Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra
The Lieser is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Moselle. It rises in the Eifel, near Boxberg, north of Daun; the Lieser flows south through Daun and Wittlich. It flows into the Moselle west of the village of Lieser. List of rivers of Rhineland-Palatinate
The Elzbach is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Moselle. It rises near Kelberg; the Elz flows through past Eltz Castle. It flows into the Moselle in Moselkern, in the Verbandsgemeinde of Treis-Karden
Voies navigables de France
Voies navigables de France is the French navigation authority responsible for the management of the majority of France's inland waterways network and the associated facilities—towpaths and leisure ports, lock-keeper's houses and other structures. VNF was established in 1991 and took over the responsibility for all waterways from the National Office of Navigation in 1993, it is a public body and is under the control of the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Territorial Development. The headquarters of VNF are in Pas-de-Calais with local offices throughout France; the French natural and man-made waterways network is the largest in Europe extending to over 8,500-kilometre of which VNF manages the navigable sections. The assets managed by VNF comprise 6,700-kilometre of waterways, made up of 3,800-kilometre of canals and 2,900-kilometre of navigable rivers, 494 dams, 1595 locks, 74 aqueducts, 65 reservoirs, 35 tunnels and a land area of 800 km2. Two significant waterways which are not under VNF's control are the navigable sections of the River Somme and the Brittany Canals, which are both under local management, neither is the River Lot in Aquitaine.
20% of the network is suitable for commercial boats of over 1000 tonnes and the VNF has an ongoing programme of maintenance and modernisation to increase depth of waterways, widths of locks and headroom under bridges to support France's strategy of encouraging freight onto water as part of her sustainable development programme—a survey by Price Waterhouse Coopers showed that 75% of French companies were willing to switch to barge transport. A major current initiative is the cross-border Seine-Scheldt project which will provide a continuous wide-gauge navigation from Le Havre to Antwerp. List of rivers of France List of canals in France VNF website
The Madon is a 96.9-kilometre long river in the Vosges and Meurthe-et-Moselle départements, northeastern France. Its source is near Vioménil, it flows north. It is a left tributary of the Moselle into which it flows near Nancy; this list is ordered from source to mouth: Vosges: Vioménil, Lerrain, Les Vallois, Pont-lès-Bonfays, Frénois, Légéville-et-Bonfays, Begnécourt, Bainville-aux-Saules, Hagécourt, Valleroy-aux-Saules, Velotte-et-Tatignécourt, Vroville, Mirecourt, Mazirot, Ambacourt, Vomécourt-sur-Madon, Pont-sur-Madon, Marainville-sur-Madon, Battexey Meurthe-et-Moselle: Bralleville, Xirocourt, Vaudeville, Haroué, Gerbécourt-et-Haplemont, Ormes-et-Ville, Voinémont, Autrey, Pierreville, Xeuilley, Bainville-sur-Madon, Méréville, Pont-Saint-VincentAt Ambacourt, two kilometers downstream from Mirecourt, the river accommodates a small colony of beavers: this is believed to reflect the quality of the water. This article is based on the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, consulted on March 6th 2009.
Http://www.geoportail.fr The Madon at the Sandre database