Mark Brandt Dayton is an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Minnesota from 2011 to 2019. He was a United States Senator for Minnesota from 2001 to 2007, the Minnesota State Auditor from 1991 to 1995, he is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, which affiliates with the national Democratic Party. A native of Minnesota, Dayton is the great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of Dayton's, a department store that became the Target Corporation, he embarked on a career in teaching and social work in New York City and Boston after graduating from Yale University in 1969. During the 1970s, he served as a legislative aide to U. S. Senator Walter Mondale and Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Dayton was appointed the Minnesota Economic Development Commissioner and married Alida Rockefeller Messinger, a member of the Rockefeller family. Dayton ran for the U. S. Senate in 1982 against Republican Party incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U.
S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right". Durenberger won the election, Dayton returned to the Perpich administration until his election as Minnesota State Auditor in 1990. In 1998, Dayton ran for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, became the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace. In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. In 2010, Dayton defeated Republican Tom Emmer to become governor of Minnesota despite national success for the Republican Party, including in the Minnesota legislature.
His major legislative initiatives as governor include the legalization of same-sex marriage and the construction of U. S. Bank Stadium for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League. Dayton was born on January 26, 1947 in Minneapolis and is the eldest of Gwendolen May and Bruce Bliss Dayton's four children, he is a great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of the Dayton's department store chain. His father, Bruce Dayton, served as the chairman and CEO of Dayton Hudson Corporation, the company that became the Target Corporation. Bruce Dayton founded the B. Dalton bookstore chain in 1966. Mark Dayton was raised in Long Lake and graduated from the Blake School in Minneapolis, where he was an all-state ice-hockey goaltender as a senior. Dayton attended Yale University. During his time at Yale, he joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and received his B. A. in psychology in 1969. After college, Dayton worked as teacher in the Lower East Side of New York City from 1969 to 1971, as the chief financial officer of a social service agency in Boston from 1971 to 1975.
Dayton first became politically active in the 1960s. He protested the Vietnam War in April 1970 at one of Minnesota's major antiwar protests against Honeywell, where he was maced by police. Dayton's father served on the Honeywell board of directors and the two had a strained relationship after the incident. From 1975 to 1976 he was a legislative aide to Senator Walter Mondale, until Mondale's election as Vice President of the United States. From 1977 to 1978, Dayton served as an aide to Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Perpich appointed Dayton to head the Department of Economic Development and the Department of Energy and Economic Development. In 1998, Dayton ran an unsuccessful campaign for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, was the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace.
In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. Dayton was elected Minnesota State Auditor in 1990 and served until 1995. Dayton first ran for the United States Senate in 1982 but lost to Republican incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U. S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right", he was elected to the Senate in 2000. Dayton self-financed his 2000 campaign with $12 million. While in the Senate, Dayton donated his salary to fund bus trips for seniors to buy cheaper prescription drugs in Canada, he voted with his fellow Democrats. On February 9, 2005, he announced that he would not run for reelection, saying, "Everything I've worked for, everything I believe in, depends upon this Senate seat remaining in the Democratic caucus in 2007.
I do not believe that I am the best candidate to lead the DFL Party to victory next year." He cited his dislike of fundraising and political campaigns. Dayton was succeeded in the Senate by another DFLer. On September 22, 2005, the 44th anniversary of the day President John F. Kennedy signed the Peace Corps into law, Dayton became the first U. S. Senator to introduce legislation c
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Jesse Ventura is an American media personality, author, former politician and retired professional wrestler, who served as the 38th Governor of Minnesota from 1999 to 2003. He was the first and only candidate of the Reform Party to win a major government position, but joined the Green Party of the United States. Ventura was a member of the U. S. Navy Underwater Demolition Team during the Vietnam War. After leaving the military, he embarked on a professional wrestling career from 1975 to 1986, taking the ring name Jesse "The Body" Ventura, he had a long tenure in the World Wrestling Federation as a performer and color commentator, was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2004. In addition to wrestling, Ventura pursued an acting career, appearing in films such as Predator and The Running Man. Ventura first entered politics in 1991 when he was elected mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, a position he held until 1995. Three years Ventura was the Reform Party candidate in the Minnesota gubernatorial election of 1998, running a low-budget campaign centered on grassroots events and unusual ads that urged citizens not to "vote for politics as usual".
