Finnish Forest Research Institute
The Finnish Forest Research Institute, known as Metla, is a subordinate agency to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the Government of Finland. It has statutory duties to promote, through research, the economical and sustainable management and use of forests. Metla is one of Europe's largest forestry research institutes, with an annual budget of around €40 million and 9 main research units. Official website
Firewood is any wooden material, gathered and used for fuel. Firewood is not processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form, compared to other forms of wood fuel like pellets or chips. Firewood can be unseasoned, it is classified as hardwood or softwood. Firewood is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on a regional level. Good forestry practices and improvements in devices that use firewood can improve local wood supplies. Harvesting or collecting firewood varies by the region and culture; some places have specific areas for firewood collection. Other places may integrate the collection of firewood in the cycle of preparing a plot of land to grow food as part of a field rotation process. Collection can be family or an individual activity; the tools and methods for harvesting firewood are diverse. Some firewood is harvested in "woodlots" managed for that purpose, but in wooded areas it is more harvested as a byproduct of natural forests.
Deadfall that has not started to rot is preferred, since it is partly seasoned. Standing dead timber is considered better still, for it has less humid organic material on the trunk, allowing tools to stay sharper longer, as well as being both seasoned and less rotten. Harvesting this form of timber reduces the speed and intensity of bushfires, but it reduces habitat for snag-nesting animals such as owls and some rodents. Harvesting timber for firewood is carried out by hand with chainsaws. Thus, longer pieces – requiring less manual labour, less chainsaw fuel – are less expensive and only limited by the size of the firebox. In most of the United States, the standard measure of firewood is a cord or 128 cubic feet, firewood can be sold by weight; the BTU value can affect the price. Prices vary with the distance from wood lots, quality of the wood. Buying and burning firewood, cut only a short distance from its final destination prevents the accidental spread of invasive tree-killing insects and diseases.
In most parts of the world, firewood is only prepared for transport at the time. It is moved closer to the place it will be used as fuel and prepared there; the process of making charcoal from firewood can take place at the place. Most firewood requires splitting, which allows for faster seasoning by exposing more surface area. Today most splitting is done with a hydraulic splitting machine, but it can be split with a splitting maul. More unusual, dangerous, is a tapered screw-style design, that augers into the wood, splitting it, can be powered by either a power take-off drive, a dedicated internal combustion engine, or a rugged electric pipe-threading machine, safer than the other power sources because the power can be shut off more if necessary. Another method is to use a kinetic log splitter, which uses a rack and pinion system powered by a small motor and a large flywheel used for energy storage. There are many ways to store firewood; these range from simple piles to specialized structures.
The goal of storing wood is to keep water away from it and to continue the drying process. Stacks: The simplest stack is where logs are placed next to and on top of each other, forming a line the width of the logs; the height of the stack can vary depending upon how the ends are constructed. Without constructing ends, the length of the log and length of the pile help determine the height of a free-standing stack. There is debate about whether wood will dry more when covered. There is a trade-off between the surface of the wood getting wet vs. allowing as much wind and sun as possible to access the stack. A cover can be any material that sheds water – a large piece of plywood, sheet metal, terracotta tiles, or an oiled canvas cloth cheap plastic sheeting may be used. Wood will not dry when enclosed. Ideally pallets or scrap wood should be used to raise the wood from the ground, reducing rot and increasing air flow. There are many ways to create the ends of a stack. In some areas, a crib end is created by alternating pairs of logs to help stabilize the end.
A stake or pole placed in the ground is another way to end the pile. A series of stacked logs at the end, each with a cord tied to it and the free end of the cord wrapped to log in the middle of the pile, is another way. Under a roof: Under a roof, there are no concerns about the wood being subjected to rain, snow or run-off, but ventilation needs to be provided if the wood is stored green so that moisture released from the wood does not recondense inside; the methods for stacking depend on the structure and layout desired. Whether split, or in'rounds', the wood should be stacked lengthwise, the most stable and practical method. Again though, if the wood needs further seasoning there should be adequate air flow through the stack. Storing outdoors: Firewood should be stacked with the bark facing upwards; this allows the water to drain off, standing frost, ice, or snow to be kept from the wood. Storing wood in close proximity to a dwelling increases the likelihood that insects such as termites can become established indoors.
Storing firewood indoors for any extended period of time is not recommended, for it increases the risk of introducing insects such as termites into the home. Round stacks can be made many ways; some are piles of wood with a stacked circular wall around them. Others like the American Holz Hausen are more complicated. A Holz hausen, or "wood house", is a circular method of stacking wood.
