Essex County Council
Essex County Council is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of Essex in England. It has 75 councillors, elected from 70 divisions, is controlled by the Conservative Party; the council meets at County Hall in the centre of Chelmsford. It is a member of the East of England Local Government Association. At the time of the 2011 census it served a population of 1,393,600, which makes it one of the largest local authorities in England; as a non-metropolitan county council, responsibilities are shared between districts and in many areas between civil parish councils. Births, marriages/civil partnerships and death registration, roads and archives, refuse disposal, most of state education, of social services and of transport are provided at the county level; the county council was formed in 1889. West Ham, otherwise part of Essex at the time, was a county borough and therefore outside the area of responsibility for the county council. Southend-on-Sea and East Ham were removed. In 1965 Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford, and'Wanstead and Woodford' were transferred to Greater London.
The county council was reconstituted in 1974 as a non-metropolitan county council, regaining jurisdiction in Southend-on-Sea, however the non-metropolitan county was reduced in size in 1998 and the council passed responsibilities to Southend-on-Sea Borough Council and Thurrock Council in those districts. For certain services the three authorities co-operate through joint arrangements, such as libraries and, until 2017, the Essex fire authority. Following the 2013 County Council elections the Conservative Party retained overall control of the council, but their majority fell from twenty-two to 7 councillors. UKIP, Labour and the Liberal Democrats all won nine seats. Of the three second-placed parties who won nine seats, UKIP gained the largest share of the county-wide vote, more than 10% ahead of the Labour party; the Liberal Democrats remained despite winning fewer votes. The Green Party gained two seats despite its overall share of the vote falling; the Independent Loughton Residents Association and the Canvey Island Independent Party both returned one member and an Independent candidate was elected.
In the 2017 election, 56 Conservatives were elected, 7 Liberal Democrats, 6 Labour, 2 Canvey Island Independent party, 1 Loughton Residents Association, 1 Green and 2 independents. The independents and minor parties have since 2006 formed themselves into a political group, known as the Non-aligned group, duly did so again on 9 May 2017; the Group Leaders are Ivan Henderson and Chris Pond. All 75 members of the Council are thus members of a political group. However, one Conservative was suspended by the national party and thus from the Annual Council Meeting of 2018 sat as an independent; the next election will be in 2021. The county of Essex is divided into 12 borough councils with 2 unitary authorities; the 12 councils manage housing, local planning, refuse collection, street cleaning and meet in their respective civic offices. The local representatives are elected in parts in local elections, held every year; the County Council has no say in the work of the two unitary authorities, but works with them.
In late January 2019, Essex County Council was criticised and accused of bigotry for using a picture of a person removing a wig to depict transgender people. The image was placed on a consultation document regarding library cuts; the Essex County Council has a Youth Assembly, 75 members aged between 11 and 19 who aim to represent all young people in their districts across Essex. They decide on the priorities for young people and campaign to make a positive difference. With this, some district and unitary authorities may have their own youth councils, such as Epping Forest and Harlow; the elections to the Young Essex Assembly occur in the respective schools in which the candidates are standing. These young people will go on to represent their school and their entire district; the initiative seeks to engage younger people in the county and rely on the youth councilors of all status to work with schools and youth centres to improve youth services in Essex and help voice concerns of younger people in Essex.
Twelve of the members will be voted for by the remaining youth councillors to go to the UK Youth Parliament representing Essex. As of 5 May 2017, the composition of the council is as follows: Sir Sydney Walter Robinson Liberal member of parliament for Chelmsford Beryl Platt, Baroness Platt of Writtle, Chairman 1971–1980 Robert Dixon-Smith, Baron Dixon-Smith, Chairman 1986–1989 Paul White, Baron Hanningfield, Chairman 1989–1992, Leader 2001–2010 Angela Smith, Baroness Smith of Basildon, member 1989–1993 member of parliament for Basildon and a peer since 2010 Essex Act 1987
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, England. It is located 18 miles south-east of Central London, is situated adjacent to the London Borough of Bexley to its west. To its north, across the Thames estuary, is Thurrock in Essex, which can be reached via the Dartford Crossing; the town centre lies in a valley through which the River Darent flows, where the old road from London to Dover crossed: hence the name, from Darent + ford. Dartford became a market town in medieval times and, although today it is principally a commuter town for Greater London, it has a long history of religious and cultural importance, it is an important rail hub. Dartford is twinned with Hanau in Gravelines in France. Dartford lies within the area known as the London Basin; the low-lying marsh to the north of the town consists of London Clay, the alluvium brought down by the two rivers—the Darent and the Cray—whose confluence is in this area. The higher land on which the town stands, through which the narrow Darent valley runs, consists of chalk surmounted by the Blackheath Beds of sand and gravel.