Ventura's campaign was unexpectedly successful, with him narrowly defeating both the Democratic and Republican candidates. The highest elected official to win an election on a Reform Party ticket, Ventura left the Reform Party a year after taking office amid internal fights for control over the party; as governor, Ventura oversaw reforms of Minnesota's property tax as well as the state's first sales tax rebate. Other initiatives taken under Ventura included construction of the METRO Blue Line light rail in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, cuts in income taxes. Ventura left office in 2003. After leaving office, Ventura became a visiting fellow at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in 2004, he has since hosted a number of television shows and has written several political books. Ventura remains politically active and hosts a show on Ora TV and on RT America called Off the Grid; as of September 2017, Ventura is hosting a variety news show on RT called The World According to Jesse.
Ventura has floated running for President of the United States on a Green Party ticket. Ventura was born James George Janos on July 15, 1951 in Minneapolis, the son of George William Janos and his wife, Bernice Martha. Both of his parents were World War II veterans. Ventura has an older brother. Ventura has described himself as Slovak-Hungarian. Ventura was raised as a Lutheran. Born in South Minneapolis "by the Lake Street bridge," he attended Cooper Elementary School, Sanford Junior High School, graduated from Roosevelt High School in 1969. Roosevelt High School inducted Ventura into its first hall of fame in September 2014. Ventura served in the United States Navy from December 1, 1969, to September 10, 1975, during the Vietnam War, but did not see combat, he graduated in BUD/S class 58 in December 1970 and was part of Underwater Demolition Team 12. Ventura has referred to his military career in public statements and debates, he was criticized by hunters and conservationists for stating in an interview with the Minneapolis Star Tribune in April 2001, "Until you have hunted men, you haven't hunted yet."
Near the end of his service in the Navy, Ventura began to spend time with the "South Bay" chapter of the Mongols motorcycle club in San Diego. He would ride onto Naval Base Coronado on his Harley-Davidson wearing his Mongol colors. According to Ventura, he was a full-patch member of the club and third-in-command of his chapter, but he never had any problems with the authorities. In the fall of 1974, Ventura left the bike club to return to the Twin Cities. Shortly after that, the Mongols entered into open warfare with the Hells Angels. Ventura attended North Hennepin Community College in Brooklyn Park, Minnesota in suburban Minneapolis during the mid-1970s. At the same time, he began wrestling, he was a bodyguard for The Rolling Stones for a time, before he entered professional wrestling and adopted the wrestling name Jesse Ventura. He created the stage name Jesse "The Body" Ventura to go with the persona of a bully-ish beach bodybuilder, picking the name "Ventura" from a map as part of his "bleach blond from California" gimmick.
As a wrestler, Ventura performed as a heel and used the motto: "Win if you can, lose if you must, but always cheat!" going so far as having himself a T-shirt made with the words printed on the front. Much of his flamboyant persona was adapted from Superstar Billy Graham, a charismatic and popular performer during the 1970s. Years as a broadcaster, Ventura made a running joke out of it claiming that Graham stole all of his ring attire ideas from him. In 1975, Ventura made his debut in the Central States territory, before moving to the Pacific Northwest, where he wrestled for promoter Don Owen as Jesse "The Great" Ventura. During his stay in Portland, Oregon, he had notable feuds with Dutch Savage and Jimmy Snuka and won the Pacific Northwest Wrestling title twice and the tag team title five times, he moved to his hometown promotion, the American Wrestling Association in Minnesota, began teaming with Adrian Adonis as the "East-West Connection" in 1979. In his RF Video shoot in 2012, he revealed that shortly after he arrived in the AWA he was given the nickname "the Body" by Verne Gagne.
