerates Co in Cob, Met is released from the enzyme. Biomethylation is the pathway for converting some heavy elements into more mobile or more lethal derivatives that can enter the food chain.

The biomethylation of arsenic compounds starts with the formation of methanearsonates. Thus, trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds are methylated to give methanearsonate. S-adenosylmethionine is the methyl donor; the methanearsonates are the precursors to dimethylarsonates, again by the cycle of reduction followed by a second methylation. Related pathways apply to the biosynthesis of methylmercury. DNA methylation in vertebrates occurs at CpG sites; this methylation results in the conversion of the cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. The formation of Me-CpG is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA methyltransferase. Human DNA has about 80–90% of CpG sites methylated, but there are certain areas, known as CpG islands, that are CG-rich, wherein none are methylated; these are associated with the promoters of 56% of mammalian genes, including all ubiquitously expressed genes. One to two percent of the human genome are CpG clusters, there is an inverse relationship between CpG methylation and transcriptional activity.

Methylation contributing to epigenetic inheritance can occur through either DNA methylation or protein methylation. Improper methylations of human genes can lead including cancer. RNA methylation occurs in different RNA species viz. tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, viral RNA. Different catalytic strategies are employed for RNA methylation by a variety of RNA-methyltransferases. RNA methylation is thought to have existed before DNA methylation in the early forms of life evolving on earth. N6-methyladenosine is the most common and abundant methylation modification in RNA molecules present in eukaryotes. 5-methylcytosine commonly occurs in various RNA molecules. Recent data suggest that m6A and 5-mC RNA methylation affects the regulation of various biological processes such as RNA stability and mRNA translation, that abnormal RNA methylation contributes to etiology of human diseases. Protein methylation takes place on arginine or lysine amino acid residues in the protein sequence. Arginine can be methylated once or twice, with either both methyl groups on one terminal

Nick Hegarty

Nicholas Ian Hegarty is an English retired footballer, the current manager of Australian NPL side Hume City FC. He has played for Grimsby Town, Whitby Town, Willenhall Town, York City, St Mirren and Mansfield Town. Born in Hemsworth, West Yorkshire, Hegarty started his career at Nottingham Forest, and Sheffield Wednesday as a junior before being released. He signed for Grimsby Town in 2001 on youth scholarship deal, he was part of the youth setup managed by former Grimsby and Middlesbrough forward Paul Wilkinson that featured the likes of Cameron Jerome. Hegarty progressed at youth level until towards the end of the 2003–2004 season when he was added to the first team squad soon after the sacking of manager Paul Groves. However, he would have to wait until over a year until he would make his first team debut, coming on as a late substitute for Andy Parkinson in a 4–1 away victory against Kidderminster Harriers on the final away game of the 2004–05 season. Hegarty continued to be a regular for the reserves in that season and scored a hat-trick in the home match against Lincoln City.

Despite a good pre-season for Russell Slade's Town side, he spent most of the 2005–06 season as a fringe player, was loaned out to Non-League clubs Whitby Town and Willenhall Town. Hegarty was to play a number of games in the 2006–07 season and became more involved in the first team under the tenure of Alan Buckley and his performances would see him awarded a new two-year deal in the summer of 2007. Despite featuring more in the first team Buckley placed Hegarty on the loan list and he went on to join York City on a month's loan in September 2007, however he was to suffer a muscle strain which limited him to making two appearances during this spell. In the 2008–2009 season, Hegarty went on to feature under Mike Newell and was Newell's preferred left winger, except for a two-month period when the club succeeded in loaning Stuart Elliott from Doncaster Rovers, his performances by the end of the 08–09 season had improved and his good form drew praise from several opposition managers which coincided with the Mariners' late surge to safety.