As a human settlement, Dartford became established as a river crossing-point with the coming of the Romans. As a result, the town's main road pattern makes the shape of letter'T'; the Dartford Marshes to the north, the proximity of Crayford in the London Borough of Bexley to the west, mean that the town's growth is to the south and east. Wilmington is contiguous with the town to the south. Within the town boundaries there are several distinct areas: the town centre around the parish church and along the High Street; the open spaces are Central Park, alongside the river. Like most of the United Kingdom, Dartford has an oceanic climate. In prehistoric times, the first people appeared in the Dartford area around 250,000 years ago: a tribe of prehistoric hunter-gatherers whose exemplar is called Swanscombe Man. Many other archaeological investigations have revealed a good picture of occupation of the district with important finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age; when the Romans engineered the Dover to London road, it was necessary to cross the River Darent by ford, giving the settlement its name.
Roman villas were built along the Darent Valley, at Noviomagus, close by. The Saxons may have established the first settlement. Dartford manor is mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled after the Norman conquest, it was owned by the king. During the medieval period Dartford was an important waypoint for pilgrims and travellers en route to Canterbury and the Continent, various religious orders established themselves in the area. In the 12th century the Knights Templar had possession of the manor of Dartford. In the 14th century, a priory was established here, two groups of friars—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—built hospitals here for the care of the sick. At this time the town became a important market town. Wat Tyler, of Peasants' Revolt fame, might well have been a local hero, although three other towns in Kent all claim and there are reasons to doubt the strength of Tyler's connection to Dartford, though the existence of a town centre public house named after him could give credence to Dartford's claim.
Dartford, cannot claim a monopoly on public houses named after Tyler. It is probable that Dartford was a key meeting point early in the Peasants' Revolt with a detachment of Essex rebels marching south to join Kentish rebels at Dartford before accompanying them to Rochester and Canterbury in the first week of June 1381. Although lacking a leader, Kentishmen had assembled at Dartford around 5 June through a sense of county solidarity at the mistreatment of Robert Belling, a man claimed as a serf by Sir Simon Burley. Burley had abused his royal court connections to invoke the arrest of Belling and, despite a compromise being proposed by bailiffs in Gravesend, continued to demand the impossible £300 of silver for Belling's release. Having left for Rochester and Canterbury on 5 June, the rebels passed back through Dartford, swollen in number, a week on 12 June en route for London. In the 15th century, two kings of England became part of the town's history. Henry V marched through Dartford in November 1415 with his troops after fighting the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
In March 1452, Duke of York, camped at the Brent with ten thousand men, waiting for a confrontation with King Henry VI. The Duke surrendered to the king in Dartford; the place of the camp is marked today by Dartford. The 16th century saw significant changes to the hitherto agrarian basis of the market in Dartford, as new industries began to take shape; the priory was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and a new manor house was subsequently constructed by King Henry VIII. In 1545, Henry held a series of meetings of his Privy Council in the town, from 21 to 25 June 1545 Dartford was the seat
Municipal Borough of Richmond (Surrey)
The Municipal Borough of Richmond or Richmond Municipal Borough was a municipal borough in Surrey, England from 1890 to 1965. The borough was created in 1890 under a Royal Charter, covering the civil parish of Richmond St Mary Magdalene; this soon expanded with consent from Surrey County Council in 1892 to cover the parishes of Kew and most of Mortlake. John Whittaker Ellis was its first mayor, he purchased the building in Richmond which became the town hall, the street in which it is located is named Whittaker Avenue after him. Under the Local Government Act 1894, the Mortlake civil parish was split, with the majority covering 1,554 acres outside the borough becoming the west of the Barnes Urban District and the rest remaining and forming a new North Sheen civil parish. In 1933 the borough was the main recipient of the land and main settlement in the defunct Ham Urban District, an urban district since 1894; the borough was abolished in 1965 when it was replaced by the larger London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Surrey County Council was replaced here by Greater London local government institutions, at which time the ceremonial county changed.
