The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Upper West Side
The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, bounded by Central Park and the Hudson River, West 59th Street and West 110th Street. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent residential area with many of its residents working in commercial areas of Midtown and Lower Manhattan, it has the reputation of being New York City's cultural and intellectual hub, with Columbia University and Barnard College located just past the north end of the neighborhood, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts located at the south end. The Upper West Side is considered to be among New York City's wealthiest neighborhoods; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, the Hudson River to the west, 110th Street to the north.
The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is identified as Manhattan Valley. The overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, Central Park West; the 66-block stretch of Broadway forms the spine of the neighborhood and runs diagonally north/south across the other avenues at the south end of the neighborhood. Broadway enters the neighborhood at its juncture with Central Park West at Columbus Circle, crosses Columbus Avenue at Lincoln Square, Amsterdam Avenue at Verdi Square, merges with West End Avenue at Straus Park. Traditionally the neighborhood ranged from the former village of Harsenville, centered on the old Bloomingdale Road and 65th Street, west to the railroad yards along the Hudson north to 110th Street, where the ground rises to Morningside Heights. With the construction of Lincoln Center, its name, though not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street.
With the arrival of the corporate headquarters and expensive condos of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, the Riverside South apartment complex built by Donald Trump, the area from 58th Street to 65th Street is referred to as Lincoln Square by realtors who acknowledge a different tone and ambiance than that associated with the Upper West Side. This is a reversion to the neighborhood's historical name; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department; the long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people. A combination of the stream valleys, such as that in which 96th Street runs, wetlands to the northeast and east, may have protected a portion of the Upper West Side from the Lenape's controlled burns. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New York's most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road.
It became infilled with smaller, more suburban villas in the first half of the nineteenth century, in the middle of the century, parts had become decidedly lower class. The name "Bloomingdale District" was used to refer to a part of the Upper West Side – the present-day Manhattan Valley neighborhood – located between 96th and 110th Streets and bounded on the east by Amsterdam Avenue and on the west by Riverside Drive, Riverside Park, the Hudson River, its name was a derivation of the description given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland from Bloemendaal, a town in the tulip region. The Dutch Anglicized the name to "Bloomingdale" or "the Bloomingdale District", to the west side of Manhattan from about 23rd Street up to the Hollow Way, it consisted of villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots and absorbed into the city. By the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the city's well-off, a major parcel of, the Apthorp Farm.
The main artery of this area was the Bloomingdale Road, which began north of where Broadway and the Bowery Lane join and wended its way northward up to about modern 116th Street in Morningside Heights, where the road further north was known as the Kingsbridge Road. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Strycker's Bay, Bloomingdale Village. With the building of the Croton Aqueduct passing down the area between present day Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue in 1838–42, the northern reaches of the district became divided into Manhattan Valley to the east of the aqueduct and Bloomingdale to the west. Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street. Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping and manufacturing corridor; the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, soon ran along the riverbank.
One major non-industrial deve
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Concerts are held in a wide variety and size of settings, from private houses and small nightclubs, dedicated concert halls and parks to large multipurpose buildings, sports stadiums. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts. Informal names for a concert include gig. Regardless of the venue, musicians perform on a stage. Concerts require live event support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. While the first concerts didn’t appear until the late 17th century, similar gatherings had been around throughout the 17th century at several European universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Though, the first public concerts that required an admission were created by the English violinist, John Banister.
Over the next few centuries, concerts began to gain larger audiences, classical symphonies were popular. After World War 2, these events changed into the modern concerts that take place today. An example of an early, post-WW2 concert is the Moondog Coronation Ball; as stated in the general history part above, the first known occurrence of concerts where people are charged admission took place at violinist John Banister's home in Whitefriars, London in 1672. 6 years in 1678, a man by the name of Thomas Britton held weekly concerts in Clerkenwell. However, these concerts were different. Before, you had an admission that you paid upon entering the building where the concert was held but at Britton's concerts, patrons purchased a yearly subscription to come to the concerts. At 10 shillings a year, people could see as many concerts. In addition to holding concerts at certain venues, concerts went to the people. In 17th century France, concerts were performed for only the nobility. Organized by Anne Danican Philidor, the first public concerts in France, arguably the world, were the Concerts Spirituels.