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as Emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator; the tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganising the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, promoting university education. After an assassination attempt in 1866, Alexander adopted a somewhat more reactionary stance until his death. Alexander pivoted towards foreign policy and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, fearing the remote colony would fall into British hands if there were another war, he sought peace, moved away from bellicose France when Napoleon III fell in 1871, in 1872 joined with Germany and Austria in the League of the Three Emperors that stabilized the European situation.
Despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, conquered Turkestan. Although disappointed by the results of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Alexander abided by that agreement. Among his greatest domestic challenges was an uprising in Poland in 1863, to which he responded by stripping that land of its separate constitution and incorporating it directly into Russia. Alexander was proposing additional parliamentary reforms to counter the rise of nascent revolutionary and anarchistic movements when he was assassinated in 1881. Born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, his early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential. In the period of his life as heir apparent, the intellectual atmosphere of Saint Petersburg did not favour any kind of change: freedom of thought and all forms of private initiative were suppressed vigorously by the order of his father.
Personal and official censorship was rife. The education of the Tsesarevich as future emperor took place under the supervision of the liberal romantic poet and gifted translator Vasily Zhukovsky, grasping a smattering of a great many subjects and becoming familiar with the chief modern European languages. Alexander's alleged lack of interest in military affairs resulted from his reaction to the effects of the unsavoury Crimean War of 1853–1856 on his own family and on the whole country. Unusually for the time, the young Alexander was taken on a six-month tour of Russia, visiting 20 provinces in the country, he visited many prominent Western European countries in 1838 and 1839. As Tsesarevich, Alexander became the first Romanov heir to visit Siberia. While touring Russia, he befriended the exiled poet Alexander Herzen & pardoned him, it was through Herzen's influence that the tsarevich abolished serfdom in Russia. In 1839, when his parents sent him on a tour of Europe, he met twenty-year-old Queen Victoria and both were enamored of each other.
Simon Sebag Montefiore speculates. Such a marriage, would not work, as Alexander was not a minor prince of Europe and was in line to inherit a throne himself. Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855, he inherited a large mess, wrought by his father's fear of progress during his reign. Many of the other royal families of Europe had disliked Nicholas I, which extended to distrust of the Romanov dynasty itself. So, there was no one more prepared to bring the country around than Alexander II; the first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War and, after the fall of Sevastopol, to negotiations for peace led by his trusted counsellor, Prince Alexander Gorchakov. The country had been humiliated by the war. Bribe-taking and corruption were rampant. Encouraged by public opinion, Alexander began a period of radical reforms, including an attempt not to depend on landed aristocracy controlling the poor, an effort to develop Russia's natural resources, to reform all branches of the administration.
In 1867 he sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million after recognising the great difficulty of defending it against the United Kingdom or the former British colony of Canada. After Alexander became emperor in 1855, he maintained a liberal course. Despite this, he was a target for numerous assassination attempts. On 13 March 1881, members of the Narodnaya Volya party killed him with a bomb; the Emperor had earlier in the day signed the Loris-Melikov constitution, which would have created two legislative commissions made up of indirectly elected representatives, had it not been repealed by his reactionary successor Alexander III. The Emancipation Reform of 1861 abolished serfdom on private estates throughout the Russian Empire. Serfs gained the full rights of free citizens, including rights to marry without having to gain con
Sápmi is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sámi people. Sápmi includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia; the region stretches over four countries: Norway, Sweden and Russia. On the north it is bounded by the Barents Sea, on the west by the Norwegian Sea and on the east by the White Sea. Despite being the namesake of the region, the Sami people are estimated to only make up around 5% of its total population. No political organization advocates secession, although several groups desire more territorial autonomy and/or more self-determination for the region's indigenous population; the area is referred to in English as Lapland. Sápmi refers to both the Sami people. In fact, the word "Sámi" is only the accusative-genitive form of the noun "Sápmi"—making the name's meaning "people of Sápmi." The origin of the word is speculated to be related to the Baltic word *žēmē that means "land". "Häme", the Finnish name for Tavastia, a historical province of Finland, is thought to have the same origin, the same word is at least speculated to be the origin of "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland.
Sápmi is the name in North Sami, while the Julev Sami name is Sábme and the South Sami name is Saepmie. In Norwegian and Swedish the term Sameland is used. In modern Swedish and Norwegian, Sápmi is known as "Sameland", but in older Swedish it was known as "Lappmarken", "Lappland", Finnmark, respectively; these two names did refer to the entire Sápmi, but subsequently became applied to areas inhabited by the Sami. "Lappland" became the name of Sweden's northernmost province which in 1809 was split into one part that remained Swedish and one part falling under Finland. "Lappland" survives as the name of both Sweden's northernmost province and Finland's containing part of the old Ostrobothnian province. In older Norwegian, Sápmi was known as "Finnmork" or "Finnmark". Both Northern Norway and Murmansk Oblast are sometimes marketed as Norwegian Lapland and Russian Lapland, respectively. In the 17th century, Johannes Schefferus assumed the etymology of the lesser used term "Lapland" to be related to the Swedish word for "running", "löpa".
The largest part of Sápmi lies north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys and mountains, the highest point being Mount Kebnekaise, in Swedish Lapland; the Swedish part of Sápmi is characterized by great rivers running from the northwest to the southeast. From the Norwegian province of Finnmark and eastward, the terrain is that of a low plateau with many marshes and lakes, the largest of, Lake Inari in Finnish Lapland; the extreme northeastern section lies within the tundra region. In the 19th century scientific expeditions to Sápmi were undertaken, for instance by Jöns Svanberg; the climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. The mountainous west coast has milder winters and more precipitation than the large areas east of the mountain chain. North of the Arctic Circle polar night characterize the winter season and midnight sun the summer season—both phenomena are longer the further north you go. Traditionally, the Sami divide the year in eight seasons instead of four.
Reindeer, wolf and birds are the main forms of animal life, in addition to a myriad of insects in the short summer. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region. Steamers are operated on some of the lakes, many ports are ice-free throughout the year. All ports along the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea in the northeast to Murmansk are ice-free all year; the Gulf of Bothnia freezes over in winter. The ocean floor to the north and west of Sápmi has deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Sápmi contains valuable mineral deposits iron ore in Sweden, copper in Norway, nickel and apatite in Russia. East Sápmi consists of the Kola peninsula and the Lake Inari region, is home to the eastern Sami languages. While being the most populated part of Sápmi, this is the region where the indigenous population and their culture is weakest. Corresponds to the regions marked 6 through 9 on the map below. Central Sápmi consists of the western part of Finland's Sami Domicile Area, the parts of Norway north of the Saltfjellet mountains and areas on the Swedish side corresponding to this.
Central Sápmi is the region where Sami culture is strongest, home to North Sami—the most used Sami language. In the southernmost part of this subregion, Sami culture is rather weak—this is where the moribound Bithun Sami language is used; the areas around the Tysfjord fjord in Norway and the river Lule in Sweden are home to the Julev Sami language, one of the more used Sami languages. These correspond to the regions marked 3 through 5 on the map below. South Sápmi consists of the areas south of Saltfjellet and corresponding areas in Sweden, is home to the southern languages. In this area Sami culture is visible inland and on the coast of Baltic Sea, the languages are spoken by few. Corresponds to the regions marked 1 and 2 on the map below plus Dalarna County to the south-east of region 1 in Sweden; the inner parts of Sápmi are referred to as Lappi. The name is found on the Russian side as Laplandige and the Norwegian county of Finnmark is sometimes titled the "Norwegian Lapland" by the travel industry.
Lappi- appears as a common component o
Vesijako is a lake in Finland. It is situated in Padasjoki in the region of Päijänne Tavastia; the lake is famous in Finland as a bifurcation lake, together with the nearby Lummene, somewhat less known, from which waters flow eastwards into lake Päijänne and westwards through the lake Vehkajärvi into lake Vesijako. Vesijako in its turn has two outflows. One is eastwards to the lake Päijänne, a part of Kymijoki basin and drains to the Gulf of Finland. Other outflow is into a chain of lakes, a part of the Kokemäenjoki basin and consists of the lakes Kuohijärvi, Iso-Roine, Hauhonselkä and Ilmoilanselkä and ends into lake Mallasvesi, from which the waters flow through Vanajavesi and Pyhäjärvi towards Kokemäenjoki in the west. List of lakes in Finland Not Any Usual Route
Gustav I of Sweden
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and known as Gustav Vasa, was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560 self-recognised Protector of the Realm from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark and Sweden. Of low standing, Gustav rose to lead the rebel movement following the Stockholm Bloodbath, in which his father perished. Gustav's election as King on 6 June 1523 and his triumphant entry into Stockholm eleven days marked Sweden's final secession from the Kalmar Union; as king, Gustav proved an enigmatic administrator with a ruthless streak not inferior to his predecessor's, brutally suppressing subsequent uprisings. He worked to raise taxes and bring about a Reformation in Sweden, replacing the prerogatives of local landowners and clergy with centrally appointed governors and bishops, his 37-year rule, the longest of a mature Swedish king to that date saw a complete break with not only the Danish supremacy but the Roman Catholic Church, whose assets were nationalised, with the Lutheran Church of Sweden established under his personal control.
He became the first autocratic native Swedish sovereign and was a skilled bureaucrat and propagandist, with tales of his fictitious adventures during the liberation struggle still widespread to date. In 1544, he abolished Medieval Sweden's elective monarchy and replaced it with a hereditary monarchy under the House of Vasa and its successors, including the current House of Bernadotte. Due to a vibrant dynastic succession, three of his sons, Erik XIV, Johan III and Karl IX, all held the kingship at different points. Gustav I has subsequently been labelled the founder of modern Sweden, the "father of the nation". Gustav liked to compare himself to Moses, whom he believed to have liberated his people and established a sovereign state; as a person, Gustav was known for ruthless methods and a bad temper, but a fondness for music and had a certain sly wit and ability to outmaneuver and annihilate his opponents. He founded one of the now oldest orchestras of the Kungliga Hovkapellet. Royal housekeeping accounts from 1526 mention twelve musicians including wind players and a timpanist but no string players.
Today the Kungliga Hovkapellet is the orchestra of the Royal Swedish Opera. Gustav Eriksson, a son of Cecilia Månsdotter Eka and Erik Johansson Vasa, was born in 1496; the birth most took place in Rydboholm Castle, northeast of Stockholm, the manor house of the father, Erik. The newborn got his name, from Erik's grandfather Gustav Anundsson. Erik Johansson's parents were Johan Kristersson and Birgitta Gustafsdotter of the dynasties Vasa and Sture both dynasties of high nobility. Birgitta Gustafsdotter was regent of Sweden. Being a relative and ally of uncle Sten Sture, Erik inherited the regent's estates in Uppland and Södermanland when the latter died in 1503. Although a member of a family with considerable properties since childhood, Gustav Eriksson would be the holder of possessions of a much greater dimension. According to genealogical research, Birgitta Gustafsdotter and Sten Sture were descended from King Sverker II of Sweden, through King Sverker's granddaughter Benedikte Sunesdotter. One of King Gustav's great-grandmothers was a half-sister of King Charles VIII of Sweden.
Since the end of the 14th century, Sweden had been a part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway. The Danish dominance in this union led to uprisings in Sweden. During Gustav's childhood, parts of the Swedish nobility tried to make Sweden independent. Gustav and his father Erik supported the party of Sten Sture the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1512, its struggle against the Danish King Christian II. Following the battle of Brännkyrka in 1518, where Sten Sture's troops beat the Danish forces, it was decided that Sten Sture and King Christian would meet in Österhaninge for negotiations. To guarantee the safety of the king, the Swedish side sent six men as hostages to be kept by the Danes for as long as the negotiations lasted. However, Christian did not show up for the negotiations, violated the deal with the Swedish side and took the hostages aboard ships carrying them to Copenhagen; the six members of the kidnapped hostage were Hemming Gadh, Lars Siggesson, Jöran Siggesson, Olof Ryning, Bengt Nilsson – and Gustav Eriksson.
Gustav was held in Kalø Castle where he was treated well after promising he would not make attempts to escape. A reason for this gentle treatment was King Christian's hope to convince the six men to switch sides, turn against their leader Sten Sture; this strategy was successful regarding all men but Gustav. In 1519, Gustav Eriksson escaped from Kalø, he fled to the Hanseatic city of Lübeck. How he managed to escape is not certain, but according to a somewhat story, he disguised himself as a bullocky. For this, Gustav Eriksson got the nicknames "King Oxtail" and "Gustav Cow Butt", something he indeed disliked; when a swordsman drank to His Majesty "Gustav Cow Butt" in Kalmar in 1547, the swordsman was killed. While staying in Lübeck, Gustav could hear about developments in his native Sweden. While he was there, Christian II mobilised to attack Sweden in an effort to seize power from Sten Sture and his supporters. In 1