In 09–10 season under Neil Woods Hegarty struggled to break into the first team, suffered from several injuries. On 12 May 2010, Hegarty was one of seven players placed on the transfer list by Woods after their relegation from the Football League. On 18 August 2010 Hegarty joined St Mirren on trial, Hegarty signed for the club on 31 August 2010, penning a one-year contract. Hegarty's 3rd Scottish Premier League appearance was brief after leaving the field with a broken ankle. Following the conclusion of an injury hit season Hegarty was amongst ten players released. Upon his release Hegarty trained with Bradford City, before joining Mansfield Town on trial, he re-joined Mansfield on trial in late October 2011 with a view to once again earning a contract, signing the following day on a two-month deal. He made two league appearances for the club before being released in December 2011. Nick signed for Hume City for the 2012 season in Australia. In his first season with Hume, Hegarty won the Football Federation Victoria Gold Medal award, given to the best player of the Victorian Premier League.

From January 2014, Nick Hegarty was appointed captain of the club. In 2016, Hegarty became just the seventh player to win the Gold Medal a second time. Hegarty polled 38 votes to win by seven from Avondale FC's Massimo Murdocca on 31. Hegarty became the senior head coach of Hume City late in 2018 after hanging up the boots that same year. NPL Victoria Team of the Week Round 2 2017 Nick Hegarty at Soccerbase

ATP Tour

The ATP Tour is a worldwide top-tier tennis tour for men organized by the Association of Tennis Professionals. The second-tier tour is the ATP Challenger Tour and the third-tier is ITF Men's Circuit; the ATP Tour comprises ATP Masters 1000, ATP 500, ATP 250. The ATP oversees the ATP Challenger Tour, a level below the ATP Tour, the ATP Champions Tour for seniors. Grand Slam tournaments, a small portion of the Olympic tennis tournament, the Davis Cup, the introductory level Futures tournaments do not fall under the auspices of the ATP, but are overseen by the ITF instead and the International Olympic Committee for the Olympics. In these events, however, ATP ranking points are awarded, with the exception of the Olympics; the four-week ITF Satellite tournaments were discontinued in 2007. Players and doubles teams with the most ranking points play in the season-ending ATP Finals, from 2000–2008, was run jointly with the International Tennis Federation; the details of the professional tennis tour are: ATP publishes weekly rankings of professional players.

ATP Challenger Tour ITF Men's Circuit

Notary public (United States)

In the United States, a notary public is a person appointed by a state government, e.g. the governor, lieutenant governor, state secretary, or in some cases the state legislature, whose primary role is to serve the public as an impartial witness when important documents are signed. Since the notary is a state officer, a notary's duties may vary from state to state and in most cases, a notary is barred from acting outside his or her home state unless they have a commission there as well. In 32 states, the main requirements are to pay a fee. Notaries in 18 states and the District of Columbia are required to take a course, pass an exam, or both. A notary is always permitted to notarize a document anywhere in the state where their commission is issued; some states issue a commission "at large," meaning no indication is made as to what county the person's commission was issued from, but some states do require the notary to include the county of issue of their commission as part of the jurat, or, where seals are required, to indicate the county of issue of their commission on the seal.

If a state requires indicating the county where the commission was issued, it does not mean that the notary is restricted to notarizing documents in that county, although some states may impose this as a requirement. Some states allow a notary, commissioned in a state bordering that state to act as a notary in the state if the other state allows the same. Thus, someone, commissioned in Montana could notarize documents in Wyoming and North Dakota, a notary commissioned in Wyoming could notarize documents in Montana. However, a notary from Wyoming could not notarize documents from North Dakota unless they had a commission from North Dakota or a state bordering North Dakota that allowed North Dakota notaries to practice in that state. Notaries in the United States are much less regulated than notaries in most other common-law countries because U. S. notaries have little legal authority. In the United States, a lay notary may not offer legal advice or prepare documents - except in Louisiana and Puerto Rico - and in most cases cannot recommend how a person should sign a document or what type of notarization is necessary.