These concerts were held on religious holidays when the Opera was closed and served as a model for concert societies all over the world. In the late 18th century, music from the likes of Haydn and Mozart was brought and performed in English concerts. One notable work from Haydn performed at these concerts was his set of 12 symphonies referred to as the London Symphonies. Concerts reflecting the elegance of England during the time period were held at the gardens of Vauxhall and Marylebone; the musical repertoire performed at these events ranged from works composed by young Mozart, to songs that were popular in that time period. The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, individual performers, the venue. Concerts by a small jazz combo or small bluegrass band may have the same order of program and volume—but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress and behavior. For example, concert goers in the 1960s had long hair and inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers.
Regular attendees to a concert venue might have a recognizable style that comprises that venue's scene. A recital is a concert by small group which follows a program, it can highlight a single performer, sometimes accompanied by piano, or a performance of the works of a single composer, or a single instrument. The invention of the solo piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. A recital may have many participants, as for a dance recital. A dance recital is a presentation of choreographed moves for an audience in an established performing arts venue competitively; some dance recitals are seasonal. Some performers or groups put on elaborate and expensive shows. To create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, performers include additional entertainment devices; these can include elaborate stage lighting, electronic imagery via system and/or pre-recorded video, inflatable sets, artwork or other set pieces, various special effects such as theatrical smoke and fog and pyrotechnics, unusual costumes or wardrobe.
Some singers popular music, augment concert sound with pre-recorded accompaniment, back-up dancers, broadcast vocal tracks of the singer's own voice. Activities during these concerts can include dancing, sing-alongs, moshing. Performers known for including these elements in their performances include: Pink Floyd, The Flaming Lips, Prince, Alice Cooper, Iron Maiden, Daft Punk, Lady Gaga, Jean Michel Jarre, Sarah Brightman, KISS, Gwar and Madonna. Classical concerts embody two different styles of classical music — orchestral and choral, they are performed by a plethora of different groups in concert halls or other performing art venues. For orchestra, depending on the number of performers and the instruments used, concerts include chamber music, chamber orchestra, or symphony orchestra. Chamber orchestra is a small-scale orchestra containing between ten to forty members string instruments, led by a conductor. Symphony orchestra, on the other hand, is a large-scale orchestra that can have up to eighty or more members, led by a conductor and is performed with instruments such as strings, brass instruments, percussion.
For choral style pieces, concerts include Choral music and musical theater. Each encompassing a variety of singers who are organized by a conductor or
J. Cleaveland Cady
Josiah Cleaveland Cady known as J. Cleaveland Cady He was a New York-based architect whose most familiar surviving building is the south range of the American Museum of Natural History on New York's Upper West Side, he worked in partnership from 1870 with Milton See and from 1873 with Louis DeCoppet Berg in the firm of Cady, Berg & See. The firm was dissolved in 1909. Cady was the son of Josiah Cady and his wife Lydia, of Providence, Rhode Island, where he was born, he graduated from Trinity College, Connecticut, in 1860. Cady was a devoted Presbyterian, who served as head of the Sunday school at the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant, East 42nd Street. Here he utilized the Carpenter Gothic or Stick Style to create a surprising effect for this wood-frame church building set on a hillside overlooking Oyster Bay. Cady was the architect of the original Metropolitan Opera House, opened October 1883. Suitable to the Italian opera, central to the repertory as New Yorkers conceived it, the new house for the Metropolitan Opera presented a palazzo-like full front on Broadway between 39th and 40th streets that offered three tiers of arched triple openings framed by strong masonry piers.
