In German linguistics, the Benrath line is the maken–machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original /k/ in maken, while those to the south have the innovative /x/. The Line runs from Benrath and Aachen to eastern Germany near Frankfurt an der Oder in the area of Berlin and Dessau and in Prussian dividing Low Prussian dialect and High Prussian dialect; the High German consonant shift, in which the Low German dialects for the most part did not participate, affected the southern varieties of the West Germanic dialect continuum. This shift is traditionally seen to distinguish the High German varieties from the other West Germanic languages; the impact of the High German consonant shift increases to the South. The Benrath line does not mark the northernmost effect of the High German consonant shift, since the Uerdingen line, the ik–ich isogloss, lies further north. Speyer line Uerdingen line Weißwurstäquator Joret line Varieties of German Maps of the Benrath line
South Guelderish refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine. In its narrower sense, the term refers to the Rivierenlands and Liemers sub-dialects. South Guelderish — Rivierenlands — is sometimes included as part of Brabantic, a more spoken Dutch dialect and the closest relative of South Guelderish. Alternatively, it is considered to extend southward into Northern Limburg until the Uerdingen line, it is arguably more appropriate to group South Guelderish, North Limburgish and East Bergish into one dialect group—East Dutch. In the Netherlands, South Guelderish is spoken in the following regions: North Limburg, the Veluwezoom National Park, Rijk van Nijmegen, Land van Maas en Waal, the Bommelerwaard, the Tielerwaard, the Betuwe, Land van Cuijk and Liemers; the status of East Dutch differs between the Netherlands and Germany. On the Dutch side, East Dutch is subject to the influence of Standard Dutch. Since it is a Dutch dialect, it is similar enough to the standard language to have had little influence.
In Germany, since 1713, when Prussia took control of the area and East Bergish have been in retreat under the pressure of Standard German to which they are only distantly related. The dialects in their vocabulary, have been influenced. Furthermore, large-scale industrialization in the Cleves–Duisburg area in Germany, as well as the resulting immigration, during the late 19th century and the 20th century, has reduced its use today, leaving few native speakers. For example, in Duisburg, it has died out.. As noted before, South Guelderish is sometimes included within Brabantic; that is because there exists no tight isogloss bundle between the Brabantic and South Guelderish dialects. Instead, change occurs in two individual steps: the alt-oud isogloss, between Groesbeek and Nijmegen, the ies-ijs and the huis-huus isoglosses west of Nijmegen. A dialect of South Guelderish origin spoken in the United States is Pella Dutch; the Limburgish band Rowwen Hèze sings in a subdialect of South Gelderish. The Lower Rhine And South Sleswick: Two Border Regions And Their Relation To Their Neighbours And Minorities
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands. It is spoken to a lesser extent in the German diaspora worldwide. Low German is most related to Frisian and English, with which it forms the North Sea Germanic group of the West Germanic languages. Like Dutch, it is spoken north of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses, while German is spoken south of those lines. Like Frisian, English and the North Germanic languages, Low German has not undergone the High German consonant shift, as opposed to High German; the Low German dialects spoken in the Netherlands are referred to as Low Saxon, those spoken in northwestern Germany as either Low German or Low Saxon, those spoken in northeastern Germany as Low German. This is because northwestern Germany and the northeastern Netherlands were the area of settlement of the Saxons, while Low German spread to northeastern Germany through eastward migration of Low German speakers into areas with a Slavic-speaking population.
It has been estimated that Low German has 6.7 million native speakers – 5 million in Germany Northern Germany, 1.7 million in the Netherlands. A 2005 study by H. Bloemhof, Taaltelling Nedersaksisch, showed 1.8 million spoke it daily in the Netherlands. It has been estimated that Low German has 6.7 million native speakers – 5 million in Germany Northern Germany, 1.7 million in the Netherlands. Dialects of Low German are spoken in the northeastern area of the Netherlands and are written there with an unstandardised orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography; the position of the language is, according to UNESCO, vulnerable. Between 1995 and 2011 the numbers of speakers of parents dropped from 34% in 1995 to 15% in 2011. Numbers of speakers of their children dropped in the same period from 8% to 2%. Variants of Low German are spoken in most parts of Northern Germany, for instance in the states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg.
Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too. Low German was spoken in German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia; the Baltic Germans spoke a distinct Low German dialect, which has influenced the vocabulary and phonetics of both Estonian and Latvian. The historical Sprachraum of Low German included contemporary northern Poland, East Prussia, a part of western Lithuania, the German communities in the Baltic states, most notably the Hanseatic cities of modern Latvia and Estonia. German speakers in this area fled the Red Army or were forcibly expelled after the border changes at the end of World War II; the language was formerly spoken in the outer areas of what is now the city-state of Berlin, but in the course of urbanisation and national centralisation in that city, the language has vanished. Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Stellingwerf and Gelderland, in several dialect groups per province.
Today, there are still speakers outside Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the coastal areas of present-day Poland. In the Southern Jutland region of Denmark there may still be some Low German speakers in some German minority communities, but the Low German and North Frisian dialects of Denmark can be considered moribund at this time. There are immigrant communities where Low German is spoken in the Western hemisphere, including Canada, the United States, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil and Uruguay. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite culture. There are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities; these Mennonites are descended from Dutch settlers that had settled in the Vistula delta region of Prussia in the 16th and 17th centuries before moving to newly-acquired Russian territories in Ukraine in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, to the Americas in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The types of Low German spoken in these communities and in the Midwest region of the United States have diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places, has died out in many places where assimilation has occurred. Members and friends of the Historical Society of North German Settlements in Western New York, a community of Lutherans who trace their immigration from Pomerania in the 1840s, hold quarterly "Plattdeutsch lunch" events, where remaining speakers of the language gather to share and preserve the dialect. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a "co-official language" of the community. East Pomeranian is spoken in parts of Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in the latter in the state of Espírito Santo, being official in five municipalities, spoken among its ethnically European migrants elsewhere in the states of Rio de Jane
Limburgish called Limburgan, Limburgian, or Limburgic, is a group of East Low Franconian varieties spoken in the Belgian and Dutch provinces both named Limburg and some neighbouring areas of Germany. The area in which it is spoken fits within a wide circle from Venlo to Düsseldorf to Aachen to Maastricht to Tienen and back to Venlo. In some parts of this area it is used as the colloquial language in daily speech, it shares many characteristics with both German and Dutch and is considered as a variant of one of these languages. Within the modern communities of the Belgian and Dutch provinces of Limburg, intermediate idiolects are very common, which combine standard Dutch with the accent and some grammatical and pronunciation tendencies derived from Limburgish; this "Limburgish Dutch" is confusingly often referred to as "Limburgish", although in Belgium such intermediate idiolects tend to be called tussentaal, no matter the exact dialect/language with which standard Dutch is combined. The name Limburgish derives only indirectly from the now Belgian town of Limbourg, the capital of the Duchy of Limburg during the Middle Ages.
More directly it is derived from the more modern name of the Province of Limburg in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, split today into a Belgian Limburg and a Dutch Limburg. In the area around the old Duchy of Limburg the main language today is French, but there is a particular Limburgish language, sometimes referred to as "Low Dietsch dialects". People from Limburg call their language Plat, the same as Low German speakers do; this plat refers to the fact that the language is spoken in the low plains country, as opposed to the use of High in High German languages, which are derived from dialects spoken in the more mountainous southerly regions. The word can be associated with platteland; the general Dutch term for the language of ordinary people in former ages was Dietsch or Duutsch, as it still exists in the term Low Dietsch. This term is derived from Proto-Germanic "þiudiskaz", meaning "of the people". In Dutch the word "plat" means "flat", but refers to the way a language is spoken: "plat" means "slang" in that case.
Limburgish has overlapping definition areas, depending on the criteria used: All dialects spoken within the political boundary of the two Limburg provinces. Limburgish according to Jo Daan, the associative "arrow" method of Meertens Institute. South Lower Franconian, isogloss definition between the Uerdingen and Benrath lines by Wenker and Goossens. Western limit of Limburgish pitch accent Southeast Limburgish dialect. Except for the Southeast Limburgish dialect, Modern Limburgish descends from some of the dialects that formed the offspring of Old Dutch in the Early Middle Ages, its history being at least as long as that of other Low Franconian languages, of which some yielded Standard Dutch. Being a variety of Franconian descent, Limburgish can today be considered as a regional language overarched by two succeeding Dachsprachen, which are Dutch in Belgium and the Netherlands and German in Germany. Under the influence of the Merovingian and the Carolingian dynasty, Eastern Low Franconian underwent much influence from the neighbouring High German languages.
This resulted among other things in the partial participation of Eastern Low Franconian in the High German consonant shift in the 10th and the 11th century, which makes the Limburgish-speaking area part of the so-called Rhenish fan. It is this trait which distinguishes Limburgish from Western Low Franconian. In the past, all Limburgish dialects were therefore sometimes seen as West Central German, part of High German; this difference is caused by a difference in definition: the latter stance defines a High German variety as one that has taken part in any of the first three phases of the High German consonant shift. It is most common in linguistics to consider Limburgish as Low Franconian. From the 13th century on, the Duchy of Brabant extended its power; as a consequence, at first the western and also the eastern variants of Limburgish underwent great influence of Brabantian. When Standard Dutch was formed out of elements of different Low Franconian dialects in the 16th century, the Limburgish dialects spoken in the Low Countries had little or no influence on this process.
As a result, Limburgish – although being a variety of Low Franconian – still has a considerable distance from Standard Dutch with regards to phonology and lexicon today. Moreover, being of East Low Franconian origin, it has many distinctive features in comparison with the West Low Franconian varieties such as the Hollandic dialect, the Brabantian dialect and South Guelderish. In German sources, the dialects linguistically counting as Limburgish spoken to the east of the river Rhine are called Bergish. West of the river Rhine they are called "Low Rhenish", considered a transitional zone between Low Franconian and Ripuarian, thus German linguists tended to call these dialects L
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original