Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England

Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. As constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts, had a county council and were the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies. Changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately, based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. In 2009 and 2019, there were further structural changes in some areas, resulting in a total of 82 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these 82 counties collectively consist of 283 districts or district-level subdivisions, i.e. 36 metropolitan boroughs and 247 non-metropolitan districts. The metropolitan counties are Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and Wear, West Midlands and West Yorkshire.

The counties have populations of 1.2 to 2.8 million. The county councils of these were abolished in 1986, but the counties themselves still exist legally, they are used for some administrative and geographic purposes, are still ceremonial counties. Most of the powers that the former county councils had were devolved to their metropolitan boroughs, which are now in effect unitary authorities. A shire county is a non-metropolitan county, its name does not need to have shire in it. The term shire county is unofficial. There are 28 such counties: Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Sussex, Gloucestershire, Hertfordshire, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Somerset, Suffolk, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire. All, apart from Berkshire, have county councils. Sometimes shire county is used to exclude Berkshire; the counties have populations of 109,000 to 1.4 million. Under local government reforms coming into effect in 2009, the number of such counties was reduced.

The non-metropolitan counties of Bedfordshire and Cheshire were split into two separate non-metropolitan counties while Cornwall, County Durham, Northumberland and Wiltshire became unitary authorities each of a single district. Unitary authorities are areas with only one council, there are 55 in total. 49 are coterminous with a non-metropolitan county, 43 of which are defined as counties with a single district council and no county counci: Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Bournemouth and Hove, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Derby, East Riding of Yorkshire, Hartlepool, Kingston upon Hull, Luton, Middlesbrough, Borough of Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Peterborough, Poole, Portsmouth and Cleveland, South Gloucestershire, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon and Wrekin, Torbay, York. The other 6 are technically counties with a county council and no district councils, but the effect is the same: Isle of Wight, Durham, Northumberland and Wiltshire The remaining 6 unitary authorities are districts of Berkshire, however they are not non-metropolitan counties, as the non-metropolitan county of Berkshire still exists albeit without a county council.

The Local Government Act 1972 created the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts, but excluded two parts of England from the new system, a situation which exists to the present. Greater London was created in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 as a sui generis administrative area, with the Greater London Council functioning as an upper-tier local government, it consists of 33 local authority districts and spans the area, prior made up of the County of London, most of Middlesex, parts of other neighbouring administrative counties. In 1972, no metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties or districts were created in this area. However, the council was abolished along with the metropolitan county councils in 1986. In 1994, Greater London was designated as one of nine regions of England, which each had a government office up until they were abolished 2011. Since 2000, Greater London has had an elected Assembly and Mayor responsible for strategic local government. In the other eight regions, plans for elected assemblies were abandoned, leaving London as the only region with a conterminous authority.

The area does however include two counties for the purposes of lieutenancies: the county of Greater London and the City of London. The Isles of Scilly are, like Greater London, not covered by the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; the Council of the Isles of Scill

Cyclone Savannah

Cyclone Savannah was a strong tropical cyclone that brought significant impacts to Java and Bali and minor impacts to Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands during March 2019. It was the sixteenth tropical low, sixth tropical cyclone and third severe tropical cyclone of the 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season. Savannah developed from a tropical low; the system was slow to develop but reached tropical cyclone intensity on 13 March after adopting a southwesterly track. Savannah underwent rapid intensification and reached peak intensity on 17 March as a Category 4 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian scale. Ten-minute sustained winds were estimated as 175 km/h, with a central barometric pressure of 951 hPa. One-minute sustained winds reached 185 km/h at this time, equivalent to a Category 3 major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Weakening commenced soon afterwards, responsibility for the system passed from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to Météo-France; as it moved into the new region, Savannah became the eighth of a record-breaking ten intense tropical cyclones in the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season.

Savannah was downgraded to a tropical depression on 20 March, its remnants dissipated in the central Indian Ocean on 24 March. Savannah brought significant impacts to Bali early in its lifetime. Prolonged heavy rainfall and river level rise led to widespread flooding and landslides throughout the region. Floodwaters impacted scores of villages, causing damage to thousands of homes, submerging thousands of hectares of agricultural land and cutting off access to key infrastructure and services. Thousands of families were affected during the event, with evacuations occurring both before and after the flooding. According to local media reports, the total damage and economic losses caused by the disaster exceeded Rp106 billion. Ten people were reported to have died during the event, making Savannah the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Australian region since Tropical Cyclone Cempaka in 2017. News reports indicate that at least five people were injured and that one person went missing during the disaster.

During early March, a moderate strength pulse of the Madden-Julian Oscillation tracked eastwards across the tropical Indian Ocean and into the Maritime Continent. The pulse brought with it weak monsoonal conditions to the north of Australia, as well as an atmospheric environment, favourable for tropical cyclogenesis. On 8 March, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology noted the formation of a weak tropical low within a monsoon trough stretching from Java to the Solomon Islands—one of several tropical lows that would develop within this trough. Located south of Bali, 970 km east of Christmas Island, the nascent tropical low began moving westwards. Tracking parallel to the southern coastline of Java, the system passed just to the south of Christmas Island at 06:00 UTC on 11 March, before turning to the northwest; the tropical low executed a poleward turn on 12 March, assuming a course to the southwest by the following day. Tracking away from Indonesia, the storm began to strengthen in a favourable environment.

