Methylene blue

Methylene blue known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye. As a medication, it is used to treat methemoglobinemia, it is used to treat methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30% or in which there are symptoms despite oxygen therapy. It has been used for cyanide poisoning and urinary tract infections, but this use is no longer recommended, it is given by injection into a vein. Common side effects include headache, confusion, shortness of breath, high blood pressure. Other side effects include serotonin syndrome, red blood cell breakdown, allergic reactions. Use turns the urine and stool blue to green in color. While use during pregnancy may harm the baby, not using it in methemoglobinemia is more dangerous. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye, it works by converting the ferric iron in hemoglobin to ferrous iron. Methylene blue was first prepared by Heinrich Caro, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.

In the United States, a 50 mg vial costs about US$191.40. In the United Kingdom, a 50 mg vial costs the NHS about £39.38. Methylene blue is employed as a medication for the treatment of methemoglobinemia; this can arise from ingestion of toxins, or broad beans. Through the NADH or NADPH dependent methemoglobin reductase enzymes, methemoglobin is reduced back to hemoglobin; when large amounts of methemoglobin occur secondary to toxins, methemoglobin reductases are overwhelmed. Methylene blue, when injected intravenously as an antidote, is itself first reduced to leucomethylene blue, which reduces the heme group from methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Methylene blue can reduce the half life of methemoglobin from hours to minutes. At high doses, methylene blue induces methemoglobinemia, reversing this pathway. Methylene blue combined with light has been used to treat resistant plaque psoriasis. Methylene blue is a component of a prescribed urinary analgesic/anti-infective/anti-spasmodic known as "Prosed DS", a combination of drugs which contains phenyl salicylate, benzoic acid, hyoscyamine sulfate, methenamine.

Since its reduction potential is similar to that of oxygen and can be reduced by components of the electron transport chain, large doses of methylene blue are sometimes used as an antidote to potassium cyanide poisoning, a method first tested in 1933 by Dr. Matilda Moldenhauer Brooks in San Francisco, although first demonstrated by Bo Sahlin of Lund University, in 1926. Methylene blue is used in endoscopic polypectomy as an adjunct to saline or epinephrine, is used for injection into the submucosa around the polyp to be removed; this allows the submucosal tissue plane to be identified after the polyp is removed, useful in determining if more tissue needs to be removed, or if there has been a high risk for perforation. Methylene blue is used as a dye in chromoendoscopy, is sprayed onto the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract in order to identify dysplasia, or pre-cancerous lesions. Intravenously injected methylene blue is released into the urine and thus can be used to test the urinary tract for leaks or fistulas.

In surgeries such as sentinel lymph node dissections, methylene blue can be used to visually trace the lymphatic drainage of tested tissues. Methylene blue is added to bone cement in orthopedic operations to provide easy discrimination between native bone and cement. Additionally, methylene blue accelerates the hardening of bone cement, increasing the speed at which bone cement can be applied. Methylene blue is used as an aid to visualisation/orientation in a number of medical devices, including a Surgical sealant film, TissuePatch. In fistulas and pilonidal sinuses it is used to identify the tract for complete excision; when methylene blue is "polychromed", it gets serially demethylated and forms all the tri-, di-, mono- and non-methyl intermediates, which are Azure B, Azure A, Azure C, thionine, respectively. This is the basis of the basophilic part of the spectrum of Romanowski-Giemsa effect. If only synthetic Azure B and Eosin Y is used, it may serve as a standardized Giemsa stain. On the other hand, if methylene blue is used it might help to give the normal look of neutrophil granules and may enhance the staining of nucleoli and polychromatophilic RBCs.

A traditional application of methylene blue is the intravital or supravital staining of nerve fibers, an effect first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1887. A dilute solution of the dye is either injected into tissue or applied to small freshly removed pieces; the selective blue coloration develops with exposure to air and can be fixed by immersion of the stained specimen in an aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate. Vital methylene blue was much used for examining the innervation of muscle and internal organs; the mechanism of selective dye uptake is incompletely understood. Methylene blue has been used as a placebo; this same side effect makes methylene blue difficult to test in traditional placebo-controlled clinical studies. Another use of methylene blue is to treat ifosfamide neuro

Henry Acker

Henry Acker was an American politician who served as a member of the Michigan House of Representatives and as a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives. Acker was born on June 6, 1804 in New York. Acker served two terms in the Michigan House of Representatives, first being elected on November 5, 1838, he was sworn in on January 7, 1839. When he was re-elected in 1840, he served as Speaker of the Michigan House of Representatives. In 1857, Acker moved to Minnesota, where he would serve two terms in the Minnesota House of Representatives. Sometime between being elected the Michigan and Minnesota legislature, Acker switched from being a Whig to a Republican. Acker married a women named Amanda, together they had four children, one of them being Captain William H. Acker, killed in the Battle of Shiloh in 1862. Acker's death date is disputed; some sources claim he died on August 31, 1875, but his grave at Oakland Cemetery in Saint Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota claims he died on the same day in 1874

1858 in art

Events from the year 1858 in art. January 3 – English writer and art critic John Ruskin meets 10-year-old Rose La Touche, a drawing pupil who becomes his muse, for the first time, at her family's London home. May 13 – John Ruskin begins a tour of Europe which he considers a significant turning point in his life. English-born photographer Robert Jefferson Bingham creates the first photographic catalogue raisonné, depicting the works of French painter Paul Delaroche, published by Goupil & Cie in Paris. Edward Lear visits the Holy Land. Prix de RomeJean-Jacques Henner Ivan Aivazovsky – The Battle of Bomarsund Edward Armitage – Retribution Jerry Barrett – The Mission of Mercy: Nightingale receiving the wounded at Scutari Emma Brownlow – The Foundling Restored to its Mother Philip Hermogenes Calderon – Ave Maria'Lewis Carroll' – Alice Liddell as a beggar child Augustus Egg – Past and Present William Henry Fisk – The Secret William Powell Frith The Derby Day The Crossing Sweeper The Signal Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Self-Portrait at the Age of 78 Christian Albrecht JensenAndreas Gottlob Rudelbach Édouard Manet – The Boy with Cherries William Morris – La belle Iseult Elisabet NeyJacob Grimm Henry Nelson O'NeilHome Again John QuidorThe Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane David Roberts Edinburgh from the Calton Hill The interior of the Collegiate Church of St Paul at Antwerp Rebecca Solomon – Behind the Curtain Edward Washburn – The Arkansas Traveller Albert WolffLöwenkämpfer January 6 – Albert Henry Munsell, American painter, teacher of art and inventor of the Munsell color system January 10 – Heinrich Zille, German photographer and illustrator March 13 – Maximilien Luce, French Neo-Impressionist painter May 14 – Anthon van Rappard, Dutch painter June 16 – John Russell, Australian Impressionist painter June 21 – Medardo Rosso, Italian Post-Impressionist sculptor September 12 – Fernand Khnopff, Belgian Symbolist painter November 2 – Niels Skovgaard, Danish sculptor and painter November 30 – Rosa Mayreder, Austrian freethinker, painter and feminist January 10 – Hezekiah Augur, American sculptor and inventor January 31 – Václav Mánes, Czech painter April 9 – Joseph Stieler, German painter May 18 – Carl Gustaf Löwenhielm, Swedish diplomat who made paintings of the countries in which he served June 15 – Ary Scheffer, painter July 15 – Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Russian painter who adhered to Neoclassicism October 12 – Hiroshige, Japanese ukiyo-e artist October 16 – Charles Norris, English topographical etcher and writer known for his landscape work of the Welsh countryside date unknown Guillaume Descamps, French painter and engraver John Hogan, sculptor