The density, or more the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most used for density is ρ, although the Latin letter D can be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, V is the volume. In some cases, density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume, although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials have different densities, density may be relevant to buoyancy and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical compounds may be denser. To simplify comparisons of density across different systems of units, it is sometimes replaced by the dimensionless quantity "relative density" or "specific gravity", i.e. the ratio of the density of the material to that of a standard material water.
Thus a relative density less than one means. The density of a material varies with pressure; this variation is small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density. Increasing the temperature of a substance decreases its density by increasing its volume. In most materials, heating the bottom of a fluid results in convection of the heat from the bottom to the top, due to the decrease in the density of the heated fluid; this causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material. The reciprocal of the density of a substance is called its specific volume, a term sometimes used in thermodynamics. Density is an intensive property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density. In a well-known but apocryphal tale, Archimedes was given the task of determining whether King Hiero's goldsmith was embezzling gold during the manufacture of a golden wreath dedicated to the gods and replacing it with another, cheaper alloy.
Archimedes knew that the irregularly shaped wreath could be crushed into a cube whose volume could be calculated and compared with the mass. Baffled, Archimedes is said to have taken an immersion bath and observed from the rise of the water upon entering that he could calculate the volume of the gold wreath through the displacement of the water. Upon this discovery, he leapt from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka! Eureka!". As a result, the term "eureka" entered common parlance and is used today to indicate a moment of enlightenment; the story first appeared in written form in Vitruvius' books of architecture, two centuries after it took place. Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, saying among other things that the method would have required precise measurements that would have been difficult to make at the time. From the equation for density, mass density has units of mass divided by volume; as there are many units of mass and volume covering many different magnitudes there are a large number of units for mass density in use.
The SI unit of kilogram per cubic metre and the cgs unit of gram per cubic centimetre are the most used units for density. One g/cm3 is equal to one thousand kg/m3. One cubic centimetre is equal to one millilitre. In industry, other larger or smaller units of mass and or volume are more practical and US customary units may be used. See below for a list of some of the most common units of density. A number of techniques as well as standards exist for the measurement of density of materials; such techniques include the use of a hydrometer, Hydrostatic balance, immersed body method, air comparison pycnometer, oscillating densitometer, as well as pour and tap. However, each individual method or technique measures different types of density, therefore it is necessary to have an understanding of the type of density being measured as well as the type of material in question; the density at all points of a homogeneous object equals its total mass divided by its total volume. The mass is measured with a scale or balance.
To determine the density of a liquid or a gas, a hydrometer, a dasymeter or a Coriolis flow meter may be used, respectively. Hydrostatic weighing uses the displacement of water due to a submerged object to determine the density of the object. If the body is not homogeneous its density varies between different regions of the object. In that case the density around any given location is determined by calculating the density of a small volume around that location. In the limit of an infinitesimal volume the density of an inhomogeneous object at a point becomes: ρ = d m / d V, where d V is an elementary volume at position r; the mass of the body t
Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. A few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory; the study of bacteria is known as a branch of microbiology. There are 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are 5×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Data reported by researchers in October 2012 and published in March 2013 suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, with a depth of up to 11 kilometres, is the deepest known part of the oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 580 metres below the sea floor under 2.6 kilometres of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. According to one of the researchers, "You can find microbes everywhere—they're adaptable to conditions, survive wherever they are."The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. There are 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body.
This means that although they do have the upper hand in actual numbers, it is only by 30%, not 900%. The largest number exist in the gut flora, a large number on the skin; the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, anthrax and bubonic plague; the most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor; these evolutionary domains are called Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον, the diminutive of βακτηρία, meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped; the ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.
However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago. Bacteria were involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves related to the Archaea; this involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya. Some eukaryotes that contained mitochondria engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants; this is known as primary endosymbiosis. Bacteria display a wide diversity of sizes, called morphologies.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.
In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.
These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.
A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.
All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.
Yeasts are eukaryotic single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, 1,500 species are identified, they are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary depending on species and environment measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi. By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
It is a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, is one of the most researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and human biology. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans. Yeasts have been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a single phylogenetic grouping; the term "yeast" is taken as a synonym for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in two separate phyla: the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts are classified within the phylum Ascomycota; the word "yeast" comes from Old English gist and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning "boil", "foam", or "bubble". Yeast microbes are one of the earliest domesticated organisms. Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries.