The BOM upgraded the system to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale at 18:00 UTC on 13 March as it was approaching the Cocos Islands, gave it the name Savannah. Six hours the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center indicated that the system had reached tropical storm strength on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Intensification continued as Savannah passed 110 km to the west of the Cocos Islands, the system reached Category 2 late on 14 March. Savannah became a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone the following day, adopted a track to the west-southwest under the influence of a high-pressure ridge in the mid-troposphere further to the south; the storm began to strengthen on 16 March, reaching peak intensity as a Category 4 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian scale at 06:00 UTC the following day, making it the then-strongest storm of the 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season. The BOM estimated ten-minute sustained winds to be at 175 km/h, gusting to 250 km/h, with a central barometric pressure of 951 hPa.

The JTWC analysed the storm to be producing one-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h, making the system equivalent to a Category 3 major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Severe Tropical Cyclone Savannah soon began to weaken, with ten-minute sustained winds decreasing to 165 km/h six hours later. By 00:00 UTC on 18 March, the system tracked over the 90th meridian east and into the South-West Indian Ocean cyclone region, hence responsibility for the storm transitioned to Météo-France at La Réunion. According to the scale used by MFR, Savannah was reclassified as an intense tropical cyclone, the eighth of a record-breaking ten cyclones of this strength in the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. Upon entering the region, increasing westerly vertical wind shear allowed dry air to become entrained in the storm's circulation. A rapid weakening trend ensued, despite the warm sea surface temperatures in the vicinity; the system's deep convection proceeded to unravel, leaving the low-level circulation centre exposed, ten-minute sustained winds decreased to 75 km/h by 00:00 UTC on 19 March.

As the convective structure weakened further, Savannah was downgraded to a gale-force remnant tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on 20 March. The system turned east-southeastwards before adopting a


Kaskikot known as Kaski, is a Ward no. 24 of the Pokhara metropolitan city. It was earlier a part of the village development committee in Kaski District, a region in northern-central Nepal. Kaskikot is located in Annapurna Massif, north of Fewa Lake at a distance of 12 kilometers west of Pokhara after Sarangkot, it is on the trekking route to the Annapurna region. A mountainside ridge at an altitude of 1,788 meters, Kaskikot provides panoramic Himalayan views. On the northern side of Kaskikot, Dhawalagiri can be seen in the far west; the Annapurna mountain range is visible on the same side. To the east, the village overlooks the city of Pokhara across Fewa Lake. Kaskikot shares its territory with Sarangkot, Chapakot and Hemja. Before the unification of Nepal, there were 24 small principalities in west Nepal, one of, Kaski; the ruins of the old palace of the rulers of Kaski still exist in the ward. The historical kingdom was an early homeland of the Shah dynasty. Kulmandan Shah was one of the rulers.

His descendant Drabya Shah was the first to establish Gorkha, the source of the legendary Gorkha warriors. During Dashain holidays, various cultural events can be witnessed. Kaskikot Kalika Temple lies in the historical palace located at the top of the hill. During Nava Durga and Chaitra Dashain, Kaski Guthi Sanstha organizes worship to goddess Durga Bhawani. Many people gather in Kaskikot Temple during Chaitra Dashain. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census, Kaskikot had a population of 6,075 people residing in 1,185 individual households. According to the census of 2011, the population has decreased to 5,892 people residing in 1,508 households. Most inhabitants depend on agriculture and are members of the Brahmin, Thakuri and Dalit castes. With the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri Himalayas visible to the north, Kaskikot is a tourist destination. There are hotels and guest houses in Mala, Nepal. A milk collection center is located in Guntechour. There are small industries like poultry farming and handicrafts.

General stores provide necessary goods like oil and salts to the community. Kaskikot Women's Financial Organization, founded by Krishna Paudel, has around 1000 members; the Kalika Community Development Organization, located in Guntechour, engages in the development of the village. Numerous organizations and Youths Clubs organize different cultural and development work around the village. There are primary schools in every ward. Kalika Higher Secondary School, located at Mandredhunga is the only Higher education institution teaching up to Class 12; the other Siddha Bahara Lower Secondary School goes up to Class 8. There is a private school, namely Shree Bishwajyoti English Boarding School, that goes up to Class 8. There is a general health post equipped with primary medicine, which operates a monthly health camp around the village. A few health sub-posts provide free vaccination to children. Kaskikot is connected by bus routes. Apart from buses, local agricultural transport jeeps provide a semi-reliable transport service.

There are four rough motor roads connecting Kaskikot. A major road connects Kaskikot to Sarangkot; the other road goes from the beach of Fewa Lake, next to the midway of the hill to Guntechour connecting Naudanda. Raikar Kaskikot Ancient Palace khoriyapani Dhaba Khadgaukot Deurali Dopahare Guntechour Chilimdanda Paharepani Kaule Pame Dhokamukh Gairabari UN map of the municipalities of Kaski District