There are some exceptions. In most states, a notary can certify or attest a copy or facsimile; the most common notarial acts in the United States are the taking of oaths. Many professions may require a person to double as a notary public, why US court reporters are notaries, as this enables them to swear in witnesses when they are taking depositions. Despite their limited role, some American notaries may perform a number of far-ranging acts not found anywhere else. Depending on the jurisdiction, they may: take depositions, certify any and all petitions, witness third-party absentee ballots, provide no-impediment marriage licenses, solemnize civil marriages, witness the opening of a safe deposit box or safe and take an official inventory of its contents, take a renunciation of dower or inheritance, so on. "An acknowledgment is a formal declaration before an authorized public officer. It is made by a person executing an instrument who states that it was his free act and deed." That is, the person signed it without undue influence and for the purposes detailed in it.

A certificate of acknowledgment is a written statement signed by the notary or other authorized official that serves to prove that the acknowledgment occurred. The form of the certificate varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but will be similar to the following: Before me, the undersigned authority, on this ______ day of ___________, 20__ appeared _________________________, to me well known to be the person who executed the foregoing instrument, he/she acknowledged before me that he/she executed the same as his/her voluntary act and deed. A jurat is the official written statement by a notary public that he or she has administered and witnessed an oath or affirmation for an oath of office, or on an affidavit; the simplest form of jurat and the oath or affirmation administered by a notary are: Jurat: "Sworn to before me this _______ day of ____________, 20__." Oath: "Do you solemnly swear that the contents of this affidavit subscribed by you are correct and true?" Affirmation: "Do you solemnly and declare and affirm that the statements made by you are true and correct?"

In the U. S. notarial acts include what is called a venue or caption.

Treefight for Sunlight

Treefight for Sunlight is a four-piece indie pop band from North Jutland, Denmark. The group's current line-up consists of Mathias Sørensen, Morten Winther Nielsen, Christian Rohde Lindinger, Niels Kirk, they are produced by Tambourhinoceros in Denmark, Bella Union in the United Kingdom, Friendly Fire Recordings in the United States. They are known for their unique piano-driven melodies, their combination of folk and psychedelic influences, their use of upbeat, sometimes nonsensical lyrics, their self-titled debut album, Treefight for Sunlight, was released in the United Kingdom in February 2011, received mixed reviews. Whilst general critical opinion was against the album, concerns were raised that there wasn't enough power in it to ensure a successful career. Music blog DrownedinSound noted that while the album'suggest potential' it was not well enough formed to earn a place in the UK music scene. By contrast, Clashmusic said of the group that'the pace is infectious and small helpings will sweeten your day'.

The single "Facing the Sun" fared better, with The Recommender saying that the band captured the feel they were aiming for'remarkably well'. The Guardian called it'one of the most glorious things we've heard all year'; the group have been compared in style to the Fleet Foxes and MGMT. Music guide Allmusic said that Treefight for Sunlight "could've been plucked from the Elephant 6 Collective", their first album was not released until 8 November 2011 in the American market, was given its original Danish title, A Collection of Vibrations for Your Skull. In January 2012, their single "Facing the Sun" made an appearance on the programme Revenge, which airs on the American television network ABC. October 2010 "A Collection of Vibrations for Your Skull" February 2011 "Treefight for Sunlight" November 2011 "A Collection of Vibrations for Your Skull" April 2014 "Pizza" May 2010 "Facing The Sun" September 2010 "What Became Of You And I?" December 2010 "What Became Of You And I?" Treefight for Sunlight - Myspace Treefight for Sunlight Allmusic - Treefight for Sunlight

List of Christian religious houses in Schleswig-Holstein

This is a list of Christian religious houses in Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, including Hamburg and Lübeck and non-extant, including houses of both men and women. All religious houses were suppressed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, with the exception of four former nunneries, which became Protestant collegiate foundations for noblewomen, still survive today. List of Christian religious houses in Brandenburg List of Christian religious houses in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern List of Christian religious houses in North Rhine-Westphalia List of Christian religious houses in Saxony List of Christian religious houses in Saxony-Anhalt List of Christian religious houses in Denmark Klöster in Schleswig-Holstein Klöster, Stifte und Konvente in Schleswig-Holstein und Hamvurg