Wright Park Arboretum
Wright Park is a 27-acre arboretum and public park located in Tacoma, managed by Metro Parks Tacoma. The park was designed by Bavarian landscape architect Edward Otto Schwagerl; the arboretum contains over 700 mature trees, representing about 100 exotic species. The W. W. Seymour Botanical Conservatory is a Victorian-style conservatory located in Wright Park. Built in 1907, it was named in honor of donor William W. Seymour, its wings and twelve-sided central dome contain some 3,500 panes of glass. Six sculptures created by former conservator Clarence Deming rest among the plants and reflect African, Māori, Aztec traditions; the conservatory contains more than 550 plant species in its permanent collection, including agapanthus, bromeliads, clivias, epiphyllum, figs, more than 200 orchids and rhododendrons. It contains a rotating exhibit of floral displays that features between 300-500 blooming plants at any given time; the conservatory was featured in several scenes in the 1992 film The Hand that Rocks the Cradle, starring Annabella Sciorra and Rebecca De Mornay and directed by Curtis Hanson.
List of botanical gardens in the United States List of Registered Historic Places in Pierce County, Washington McGinnis, Melissa. Tacoma's Parks. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-4896-0. Wright Park - official site W. W. Seymour Botanical Conservatory - official site
Washington State Legislature
The Washington State Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Washington. It is a bipartisan, bicameral body, composed of the lower Washington House of Representatives, composed of 98 Representatives, the upper Washington State Senate, with 49 Senators plus the Lieutenant Governor acting as President; the state is divided into 49 legislative districts, each of which elect one senator and two representatives. The State Legislature meets in the Legislative Building at the Washington State Capitol in Olympia; as of January 2019, Democrats control both houses of the Washington State Legislature. Democrats hold a 57-41 majority in the House of Representatives and a 28-21 majority in the Senate, with one "Independent Democrat" senator caucusing with the Republicans; the Washington State Legislature traces its ancestry to the creation of the Washington Territory in 1853, following successful arguments from settlers north of the Columbia River to the U. S. federal government to separate from the Oregon Territory.
The Washington Territorial Assembly, as the newly created area's bicameral legislature, convened the following year. The legislature represented settlers from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to modern Montana. From nearly the start of the territory, arguments over giving women the right to vote dogged legislative proceedings. While some legislators carried genuine concerns over women deserving the right to vote, most legislators pragmatically believed that giving women suffrage would entice more Eastern women to immigrate to the remote and sparsely populated territory. In 1854, only six years after the Seneca Falls Convention, the issue was brought to a vote by the legislature. Women's suffrage was defeated by a single vote. A decade the Wyoming Legislature would become the first body in the United States to grant women's suffrage in 1869; the issue over female suffrage did not diminish. In 1871 Susan B. Anthony and Thurston County Representative Daniel Bigelow addressed the legislature on the issue.
In 1883, the issue returned to the floor, this time with the Territorial Assembly passing universal suffrage for women. It became one of the most liberal voting laws in the nation, giving female African-American voters the voting franchise for the first time in the United States. However, in 1887, the territorial Washington Supreme Court ruled the 1883 universal suffrage act as unconstitutional in Harland v. Washington. Another attempt by the legislature to regrant universal female suffrage was again overturned in 1888. After two failed voter referendums in 1889 and 1898, the now-Washington State Legislature approved full female voting rights in 1910. With more than two decades of pressure on federal authorities to authorize statehood, on February 22, 1889, the U. S. Congress passed the Enabling Act, signed into law by outgoing President Grover Cleveland, authorizing the territories of Washington, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana to form state governments; the Territorial Assembly set out to convene a constitutional convention to write a state constitution.
Following its successful passage by the legislature, Washington voters approved the new document on October 1. On November 11, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison authorized Washington to become the 42nd state of United States, it was the last West Coast state of the Continental U. S. to achieve statehood. The modern Washington State Legislature was created; the bicameral body is composed of legislators, beginning the legislative session annually on the second Monday in January. In odd-numbered years, when the state budget is debated upon, the State Legislature meets for 105 days, in even-numbered years for 60 days; the Governor of Washington, if necessary, can call legislators in for a special session for a 30-day period at any time in the year. Legislators can call themselves into special session by a two-thirds vote by both the House of Representatives and the State Senate. Debates within both the House and Senate, as well as committee meetings and other special events within or relating to the legislature are broadcast throughout Washington on TVW, the state public affairs network.
Debates can be found on the web at TVW.org. Unlike some state legislatures, the Washington State Legislature does not hold special elections midyear if a seat becomes vacant between regular elections. Instead, the board of county commissioners for the county or counties where the vacant district is located are given the responsibility of choosing the successor; the state central committee of the political party that last held the seat must submit a list of up to three candidates to the board, who must make the final selection within 60 days of the vacancy. Special elections are held alongside November general elections. Washington State Capitol Washington House of Representatives Washington State Senate List of Washington state legislatures Don Brazier, History of the Washington Legislature, 1854-1963. Olympia, WA: Washington State Senate, 2000. Washington State Legislature
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Fort Nisqually was an important fur trading and farming post of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Puget Sound area, part of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia Department. It was located in, Washington. Today it is a living history museum located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, within the boundaries of Point Defiance Park; the Fort Nisqually Granary, moved along with the Factor's House from the original site of the second fort to this park, is a U. S. National Historic Landmark. Built in 1843, the granary is the oldest building in Washington state and one of the only surviving examples of a Hudson's Bay Company "post on sill" structure; the Factor's House and the granary are the only surviving Hudson's Bay Company buildings in the United States. The Hudson's Bay Company expanded to the west coast by forming the Columbia District to oversee its operations in what was known by American interests as the Oregon Country. Forts would be built in the District at central fur gathering locations, accessible to a large number of tribes.
In 1824, Fort Vancouver was built a few miles from the Columbia River to the south and Fort Langley was built in 1827 on the Fraser River to the North. The Cowlitz Portage, an overland and shortcut route was soon created, thus a vital link between the two forts was established. After the attack and murder of Alexander McKenzie and four men in his party on this route, it was determined a fort located at a halfway point was needed for safety and security reasons; the new midway location was at Nisqually, chosen for its excellent ship anchorage, its convenience for overland travel, the friendliness of local tribes and its prairies for grazing animals and growing crops. Located near the mouth of Sequalitchew Creek on the plains north of the Nisqually River Delta, in the present town of DuPont, Nisqually House was built in April 1832; the staff was only three men with a few supplies left behind to manage it. The first building of station was a storehouse of fifteen by twenty feet built on the beach, notably the first European trading post on the Puget Sound.
One year in May 1833, Chief Trader Archibald McDonald returned with William Fraser Tolmie and seven men to begin the construction of a permanent fort. Tolmie wrote about the region extensively; the men were dependent upon the surrounding native villages for sustenance because they were unable to find much game to hunt. Relations with neighboring Indigenous people began to deepen, the officers of the post meeting with Chief Gray Head of the Steilacooms in 1833. Trading with the nearby Puyallup tribe and more distant S'Klallams developed in the same year. Fort Nisqually was operated and served by Scottish gentlemen, Native Americans, Hawaiian Kanakas, French-Canadians, Métis, West Indians, Englishmen and, in years a handful of Americans. Fort Nisqually grew from an obscure trading post to major international trading establishment, despite not being a true military outpost; the fort's main export was beaver pelts. Over the time Fort Nisqually functioned as a trading post, about 5,000 beaver, 3,000 muskrat, 2,000 raccoon and 1,500 river otter furs were collected.
Founded in 1840, the Pugets Sound Agricultural Company was formed as a subsidiary of the HBC to meet its contractual obligations with the Russian-American Company in the RAC-HBC Agreement. Fort Nisqually and Cowlitz Farm were attached to the new venture, though it remained staffed and managed by HBC personnel. In 1841 Métis families from the Red River colony were hired by the PSAC to become pastoralists and farmers upon its two stations. After traveling overland to Fort Vancouver by James Sinclair, 14 Métis emigrant families from the Red River colony chose Fort Nisqually as their final destination; the station was removed in 1843 to be closer to Edmonds Marsh and Sequalitchew Creek, putting it in proximity of a water source and timber. Fort Nisqually started to export livestock and crops for local consumption and export to principally to Russian Alaska, the Kingdom of Hawaii, Alta California; the herds of cattle from Mexico, numbered over 2,000 in 1845 and supplied many of the HBC forts in the region.
The sheep herds maintained were "aristocrats of the wool breeds", being composed of mixtures of Chevoit and Southdown breeds. The flocks numbered 6,000 in 1845, doubled in size by 1849 but began a decrease of numbers until by 1856 the station had a little over 5,000. Tolmie was the manager of the PSAC from 1843 to 1857, overseeing the pastoral and agricultural projects from Fort Nisqually, his tenure covered the transition from British to American control beginning in 1846 as result of the Oregon Treaty, the Puget Sound War. He was well respected because of his experience with the region and maintained friendly relations with the British, Indigenous peoples and American settlers. Catholic missionary Jean Bolduc described the station in 1843 as having:...an enclosure of fir logs, on an average eighteen feet high, enclosing a space one hundred fifty feet on each side and having a small unarmed bastion at the four corners. Inside is a house for the superintendent, a store for trading in furs and several small buildings for the lodging of servitors and voyageurs.
The 1846 treaty between the United States and Great Britain established the border between British North America and the United States at the 49th parallel, which left Fort Nisqually on American soil. Early American settlers on the Puget Sound began arriving in numbers during the 1850s to claim land authorized by the Donation Land Claim Act; this group was dependent upon Fort Nisqually for provisions and supplies, unable to make the needed food themselves. Bartering was the norm, with agricultural produce accepted as payment. Squatters from
Point Defiance Park
Point Defiance Park in Tacoma, Washington is a large urban park in the United States. The 760-acre park includes Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, the Rose Garden, Rhododendron Garden, trails, a boardwalk, a boathouse, a Washington State Ferries ferry dock for the Point Defiance-Tahlequah route to Vashon Island, Fort Nisqually, an off-leash dog park, most notably a stand of old-growth forest, it receives more than three million visitors every year. Point Defiance Park is operated by the Metropolitan Park District of Tacoma. Point Defiance Park offers both wildlife and people. Not all the wild animals are confined inside Aquarium. From high cliffs overlooking the Tacoma Narrows people can watch bald eagles feed on salmon runs passing through on the strong tidal currents, their calls can be heard from their nests in the old growth forest, preserved and make up the northern 400 acres of the park. In winter, sea lions migrating from California feed in the swirling tides beneath the Gig Harbor overlook on the northernmost point of the peninsula.
Harbor seals are common near the tip of the point most of the year. Seal pups are observed north of Owen Beach in late summer and early fall The park provides habitat for mule deer, red foxes, pileated woodpeckers, Douglas squirrels, raccoons. Endangered species: One of the features of the park is to sit in quiet contemplation in one of the Japanese Gardens. At sunset, wolves howl as the sun sinks into the tall trees with the Olympic Mountains silhouetted on the horizon; the wolves are temporary guests as part of a restoration project for endangered species that the Zoo & Aquarium and Northwest Trek Wildlife Park sponsor. As the largest urban park in Pierce County, the network of roads and trails weaving through the forest preserve provides a quiet retreat for joggers, hikers. Trails are marked with symbols. Portions of The Five Mile Drive are closed to cars on Saturday. There are many hiking trails along Pt. Defiance's cliffs, that have sweeping views of Vashon Island, Dalco Passage, Gig Harbor, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
The road network passes by Fort Nisqually. From Owen Beach, kayakers ride the strong currents north into the tidal rips. Fishermen drift in these tides waiting for salmon bound to south sound rivers; the 100-foot-tall cliffs provide a buffer. Gliding out into the narrows, kayakers find a quiet oasis in the middle of an urban environment. There are many beach goers, willing to venture further up the peninsula. Point Defiance Park began as a military reservation after the Wilkes Expedition visited Puget Sound in the 1840s to map the bays and estuaries. Wilkes is thought to have noted that with a fort positioned at the point, at Gig Harbor across the narrows, one could "Defy" the world; the high cliffs and prominent location were never used for military operations. In 1888, President Grover Cleveland authorized its use as a public park. By 1890, streetcars brought visitors to wander among the gardens. In 1903, a waterfront pavilion was completed. By 1907 a seaside resort designed by Frederick Heath offered heated saltwater bathing in a pavilion called the Nereides Baths located on a bluff above the boathouse.
Fort Nisqually is a replica of Hudson's Bay Company's presence in the region in the 19th century when the English trading company had trading forts stretching from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River, Fort Nisqually on south Puget Sound near the Nisqually River and continuing to the Far North to Fort Yukon on the Yukon River in Canadian territory which became the state of Alaska. In recent years, Fort Nisqually programs invite traders and Indian tribes to dress in period costume and return to the fort replica for a weekend of re-enacting this early period of trade and travel through the region by dugout cedar canoe. In 2019, the city's second-division soccer team renamed itself to Tacoma Defiance in reference to the park; the gardens remain today. Visitors find a Japanese Garden, Rose Garden, Dahlia gardens surrounding the former superintendent's home; the home was built in 1898 in the year of the Yukon Gold Rush. The gardens are located near the park's main entrance on the approach to Aquarium.
It is sited on a bluff looking down on a waterfront containing the boathouse, Anthony's Restaurant and Washington State Ferry landing providing access to Vashon Island. Other public gardens on site include the Native Plant, Herb and Iris gardens; the prominent feature of the Japanese Garden is the Pagoda, built in 1914 as a streetcar station. When buses replaced street cars throughout the West, the Pagoda became a waiting area for buses in 1938. In 1963 it was transformed into a center for social gatherings; the Pagoda and Lodge were refurbished in 1988. In 2011 the Pagoda was damaged in an arson fire but beautifully restored; the Pagoda and Lodge are rented throughout the year for receptions. After a century of depositing slag into the waters of Puget Sound, Asarco's Tacoma Smelter created a peninsula to form the park's protected harbor; the Tacoma Yacht Club sits on the peninsula's promontory as a guardian of snug harbor. A public boat launch at the entrance of the harbor is part of the park's recreational facilities.
In the fall of 2009, Tacoma Public Schools opened the Science and Math Institute, a science- and math-centered magnet high school within Point Defiance Park. SAMI features classes on the beach, pagoda and Zoo. Metro Parks gave them space for portable classrooms; the school has a concept and schedule similar to the district's other magnet high
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3