The duo won the promotion's World Tag Team Championship
Washington County, Minnesota
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 238,136, making it the fifth-most populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is Stillwater. The largest city in the county is Woodbury; the county was established in 1849. Washington County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington County was one of the nine original counties created when the Minnesota Territory was organized in 1849; the county was established October 27, 1849, named after George Washington. Early development in the area was on the St. Croix River, which now forms the boundary with Wisconsin on the county's eastern side; the river not only provided a means of transportation to move people upstream, but move logs downstream. The area was forested and the early economy was dependent on the logging and lumber industries; the first settlement and seat was named Dacotah, was located as early as 1838 in what is now northern Stillwater, where Brown's Creek flows into the St. Croix River.
The creek's name is from the founder of Joseph Renshaw Brown. However, a sawmill was built at Marine-on-St.-Croix in 1839, another was built in the current location of downtown Stillwater in 1844. The success of these soon attracted the settlers from Dacotah, Stillwater became the county seat in 1846. During this early period, the region was part of the Wisconsin Territory, but Wisconsin became a state in 1848. Brown and other leaders called together settlers in this now-ungoverned territory to what has become known as the "Stillwater Convention" on August 26, 1848. Held in John McKusick’s store, the settlers drafted a Memorial to Congress that a new territory be created with the name “Minnesota,” and elected Henry Hastings Sibley to deliver this citizen’s petition to the U. S. Congress; because of this convention, Stillwater calls itself the “Birthplace of Minnesota.” After becoming a territory, growth continued, with the first Sheriff of Washington County appointed by Governor Alexander Ramsey in 1849, the county's school district founded in 1850.
After the forests were depleted, the economy of Washington County became agricultural. With the growth of neighboring Ramsey County and St. Paul, some of Washington County developed based on tourism and recreation, as with Mahtomedi and Landfall. Late in the 20th century, the population increased with the suburban expansion of St. Paul. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 423 square miles, of which 384 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Minnesota by land fifth-smallest by total area. Chisago County Polk County, Wisconsin St. Croix County, Wisconsin Pierce County, Wisconsin Dakota County Ramsey County Anoka County Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway The ethnic makeup of the country, according to the 2010 U. S. Census, was the following: 87.77% White 3.60% Black 0.49% Native American 5.07% Asian >0.01% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2.10% Two or more races 0.97% Other races 3.41% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2010, there were 238,136 people, 87,446 households, 64,299 families residing in the county.
The population density was 607 people per square mile. There were 87,446 housing units at an average density of 223 per square mile. 39.4% were of German, 14.4% Irish, 13.0% Norwegian, 9.9% Swedish ancestry. There were 87,446 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.02 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.03 males. The median income for a household in the county was $79,735, the median income for a family was $92,497.
The per capita income for the county was $36,786. About 5.2% of the population was below the poverty line. According to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, of the county's population 25 years and over, 1.4% had less than 9th grade education, 2.8% held 9th to 12th grade with no diploma, 23.6% had High school graduate or equivalent, 22.2% held Some college with no degree, 27.0% had bachelor's degree, 13.0% earned Graduate or professional degree. As of the 2000 census, there were 201,130 people, 71,462 households, 54,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 514 people per square mile. There were 73,635 housing units at an average density of 188 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.63% White, 1.83% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.14% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. There were 71,462 households out of which 41.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.80% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.50% were non-families.
18.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the
Downtown is a term used in North America by English-speakers to refer to a city's commercial and the historical and geographic heart, is synonymous with its central business district. In British English, the term "city centre" is most used instead; the two terms are used interchangeably in Canada. The Oxford English Dictionary's first citation for "down town" or "downtown" dates to 1770, in reference to the center of Boston; some have posited that the term "downtown" was coined in New York City, where it was in use by the 1830s to refer to the original town at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan. As the town of New York grew into a city, the only direction it could grow on the island was toward the north, proceeding upriver from the original settlement, the "up" and "down" terminology coming from the customary map design in which up was north and down was south. Thus, anything north of the original town became known as "uptown", was a residential area, while the original town –, New York's only major center of business at the time – became known as "downtown".