John Whittaker Ellis James Szlumper The coat of arms of the borough was granted on 19 June 1891. The arms is per fess gules and azure on a fess ermine between in chief a lion passant guardant between two portcullises or and in base a swan argent upon water proper; the crest was a stag regardant proper, holding in its mouth two roses on one stem, one argent, the other gules, supporting with the dexter fore hoof a shield or a wreath vert. The portcullises and lion were all associated with King Henry VII, who brought the rival houses of Lancaster and York together and helped build the palace; the swan represented the River Thames. The stag represented Richmond Park and Old Deer Park, the wreath the idea of municipality. Today the arms may still be seen in five places in Richmond: on the sign of the pub called The Richmond Arms in Princes Street. There is n example on display at the Museum of Richmond. Survey of medical archives in London, including Richmond, from the Wellcome Library
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames known as Kingston, is an area of southwest London, England, 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Kingston is about 33 feet above sea level, it is notable as the ancient market town. Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. Since 1965 Kingston has been a part of Greater London, it has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, extraterritorially in terms of local government administration. Most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead; the 2011 Census recorded the population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Grove and Tudor, as 43,013. Kingston was called Cyninges tun in AD 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589.
The name means ` the king's manor or estate' from the Old English words tun. It was the earliest royal borough; the first surviving record of Kingston is from AD 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the early tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England; because of the town's symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946 and Æthelred in 978. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975, it was thought that the coronations were conducted in the chapel of St Mary, which collapsed in 1730, a large stone recovered from the ruins has been regarded since the 18th century as the Coronation Stone. It was used as a mounting block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall.
For much of the 20th century, Kingston was a major military aircraft manufacturing centre specialising in fighter aircraft – first with Sopwith Aviation, H G Hawker Engineering Hawker Aircraft, Hawker Siddeley and British Aerospace. The renowned Sopwith Camel, Hawker Fury, Hurricane and Harrier were all designed and built in the town and examples of all of these aircraft can be seen today at the nearby Brooklands Museum in Weybridge. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingston's achievements in aviation. British Aerospace closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992; the growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town. Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey; the parish of Kingston upon Thames covered a large area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton and East Molesey. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208 and this document is housed in the town's archives.
Other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IV's charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a much smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough and parish became identical in 1894; the borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames. It had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927. Kingston upon Thames has been the seat of Surrey County Council since it moved from Newington in 1893. In 1965 the local government of Greater London was reorganised and the municipal borough was abolished, its former area was merged with that of the Municipal Borough of Surbiton and the Municipal Borough of Malden and Coombe, to form the London Borough of Kingston upon Thames. At the request of Kingston upon Thames London Borough Council another Royal Charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth II entitling it to continue using the title "Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames" for the new borough.
Kingston was built at the first crossing point of the Thames upstream from London Bridge and a bridge still exists at the same site. It was this ` great bridge'. Kingston was occupied by the Romans, it was either a royal residence or a royal demesne. There is a record of a council held there in 838, at which Egbert of Wessex, King of Wessex, his son Ethelwulf of Wessex were present. In the Domesday Book it was held by William the Conqueror, its domesday assets were: a church, five mills, four fisheries worth 10s, 27 ploughs, 40 acres of meadow, woodland worth six hogs. It rendered £31 10s. In 1730 the chapel containing the royal effigies collapsed, burying the sexton, digging a grave, the sexton's daughter and another person; the daughter was her father's successor as sexton. Kingston sent members to early Parliaments, until a petition by the inhabitants prayed to be relieved from the burden. Another chapel, the collegiate chapel of St Mary Magdalene, The Lovekyn Chapel, still exists, it was founded in 1309 by a former mayor of London, Ed
Loughton is a town and civil parish in the Epping Forest District of Essex and, for statistical purposes, part of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area. It is located between 11 and 13 miles north east of Charing Cross in London, south of the M25 and west of the M11 motorway and has boundaries with Chingford, Waltham Abbey, Theydon Bois and Buckhurst Hill. Loughton includes three conservation areas and there are 56 listed buildings in the town, together with a further 50 that are locally listed; the parish of Loughton covers an area of about 3,724 acres, of which over 1,300 acres are part of Epping Forest. The ancient parish contained over 3,900 acres, but in 1996 some parts of the south of the old parish were transferred to Buckhurst Hill parish, other small portions to Chigwell and Theydon Bois. At the time of the 2001 census Loughton had a population of 30,340, at the 2011 Census, 31,106, it is the most populous civil parish in the Epping Forest district, within Essex it is the second most populous civil parish and the second largest in the area.