Soon the facade was flanked by matching seven-story towers, to provide extra space and income to support the opera. Cady's original auditorium was gutted by fire on August 27, 1892; the American Museum of Natural History has a magnificently rusticated Richardsonian Romanesque entrance range by Cady, Berg & See, stretching 707 feet along its 77th Street frontage. The Museum preserves its Cady auditorium, restored in 2002 as the Samuel J. and Ethel LeFrak Theater. Cady and See designed the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, the Skin and Cancer Hospital, Bellevue Medical School, the Hudson Street Hospital, many churches, they designed many college buildings, fifteen buildings for Yale University alone, buildings for Williams College, Trinity College in Hartford and for Wesleyan University. Cady served as a trustee for Berea College in Berea, during the tenure of President William Goodell Frost, Cady's nephew, he designed many of the buildings on the Berea College Campus. At Trinity College, Cady's 1878 St. Anthony Hall is massively rusticated Richardsonian Romanesque in style, with narrow "arrow-slit" windows and a tall cylindrical tower with a steep conical roof.
The tower is half-embedded within the densely massed picturesque structure. In 1880, Berg & See were hired by William West Durant to design a summer chapel on an island in Raquette Lake, New York, to entice his wealthy acquaintances to build their summer homes in the area; the chapel was constructed in the Stick Style. The plans were used in 1881, modified by Durant at the request of Harriet Beecher Stowe, for the Church of Our Saviour in Mandarin and again in 1883 for the Church of the Good Shepherd in Beattystown, New Jersey. Ten years Cady again built a chapel on Raquette Lake, St. William's Roman Catholic Church on Long Point, again in Shingle Style, for Durant's employees and local residents. Both churches, only accessible by water and reflect the Adirondack heritage. Among the firm's New York houses was 858 Fifth Avenue. In 1909, after Cady, Berg & See was dissolved and William S. Gregory formed a partnership known as "Cady & Gregory," with offices at 40 West 32nd Street, New York. Buildings designed by Cady which survive and which are listed on the U.
S. National Register of Historic Places include: American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 77th St. New York, New York Barron Library, 582 Rahway Ave. Woodbridge, New Jersey Boone Tavern Hotel, 100 Main St. Berea, Kentucky Church of the Holy Communion, Summit Ave. Norwood, New Jersey Cliffside, Lawrence Ln. S of River Rd. Palisades, New York Demarest Railroad Depot, 38 Park St. Demarest Borough, New Jersey First Presbyterian Church of Albany, New York First Presbyterian Church of Ithaca, New York, 1901 First Presbyterian Church of Oyster Bay, E. Main St. Oyster Bay, New York First Romanian-American Congregation Synagogue, 89-93 Rivington St. New York, New York Grace Episcopal Church Complex, 15515 Jamaica Ave. Queens, New York Othniel C. Marsh House, 360 Prospect St. New Haven, Connecticut, a U. S. National Historic Landmark One or more properties in Plantsville Historic District, Roughly bounded by Prospect St. Summer St. Quinnipiac River, Grove St. S. Main St. W. Main St. and West St. Southington, Connecticut Saint Anthony Hall, 340 Summit St. Hartford, Connecticut St. William's Catholic Church, Long Point on Raquette Lake, Long Lake, New York One or more properties in Upper Closter-Alpine Historic District, Roughly bounded by Forest St. Old Dock Rd.
School House Ln. Church St. and Closter Dock Rd. Alpine, New Jersey Cady presented his architectural library to Trinity College in 1918 and died the following year at his apartment, 214 Riverside Drive. A 1993 Trinity College exhibition "Forgotten architect of the gilded age: Josiah Cleaveland Cady's legacy" with a catalogue by Kathleen A. Curran, failed to cause Cady's reputation to rebound
Metropolitan Stadium was a sports stadium that once stood in Bloomington, just outside Minneapolis. The Minneapolis Millers minor league baseball team played at Met Stadium from 1956 to 1960; the Minnesota Twins and the Minnesota Vikings played at the "Met" from 1961 to 1981. The North American Soccer League soccer team Minnesota Kicks played there from 1976 to 1981; the area where the stadium once stood is now the site of the Mall of America. Beginning in 1953, inspired by the Boston Braves' move to Milwaukee, Gerald Moore, the president of the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce, led the drive to lure a Major League team to Minnesota by constructing a modern stadium built to Major League specifications. After the rejection of numerous sites, a stadium committee appointed by Moore approved a 160-acre plot of farmland in Bloomington; the stadium would replace Nicollet Park as the home of the American Association's Minneapolis Millers. The site was equidistant from the downtowns of Minneapolis and St. Paul, it was believed this would be the best location for a prospective Major League team.
