Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin
Holborn Viaduct is a road bridge in London and the name of the street which crosses it. It links Holborn, via Holborn Circus, with Newgate Street, in the City of London financial district, passing over Farringdon Street and the subterranean River Fleet; the viaduct spans the steep-sided Holborn Hill and the River Fleet valley at a length of 1,400 feet and 80 feet wide. City surveyor William Haywood was the architect and the engineer was Rowland Mason Ordish, it was built between 1863 and 1869, as a part of the Holborn Valley Improvements, which included a public works scheme which, at a cost of over £2 million, improved access into the City from the West End, with better traffic flow and distribution around the new Holborn Circus, the creation of Queen Victoria Street, the rebuilding of Blackfriars Bridge, the opening of the Embankment section into the City, the continuation of Farringdon Street as Farringdon Road and associated railway routes with Farringdon station and Ludgate Hill station.
It was opened by Queen Victoria at the same time as the inauguration of the other thoroughfares with a formal coach drive procession on 6 November 1869. The viaduct effected a more level approach on the crossing of this section of the Holborn/Fleet valley from east to west, across Farringdon Street; this involved horse-drawn traffic having to descend from High Holborn along Charterhouse Street to the smaller Holborn Bridge, crossing the River Fleet, culverted between Ludgate Circus to this crossing in 1734 to ascend to the other side using Snow Hill. Pedestrian access between the two street levels was effected via four pavilions, at each side and either end, containing staircases for access from the viaduct to Farringdon Street below. In 1941 the Blitz raids damaged most of the area including the north side pavilions. Holborn Viaduct railway station, opened in 1874, was at the eastern end with a low-level through route towards Farringdon, was replaced in 1990 by St. Paul's Thameslink railway station.
In 1882 the viaduct became home to the world's first coal-fired power station, the Edison Electric Light Station. List of bridges in London
Bills horse troughs
Bills horse troughs are watering troughs that were manufactured in Australia and installed to provide relief for working horses in the first half of the twentieth century. The troughs were financed by a trust fund established through the will of George Bills. A total of around 700 troughs were distributed by the trust in Australia and 50 in several other countries. George Bills was born in Brighton in England in 1859, he migrated with his family to New Zealand and subsequently to Echuca, Victoria in Australia in 1873. In 1882 he opened a bird dealers shop in Brisbane, where he met and married Annis Swann who had immigrated from Sheffield in England. In 1884 the couple moved to Sydney and George Bills went into business with his brothers, manufacturing innerspring mattresses. In 1908, George retired to Hawthorn, Victoria and in 1910, Annis died while the couple were visiting England. George became a Life Governor of the RSPCA in 1924. George and Annis had no children, following the death of George in 1927, a trust fund was set up, believed to be around ₤70-80,000.
One of the purposes of the trust, as set out in George Bills' will, was to: "..construct and erect and pay for horse troughs wherever they may be of the opinion that such horse troughs are desirable for the relief of horses and other dumb animals either in Australasia, in the British Islands or in any other part of the world subject to the consent of the proper authorities being obtained."Each trough cost ₤13 plus transport and installation. The majority of the troughs were installed in Victoria and New South Wales between 1930 and 1939; the troughs were individually designed and constructed, however by the early 1930s, J. B. Phillips, a relative of the Bills, became the head contractor. Working to a standard design he produced the troughs in Auburn Road in Hawthorn; the troughs were pre-cast concrete with a curved pediment with the inscription "Donated by Annis & George Bills Australia". Manufacture was subsequently handled by Rocla, who produced troughs to the same design in Victoria and in Junee in New South Wales.
With the rise of motorised transport, demand for the troughs declined and production had ceased by the end of World War II. Aside from the horse troughs, the trust was involved with other animal welfare projects including the establishment of the George Bills RSPCA Rescue Centre at Burwood East, Victoria which opened in 1964; the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association was founded in London in the year George Bills was born and was no doubt his inspiration. Bills horse troughs - An enthusiast's site with locations and pictures. Englefield Green - One of the three troughs installed in England Bills horse troughs - Public Facebook photo album of troughs
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are diesel fuel. A filling station that sells only electric energy is known as a charging station, while a typical filling station can be known as a fueling or gas station, gasoline stand or SS, petrol pump or petrol bunk, petrol garage, petrol station, service station, a services, or servo, or fuel station. Fuel dispensers are used to pump petrol/gasoline, compressed natural gas, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, liquid hydrogen, alcohol fuel, biofuels, or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle. Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device, found in filling stations and can refuel certain vehicles is an air compressor, although these are just used to inflate car tyres. Many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings have electricity sockets.
The convenience stores found in filling stations sell candy, soft drinks, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items, such as milk. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business. Conversely, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount stores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises; the term "gas station" is used in the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean, where the fuel is known as "gasoline" or "gas" as in "gas pump". In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as "petrol", the term "petrol station" or "petrol pump" is used. In the United Kingdom and South Africa "garage" is still used. In Australia, the term "service station" describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, a used term is gasoline stand, although the abbreviation SS is used. In Indian English, it is called a petrol bunk.