The earliest structure in Loughton is Loughton Camp, an Iron Age earth fort in Epping Forest dating from around 500 BC. Hidden by dense undergrowth for centuries it was rediscovered in 1872; the first references to the site of modern-day Loughton date from the Anglo-Saxon period when it was known as Lukintune. The earliest written evidence of this settlement is in the charter of Edward the Confessor in 1062 which granted various estates, including Tippedene and Alwartune, to Harold Godwinson following his re-founding of Waltham Abbey. Following the Norman conquest, the town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, with the name Lochintuna; the settlement remained a small village until the early 17th century when the high road was extended north through the forest. The road became the main route from London to Cambridge and East Anglia, Loughton grew into an important stop with coaching inns; the most significant of the great houses of this period, built as country retreats for wealthy City merchants and courtiers, was Loughton Hall, owned by Mary Tudor two months before she became Queen Mary of England in 1553, by the Wroth family from 1578 to 1738.
Sir Robert Wroth and his wife Lady Mary Wroth entertained many of the great literary figures of the time, including Ben Jonson, at the house. It was rebuilt in 1878 by Revd. J. W. Maitland, whose family held the manor for much of the 19th century, it is a grade II listed building. Loughton's growth since Domesday has been at the expense of the forest. Expansion towards the River Roding was arrested owing to the flooding marshy meadows, encroachments into the forest to the north and west of the village were possible. Loughton landlords and villagers both exploited the forest waste, but the trickle of forest destruction threatened to turn into a flood in the 19th century after royalty had lost interest in protecting the woodland as a hunting reserve; as the forest disappeared and landowners began enclosing more of it for private use, many began to express concern at the loss of such a significant natural resource and common land. Some Loughton villagers defied landowners to practice their ancient right to lop wood—a series of court cases, including one brought by the Loughton labourer Thomas Willingale, was needed before the City of London Corporation took legal action against the landowners' enclosures, resulting in the Epping Forest Act of 1878 which preserved the forest for use by the public.
The arrival of the railway spurred on the town's development. The railway first came to Loughton in 1856 when the Eastern Counties Railway, opened a branch line via Woodford. In 1948 the line was electrified and transferred to London Transport to become part of the Central line on the London Underground; the arrival of the railway provided visitors from London with a convenient means of reaching Epping Forest and thus transforming it into the "East Enders' Playground". The Ragged School Union began organising visits to the forest for parties of poor East End children in 1891 paid for by the Pearsons Fresh Air Fund. Loughton artist Octavius Dixie Deacon depicted many scenes of the town including some of its residents during the late Victorian period; as the Great Eastern Railway Company did not offer workmen's fares, the town's development was of a middle-class character. Much of the housing in Loughton was built in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, with significant expansion in the 1930s. Loughton was a fashionable place for artistic and scientific residents in Victorian and Edwardian times, a number of prominent residents were renowned socialists and social reformers.
In the north-east is a post-war development being one of the London County Council's country estates. Built with the express purpose of co-locating industrial and residential properties to facilitate supported re-location of London families affected by war damage within the Capital. Located within Debden's industrial estate is the former printing works of the Bank of England; the headquarters of greeting card company Clinton Cards and construction firm Higgins Group are located within the Debden Industrial Estate. In 2008, electronics firm Amshold announced their intention to move the group's headquarters to Loughton from Brentwood, they moved to a site in Langston Road.