After a plan by architects Thorshov & Cerny won approval, groundbreaking was scheduled to begin on June 20, 1955. The construction was delayed, when the owners of the property on which the stadium would be built on began a protest, claiming they had not yet been paid. One of these owners created a barricade of farm equipment along his property line that ran directly through where the stadium's infield would be; the dispute was settled in time for the groundbreaking to move forward as planned. Many spectators and dignitaries attended the groundbreaking, including Minneapolis mayor Eric G. Hoyer and several members of the Minneapolis Millers. On February 7, 1956, an accident occurred on the construction site when a portable heater used to cure concrete exploded in the stadium's basement. After $50,000 of repairs and a three-week delay in construction, Metropolitan Stadium opened in time to hold its first game, a minor league contest between the Millers and the Wichita Braves on April 24 of that year.
In the 1950s, major league owners Calvin Griffith and Horace Stoneham called the stadium the finest facility in the minors. Under major league rules of the time, the Giants owned the major league rights to the Minneapolis area. Negotiations were held with Griffith's Washington Senators, as well as the Cincinnati Reds, Cleveland Indians, Philadelphia Athletics. However, the Giants chose to follow the Brooklyn Dodgers to the west coast at the urging of Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley, who owned the Millers' crosstown rivals, the St. Paul Saints. San Francisco had long been home to the Pacific Coast League's San Francisco Seals, the top farm team of the Boston Red Sox; as part of the deal, the Millers' parent team became the Red Sox, who had no plans to move anywhere in the foreseeable future. Multiple exhibition games featuring Major League teams were held at the Met at this time; the latter game brought 15,990 fans to the stadium, including Calvin Griffith, who described the stadium as "terrific."
In October 1960, Calvin Griffith announced that his Washington Senators would move to Metropolitan Stadium and became the Minnesota Twins. The Twins played their first home game on April 1961 with a loss to the new Washington Senators; the Millers and their perennial crosstown rival St. Paul Saints were promptly folded by Major League Baseball. To ready the stadium for the Twins, a $9 million renovation increased the seating capacity from about 22,000 to over 30,000 by the completion of the Twins' inaugural season. During the Twins' first 10 seasons at the Met, they outdrew the average American League team each year; the National Football League was interested in placing a team at the Met. Conversations were had with Violet Bidwill Wolfner, owner of the Chicago Cardinals, about moving her team to the stadium; the Cardinals moved two of their regular season home games against the Philadelphia Eagles and New York Giants to Bloomington for the 1959 NFL season. A preseason football game was held each year at the Met from 1956 to 1960.
September 15, 1956 Pittsburgh Steelers 14 Philadelphia Eagles 12 September 21, 1957 Green Bay Packers 10 Pittsburgh 10 September 21, 1958 Chicago Cardinals 31 Green Bay 24 September 20, 1959 Green Bay 13 Pittsburgh 10 September 11, 1960 Green Bay 28 Dallas Cowboys 23 Finally, the Met got a football team when the American Football League announced Minneapolis- St. Paul as one of its charter cities for the 1960 AFL season. However, the NFL persuaded the team's owners to pull out of the AFL in January 1960 and join the NFL as an expansion team in 1961; the NFL team was named the Minnesota Vikings. As it turned out, the year's delay worked to the Vikings' benefit, as by the Twins had moved in and the Met had been expanded to befit its status as a big-league stadium. (The Chicago Cardin
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a 16.3-acre complex of buildings in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It hosts many notable performing arts organizations, which are nationally and internationally renowned, including the New York Philharmonic, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Ballet and the New York City Opera. A consortium of civic leaders and others led by, under the initiative of, John D. Rockefeller III built Lincoln Center as part of the "Lincoln Square Renewal Project" during Robert Moses' program of urban renewal in the 1950s and 1960s. Respected architects were contracted to design the major buildings on the site, over the next thirty years the diverse working class area around Lincoln Center was replaced with a conglomeration of high culture to please the tastes of the consortium. Rockefeller was Lincoln Center's inaugural president from 1956 and became its chairman in 1961, he is credited with raising more than half of the $184.5 million in private funds needed to build the complex, including drawing on his own funds.
The center's three buildings, David Geffen Hall, David H. Koch Theater and the Metropolitan Opera House were opened in 1962, 1964 and 1966, respectively. While the center may have been named because it was located in the Lincoln Square neighborhood, it is unclear whether the area was named as a tribute to U. S. President Abraham Lincoln; the name was bestowed on the area in 1906 by the New York City Board of Aldermen, but records give no reason for choosing that name. There has long been speculation that the name came from a local landowner, because the square was named Lincoln Square. City records from the time show only the names Johannes van Bruch, Thomas Hall, Stephan de Lancey, James de Lancey, James de Lancey, Jr. and John Somerindyck as area property owners. One speculation is that references to President Lincoln were omitted from the records because the mayor in 1906 was George B. McClellan Jr. son of General George B. McClellan, general-in-chief of the Union Army early in the American Civil War and a bitter rival of Lincoln's.
Architects who designed buildings at the center include: Diller Scofidio + Renfro: Public spaces, Hypar Pavilion and Lincoln Ristorante, The Juilliard School, Alice Tully Hall, School of American Ballet, Josie Robertson Plaza, Revson Fountain, President's Bridge and Infoscape Max Abramovitz: David Geffen Hall, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Pietro Belluschi: The Juilliard School. Modified by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in association with FXFOWLE Architects Gordon Bunshaft: The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Wallace Harrison: the center's master plan, the Metropolitan Opera House, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Lee S Jablin: 3 Lincoln Center, the adjacent condominium built by a private developer Philip Johnson: New York State Theater, now known as the David H. Koch Theater, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza and original Revson Fountain Eero Saarinen: Vivian Beaumont Theater Davis and Associates: The Samuel B. and David Rose Building. Billie Tsien, Tod William: The David Rubenstein Atrium Hugh Hardy/H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture LLC: The Claire Tow Theater WET Design: Revson Fountain The first structure to be completed and occupied as part of this renewal was the Fordham Law School of Fordham University in 1962.
Located between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues, from West 60th to 66th Streets in Lincoln Square, on Manhattan's Upper West Side, the complex was the first gathering of major cultural institutions into a centralized location in an American city. The development of the condominium at 3 Lincoln Center, completed in 1991, designed by Lee Jablin of Harman Jablin Architects, made possible the expansion of The Juilliard School and the School of American Ballet; the center's cultural institutions make use of facilities located away from the main campus. In 2004, the center expanded through the addition of Jazz at Lincoln Center's newly built facilities, the Frederick P. Rose Hall, at the new Time Warner Center, located a few blocks to the south. In March 2006, the center launched construction on a major redevelopment plan that modernized and opened up its campus. Redevelopment was completed in 2012 with the completion of the President's Bridge over West 65th Street; when first announced in 1999, Lincoln Center's campuswide redevelopment was to cost $1.5 billion over 10 years and radically transform the campus.
The center management held an architectural competition, won by the British architect Norman Foster in 2005, but did not approve a full scale redesign until 2012, in part because of the need to raise $300 million in construction costs and the New York Philharmonic's fear that it might lose audiences and revenue while it was displaced. Among the architects that have been involved were Frank Gehry. In March 2006, the center launched the 65th Street Project – part of a major redevelopment plan continuing through the fall of 2012 – to create a new pedestrian promenade designed to improve accessibility and the aesthetics of that area of the campus. Additionally, Alice Tully Hall was modernized and reopened to critical and popular acclaim in 2009 and the Film Society of Lincoln Center expanded with the new Elinor Bunin Munroe Film Center. Top