In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world. The UK has 8,422 petrol stations as of December 2017, down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s; the USA had 114,474 filling stations in 2012, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, down from 118,756 in 2007 and 121,446 in 2002. In Canada, the number is on the decline; as of December 2008, 12,684 were in operation down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989. In Japan, the number dropped from a peak of 60,421 in 1994 to 40,357 at the end of 2009. In Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India – 60,799 Russia – there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, there are 3,916 gas stations after a 2% decrease from the previous year. Total – 8200 stations Shell – 7800 stations BP – 7000 stations Esso – 6100 stations Eni – 5500 stations Repsol – 4700 stations Q8 – 4600 stations Avia – 3000 stations PKN Orlen – 2800 stations Circle K 2700 stations The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, where Bertha Benz refilled the tank of the first automobile on its maiden trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim back in 1888.
Shortly thereafter other pharmacies sold gasoline as a side business. Since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event; the first "posto de gasolina" of South America was opened in Santos, Brazil, in 1920. It was located in the Ana Costa Ave. in front of the beach, in a corner that nowadays is located the Hotel Atlantico. It was an Esso Gas Station, brought by a taxi entrepreneur; the increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the middle class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations. The world's first purpose-built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, Missouri in 1905 at 420 S. Theresa Avenue; the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington, at what is now Pier 32. Reighard's Gas Station in Altoona, claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations"; the first "drive-in" filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the motoring public in Pittsburgh on December 1, 1913, at Baum Blvd & St Clair's Street.
Prior to this, automobile drivers pulled into any general or hardware store, or blacksmith shops in order to fill up their tanks. On its first day, the station sold 30 gallons of gasoline at 27 cents per gallon; this was the first architect-designed station and the first to distribute free road maps. The first alternative fuel station was opened in San Diego, California, by Pearson Fuels in 2003. In Russia, the first filling sta
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Burke's Peerage Limited is a British genealogical publisher founded in 1826, when Irish genealogist John Burke began releasing books devoted to the ancestry and heraldry of the peerage, baronetage and landed gentry of the United Kingdom. His first publication, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom, was updated sporadically until 1847, when the company began releasing new editions every year as Burke's Peerage and Knightage. Other books followed, including Burke's Landed Gentry, Burke's Colonial Gentry, Burke's General Armory. In addition to the peerage, Burke's published books on royal families of Europe and Latin America, ruling families of Africa and the Middle East, distinguished families of the United States and historical families of Ireland; the firm was established in 1826 by progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds. His son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms.
After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people. Apart from the Burke family, editors have included Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Alfred Trego Butler, Leslie Gilbert Pine, Peter Townend, Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd. From the start, Burke's works suffered from pomposity and carelessness. Readers may have accepted as a minor eccentricity of style the idolisation of medieval figures who were little more than brigands and the ludicrously reverential tone adopted towards otherwise insignificant people who happened to possess a title or were related to a titled person; the major fault of substance, was the frequent and evident inaccuracy of the articles. Without much knowledge of history or genealogy, one could see improbabilities and inconsistencies both within articles and between articles. Errors in existing articles remained uncorrected between editions and new errors were added in new articles. A minor example can be found as late as 1953, where the article on the Baden-Powell barony contained a statement about the relationship of the first baron to the family of the first Earl Nelson, not supported by the article on the Nelson earldom, because there was no relationship and the statement was untrue.
When such carelessness was shown over recent links, what hope had readers of finding accurate guidance over titles with complicated ascents going back to remote medieval times? Serious scholars have always taken little account of Burke's books, exposing their flaws from time to time. In 1877, the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman attacked in language of unexampled scorn, the fables and the fictions in Burke's, where he could find a pedigree, purely mythical – if indeed mythical is not too respectable a name for what must be in many cases the work of deliberate invention …. All but invariably false; as a rule, it is not only false, but impossible … not fictions, but that kind of fiction which is, in its beginning and interested falsehood. The reputation of the imprint in informed circles was well established by 1893 when Oscar Wilde in the play A Woman of No Importance wrote: "You should study the Peerage, Gerald, it is the one book a young man about town should know and it is the best thing in fiction the English have done!"
Such barbs had little effect for, writing in 1901, the historian J. Horace Round aimed many blows at the old fables and grotesquely impossible tales still being perpetuated by Burke's. More recent editions have been more scrupulously checked and rewritten for accuracy, notably under the chief editorship, from 1949-59, of L. G. Pine-, sceptical regarding many families' claims to antiquity: - and Hugh Massingberd. Almanach de Gotha Burke’s Landed Gentry Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage European royalty Hereditary peers Life Peers Baronets Burke's Peerage website Burke's Peerage Foundation website College of Arms website Lyon Court website Standing Council of the Baronetage website 1st edition - 1826 - Hathitrust 3rd edition - 1830 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Google Books 4th edition - corrected to 1833 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 5th edition - 1838 - Google Books 6th edition - 1839 - Hathitrust 7th edition - 1843 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 10th edition - 1848 - Hathitrust 12th edition - 1850 - Hathitrust 20th edition - 1858 - Hathitrust 22nd edition - 1860 - Hathitrust 23rd edition - 1861 - Hathitrust 27th edition - 1865 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 37th edition - 1875 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 48th edition - 1886 - University of Dusseldorf 53rd edition - 1891 - University of Dusseldorf 76th edition - 1914 - Archive.org 99th edition - 1949 - Archive.org 102nd edition - 1959 - Hathitrust