In 1680, Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, but rather globular structures as researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi. Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi in 1837. In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, but fermentation was inhibited – an observation called the "Pasteur effect". In the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique," Pasteur proved that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst. By the late 18th century two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis. S. cerevisiae has been sold commercially by the Dutch for bread-making since 1780. In 1825, a method was developed to remove the liquid; the industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the filter press in 1867.
In 1872, Baron Max de Springer developed a manufacturing process to create granulated yeast, a technique, used until the first World War. In the United States occurring airborne yeasts were used exclusively until commercial yeast was marketed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 in Philadelphia, where Charles L. Fleischmann exhibited the product and a process to use it, as well as serving the resultant baked bread; the mechanical refrigerator liberated brewers and winemakers from seasonal constraints for the first time and allowed them to exit cellars and other earthen environments. For John Molson, who made his livelihood in Montreal prior to the development of the fridge, the brewing season lasted from September through to May; the same seasonal restrictions governed the distiller's art. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy and do not require sunlight to grow. Carbon is obtained from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose.
Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose and organic acids. Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but have aerobic methods of energy production. Unlike bacteria, no known yeast species grow only anaerobically. Most yeasts grow best in a neutral or acidic pH environment. Yeasts vary in regard to the temperature range. For example, Leucosporidium frigidum grows at −2 to 20 °C, Saccharomyces telluris at 5 to 35 °C, Candida slooffi at 28 to 45 °C; the cells can survive freezing with viability decreasing over time. In general, yeasts are grown in liquid broths. Common media used for the cultivation of yeasts include potato dextrose agar or potato dextrose broth, Wallerstein Laboratories nutrient agar, yeast peptone dextrose agar, yeast mould agar or broth. Home brewers who cultivate yeast use dried malt extract and agar as a solid grow
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, traditionally used to classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope; this is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test. Gram-negative bacteria cannot retain the violet stain after the decolorization step, their peptidoglycan layer is much thinner and sandwiched between an inner cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane, causing them to take up the counterstain and appear red or pink. Despite their thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram-positive bacteria are more receptive to certain cell wall targeting antibiotics than gram-negative bacteria, due to the absence of the outer membrane. In general, the following characteristics are present in gram-positive bacteria: Cytoplasmic lipid membrane Thick peptidoglycan layer Teichoic acids and lipoids are present, forming lipoteichoic acids, which serve as chelating agents, for certain types of adherence.
Peptidoglycan chains are cross-linked to form rigid cell walls by a bacterial enzyme DD-transpeptidase. A much smaller volume of periplasm than that in gram-negative bacteria. Only some species have a capsule consisting of polysaccharides. Only some species are flagellates, when they do have flagella, have only two basal body rings to support them, whereas gram-negative have four. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have a surface layer called an S-layer. In gram-positive bacteria, the S-layer is attached to the peptidoglycan layer. Gram-negative bacteria's S-layer is attached directly to the outer membrane. Specific to gram-positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids in the cell wall; some of these are lipoteichoic acids, which have a lipid component in the cell membrane that can assist in anchoring the peptidoglycan. Along with cell shape, Gram staining is a rapid method used to differentiate bacterial species; such staining, together with growth requirement and antibiotic susceptibility testing, other macroscopic and physiologic tests, forms the full basis for classification and subdivision of the bacteria.
The kingdom Monera was divided into four divisions based on Gram staining: Firmicutes, Gracilicutes and Mendocutes. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA phylogenetic studies of the late microbiologist Carl Woese and collaborators and colleagues at the University of Illinois, the monophyly of the gram-positive bacteria was challenged, with major implications for the therapeutic and general study of these organisms. Based on molecular studies of the 16S sequences, Woese recognised twelve bacterial phyla. Two of these were both gram-positive and were divided on the proportion of the guanine and cytosine content in their DNA; the high G + C phylum was made up of the Actinobacteria and the low G + C phylum contained the Firmicutes. The Actinobacteria include the Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Streptomyces genera; the Firmicutes, have a 45 -- 60 % GC content. Although bacteria are traditionally divided into two main groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, based on their Gram stain retention property, this classification system is ambiguous as it refers to three distinct aspects, which do not coalesce for some bacterial species.
The gram-positive and gram-negative staining response is not a reliable characteristic as these two kinds of bacteria do not form phylogenetic coherent groups. However, although Gram staining response is an empirical criterion, its basis lies in the marked differences in the ultrastructure and chemical composition of the bacterial cell wall, marked by the absence or presence of an outer lipid membrane. All gram-positive bacteria are bounded by a single-unit lipid membrane, and, in general, they contain a thick layer of peptidoglycan responsible for retaining the Gram stain. A number of other bacteria—that are bounded by a single membrane, but stain gram-negative due to either lack of the peptidoglycan layer, as in the Mycoplasmas, or their inability to retain the Gram stain because of their cell wall composition—also show close relationship to the Gram-positive bacteria. For the bacterial cells bounded by a single cell membrane, the term "monoderm bacteria" or "monoderm prokaryotes" has been proposed.
In contrast to gram-positive bacteria, all archetypical gram-negative bacteria are bounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell membrane. The presence of inner and outer cell membranes defines a new compartment in these cells: the periplasmic space or the periplasmic compartment; these bacteria have been designated as "diderm bacteria." The distinction between the monoderm and diderm bacteria is supported by conserved signature indels in a number of important proteins. Of these two structurally distinct groups of bacteria, monoderms are indicated to be ancestral. Based upon a number of observations including that the gram-positive bacteria are the major producers of antibiotics and that, in general, gram-negative bacteria are resistant to them, it h
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation. They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. Gram-negative bacteria are found everywhere, in all environments on Earth that support life; the gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia pestis. They are an important medical challenge, as their outer membrane protects them from many antibiotics. Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells; this toxic reaction can include fever, an increased respiratory rate, low blood pressure — a life-threatening condition known as septic shock.
Several classes of antibiotics have been designed to target gram-negative bacteria, including aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillins, beta-lactam-betalactamase combinations, Folate antagonists and carbapenems. Many of these antibiotics cover gram positive organisms; the drugs that target gram negative organisms include aminoglycosides and Ciprofloxacin. Gram-negative bacteria display these characteristics: An inner cell membrane is present A thin peptidoglycan layer is present Has outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet and phospholipids in the inner leaflet Porins exist in the outer membrane, which act like pores for particular molecules Between the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane there is a space filled with a concentrated gel-like substance called periplasm The S-layer is directly attached to the outer membrane rather than to the peptidoglycan If present, flagella have four supporting rings instead of two Teichoic acids or lipoteichoic acids are absent Lipoproteins are attached to the polysaccharide backbone Some contain Braun's lipoprotein, which serves as a link between the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan chain by a covalent bond Most, with few exceptions, do not form spores Along with cell shape, gram-staining is a rapid diagnostic tool and once was used to group species at the subdivision of Bacteria.
The kingdom Monera was divided into four divisions based on gram-staining: Firmacutes, Gracillicutes and Mendocutes. Since 1987, the monophyly of the gram-negative bacteria has been disproven with molecular studies; however some authors, such as Cavalier-Smith still treat them as a monophyletic taxon and refer to the group as a subkingdom "Negibacteria". Bacteria are traditionally classified based on their gram-staining response into the gram-positive and gram-negative groups, it was traditionally thought that the groups represent lineages, i.e. the extra membrane only evoved once, such that gram-negative bacteria are more related to one another than to any gram-positive bacteria. While this is true, the classification system breaks down in some cases, with lineage groupings not matching the staining result. Thus, gram-staining cannot be reliably used to assess familial relationships of bacteria. Staining gives reliable information about the composition of the cell membrane, distinguishing between the presence or absence of an outer lipid membrane.
Of these two structurally distinct groups of prokaryotic organisms, monoderm prokaryotes are thought to be ancestral. Based upon a number of different observations including that the gram-positive bacteria are the major reactors to antibiotics and that gram-negative bacteria are, in general, resistant to them, it has been proposed that the outer cell membrane in gram-negative bacteria evolved as a protective mechanism against antibiotic selection pressure; some bacteria such as Deinococcus, which stain gram-positive due to the presence of a thick peptidoglycan layer, but possess an outer cell membrane are suggested as intermediates in the transition between monoderm and diderm bacteria. The diderm bacteria can be further differentiated between simple diderms lacking lipopolysaccharide; the conventional LPS-diderm group of gram-negative bacteria are uniquely identified by a few conserved signature indel in the HSP60 protein. In addition, a number of bacterial taxa that are either part of the phylum Firmicutes or branches in its proximity are found to possess a diderm cell structure.
They lack the GroEL signature. The presence of this CSI in all se