During the late 19th century, the term was adopted by cities across the United States and Canada to refer to the historical core of the city, most the same as the commercial heart of the city. "Uptown" spread, but to a much lesser extent. In both cases, the directionality of both words was lost, so that a Bostonian might refer to going "downtown" though it was north of where they were. Downtown lay to the south in Detroit, but to the north in Cleveland, to the east in St. Louis, to the west in Pittsburgh. In Boston, a resident pointed out in 1880, downtown was in the center of the city. Uptown was south of downtown in New Orleans and San Francisco. Notably, "downtown" was not included in dictionaries as late as the 1880s, but by the early 1900s, "downtown" was established as the proper term in American English for a city's central business district, although the word was unknown in Britain and Western Europe, where expressions such as "city centre", "le centre-ville", "el centro", "o centro" and "das Zentrum" are used.
As late as early part of the 20th century, English travel writers felt it necessary to explain to their readers what "downtown" meant. Although American downtowns lacked legally-defined boundaries, were parts of several of the wards that most cities used as their basic functional district, locating the downtown was not difficult, as it was the place where all the street railways and elevated railways converged, – at least in most places – where the railroad terminals were, it was the location of the great department stores and hotels, as well as the theatres, clubs and dance halls, where skyscrapers were built once that technology was perfected. It was frequently, at first, the only part of a city, electrified, it was the place where street congestion was the worst, a problem for which a solution was never found. But most of all, downtown was the place. Inside its small precincts, sometimes as small as several hundred acres, the majority of the trading and purchasing – retail and wholesale – in the entire area would take place.
There were hubs of business in other places around the city and its environs, but the downtown area was the chief one the central business district. And as more and more business was done downtown, those who had their homes there were pushed out, selling their property and moving to quieter residential areas uptown; the skyscraper would become the hallmark of the downtown area. Prior to the invention of the elevator – and the high-speed elevator – buildings were limited in height to about six stories, a de facto limit set by the amount of stairs it was assumed that people would climb, but with the elevator, that limit was shattered, buildings began to be constructed up to about sixteen stories. What limited them was the thickness of the masonry needed at the base to hold the weight of the building above it; as the buildings got taller, the thickness of the masonry and the space needed for elevators did not allow for sufficient rentable space to make the building profitable. What shattered that restriction was the invention of first the iron- and the steel frame building, in which the building's load was carried by an internal metal frame skeleton, which the masonry – and glass – hung off of without carrying any weight.
Although first used in Chicago, the steel-framed skyscraper caught on most in New York City in the 1880s, from there spread to most other American cities in the 1890s and 1900s. The apparent lack of a height limitation of this type of building set off a fervent debate over whether their height should be restricted by law, with proponents and opponents of height limits bringing out numerous arguments in favor of their position; the question of height limits had a profound implication for the nature of downtown itself: would it continue to be a concentrated core, or as it grew, would height limits force it to spread out into a larger area. In the short run, the proponents of height limits were successful in their efforts. By the 1910s, most of the largest and medium-sized cities had height limits in effect, with New York – despite several concerted efforts to enact them, Detroit and Minneapolis being notable holdouts. Though, it would not be height limits per se that restricted skyscrapers, but comprehensive zoning laws which would set up separate requirements for different parts of a c
Urban growth boundary
An urban growth boundary, or UGB, is a regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by, in its simplest form, mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for urban development and the area outside be preserved in its natural state or used for agriculture. Legislating for an "urban growth boundary" is one way, among many others, of managing the major challenges posed by unplanned urban growth and the encroachment of cities upon agricultural and rural land. An urban growth boundary circumscribes an entire urbanized area and is used by local governments as a guide to zoning and land use decisions, by utility and other infrastructure providers to improve efficiency through effective long term planning. If the area affected by the boundary includes multiple jurisdictions a special urban planning agency may be created by the state or regional government to manage the boundary. In a rural context, the terms town boundary, village curtilage or village envelope may be used to apply the same constraining principles.
Some jurisdictions refer to the area within an urban growth boundary as an urban growth area, or UGA. While the names are different, the concept is the same. Another term used is urban service area. Opposition to unregulated urban growth and ribbon development began to grow towards the end of the 19th century in England; the campaign group Campaign to Protect Rural England was formed in 1926 and exerted environmentalist pressure. Implementation of the notion dated from Herbert Morrison's 1934 leadership of the London County Council, it was first formally proposed by the Greater London Regional Planning Committee in 1935, "to provide a reserve supply of public open spaces and of recreational areas and to establish a green belt or girdle of open space". New provisions for compensation in the 1947 Town and Country Planning Act allowed local authorities around the country to incorporate green belt proposals in their first development plans; the codification of Green Belt policy and its extension to areas other than London came with the historic Circular 42/55 inviting local planning authorities to consider the establishment of Green Belts.
In the United States, the first urban growth boundary was established in 1958, around the city of Lexington, Kentucky. Lexington's population was expanding, city leaders were concerned about the survival of the surrounding horse farms tied to the city's cultural identity; the first statewide urban growth boundary policy was implemented in Oregon, under governor Tom McCall, as part of the state's land-use planning program in the early 1970s. Tom McCall and his allies convinced the Oregon Legislature in 1973 to adopt the nation's first set of statewide land use planning laws. McCall, with the help of a unique coalition of farmers and environmentalists, persuaded the Legislature that the state's natural beauty and easy access to nature would be lost in a rising tide of urban sprawl; the new goals and guidelines required every city and county in Oregon to have a long-range plan addressing future growth that meets both local and statewide goals. Albania maintains the'yellow line' system hailing from its socialist regime — limiting urban development beyond a designated boundary for all municipalities.
After the release of Melbourne 2030 in October 2002, the state government of Victoria legislated an urban growth boundary to limit urban sprawl. Since the urban growth boundary has been increased a number of times. In Canada, Toronto and Waterloo, Ontario have boundaries to restrict growth and preserve greenspace. In Montréal and in the rest of the province of Québec, an agricultural protection law serves a similar purpose, restricting urban development to "white zones" and forbidding it on "green zones", they are notably absent from cities such as Calgary and Winnipeg that lie on flat plains and have expanded outwardly on former agricultural land. In France, Rennes decided in the 1960s to maintain a green belt after its ring road; this green belt is named Ceinture verte. In the plan of some new towns, green belts are included and growth cannot sprawl into or across the green belts. In addition a majority of new towns are surrounded by country parks. Over the past two decades, greater Auckland has been subject to a process of growth management facilitated through various strategic and legislative documents.
An overarching objective has been to manage the growth of Auckland in a higher density, centres-based manner consistent with the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy. Effect is given to this strategy through a series of layers of control including the Local Government Amendment Act, the Regional Policy Statement and via District Plans. A key outcome of this process was the establishment of a Metropolitan Urban Limit or urban fence that dictated the nature and extent of urban activities that could occur within the MUL and hence dictated the relative values of land within the MUL. An Integrated Development Plan is required in terms of Chapter 5 of the national Municipal Systems Act No 32 of 2000 for all local authorities in South Africa; this plan would as one of its components include a Spatial Development Framework plan which would certainly for the larger metropolitan areas, indicate an Urban Edge beyond which urban type development would be limited or restricted. The concept was introduced in the 1970s by the Natal Town and Regional Planning Commission of the Province of Natal in the regional guide plans for Durban and Pietermaritzburg.
The concept was at that stage termed an Urban Fence. Controls to constrain the area of urban development existed in London as early as the 16th century. In the middle of the
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin